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Unexpected Cancellations in Gravity Theories

Description: Recent computations of scattering amplitudes show that N = 8 supergravity is surprisingly well behaved in the ultraviolet and may even be ultraviolet finite in perturbation theory. The novel cancellations necessary for ultraviolet finiteness first appear at one loop in the guise of the ''no-triangle hypothesis''. We study one-loop amplitudes in pure Einstein gravity and point out the existence of cancellations similar to those found previously in N = 8 supergravity. These cancellations go beyond those found in the one-loop effective action. Using unitarity, this suggests that generic theories of quantum gravity based on the Einstein-Hilbert action may be better behaved in the ultraviolet at higher loops than suggested by naive power counting, though without additional (supersymmetric) cancellations they diverge. We comment on future studies that should be performed to support this proposal.
Date: July 13, 2007
Creator: Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.; /UCLA; Forde, D.; /SLAC, /UCLA; Ita, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-Loop Calculations with BlackHat

Description: We describe BlackHat, an automated C++ program for calculating one-loop amplitudes, and the techniques used in its construction. These include the unitarity method and on-shell recursion. The other ingredients are compact analytic formulae for tree amplitudes for four-dimensional helicity states. The program computes amplitudes numerically, using analytic formula only for the tree amplitudes, the starting point for the recursion, and the loop integrals. We make use of recently developed on-shell methods for evaluating coefficients of loop integrals, in particular a discrete Fourier projection as a means of improving numerical stability. We illustrate the good numerical stability of this approach by computing six-, seven- and eight-gluon amplitudes in QCD and comparing against known analytic results.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Forde, D.; Ita, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-jet Cross Sections at NLO with BlackHat and Sherpa

Description: In this talk, we report on a recent next-to-leading order QCD calculation of the production of a W boson in association with three jets at hadron colliders. The computation is performed by combining two programs, BlackHat for the computation of the virtual one-loop matrix elements and Sherpa for the real emission part. The addition of NLO corrections greatly reduces the factorization and renormalization scale dependence of the theory prediction for this process. This result demonstrates the applicability of unitarity-based methods for hadron collider physics.
Date: May 20, 2009
Creator: Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NLO Jet Physics with BlackHat

Description: We present several results obtained using the BLACKHAT next-to-leading order QCD program library, in conjunction with SHERPA. In particular, we present distributions for vector boson plus 1,2,3-jet production at the Tevatron and at the asymptotic running energy of the Large Hadron Collider, including new Z + 3-jet distributions. The Z + 2-jet predictions for the second-jet P{sub T} distribution are compared to CDF data. We present the jet-emission probability at NLO in W + 2-jet events at the LHC, where the tagging jets are taken to be the ones furthest apart in pseudorapidity. We analyze further the large left-handed W{sup {+-}} polarization, identified in our previous study, for W bosons produced at high P{sub T} at the LHC.
Date: February 15, 2010
Creator: Berger, C. F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L. J.; Cordero, F. Febres; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precise Predictions for W + 3 Jet Production at Hadron Colliders

Description: We report on the first next-to-leading order QCD computation of W + 3-jet production in hadronic collisions including all partonic subprocesses. We compare the results with CDF data from the Tevatron, and find excellent agreement. The renormalization and factorization scale dependence is reduced substantially compared to leading-order calculations. The required one-loop matrix elements are computed using on-shell methods, implemented in a numerical program, BlackHat. We use the SHERPA package to generate the real-emission contributions and to integrate the various contributions over phase space. We use a leading-color (large-N{sub c}) approximation for the virtual part, which we confirm in W + 1,2-jet production to be valid to within three percent. The present calculation demonstrates the utility of on-shell methods for computing next-to-leading-order corrections to processes important to physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NLO Vector Boson Production With Light Jets

Description: In this contribution we present recent progress in the computation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections for the production of an electroweak vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders. We focus on results obtained using the virtual matrix element library BlackHat in conjunction with SHERPA, focusing on results relevant to understanding the background to top production. The production of a vector boson in association with several jets at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is an important background for other Standard Model processes as well as new physics signals. In particular, the production of a W boson in association with many jets is an important background for processes involving one or more top quarks. Precise predictions for the backgrounds are crucial to measurement of top-quark processes. Vector boson production in association with multiple jets is also a very important background for many SUSY searches, as it mimics the signatures of many typical decay chains. Here we will discuss how polarization information can be used as an additional handle to differentiate top pair production from 'prompt' W-boson production. More generally, ratios of observables, for example for events containing a W boson versus those containing a Z boson, are expected to be better-behaved as many uncertainties cancel in such ratios. Precise calculation of ratios, along with measurement of one of the two processes in the ratio, can be used in data-driven techniques for estimating backgrounds.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Bern, Z.; Diana, G.; Dixon, L.J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-Loop Multi-Parton Amplitudes with a Vector Boson for the LHC

Description: In this talk, we present the first, numerically stable, results for the one-loop amplitudes needed for computing W; Z + 3 jet cross sections at the LHC to next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling. We implemented these processes in BlackHat, an automated program based on on-shell methods. These methods scale very well with increasing numbers of external partons, and are applicable to a wide variety of problems of phenomenological interest at the LHC.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Next-to-Leading Order Predictions for W + 3-Jet Distributions at Hadron Colliders

Description: We present next-to-leading order QCD predictions for a variety of distributions in W + 3-jet production at both the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. We include all subprocesses and incorporate the decay of the W boson into leptons. Our results are in excellent agreement with existing Tevatron data and provide the first quantitatively precise next-to-leading order predictions for the LHC. We include all terms in an expansion in the number of colors, confirming that the specific leading-color approximation used in our previous study is accurate to within three percent. The dependence of the cross section on renormalization and factorization scales is reduced significantly with respect to a leading-order calculation. We study different dynamical scale choices, and find that the total transverse energy is significantly better than choices used in previous phenomenological studies. We compute the one-loop matrix elements using on-shell methods, as numerically implemented in the BlackHat code. The remaining parts of the calculation, including generation of the real-emission contributions and integration over phase space, are handled by the SHERPA package.
Date: December 9, 2009
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Left-Handed W bosons at the LHC

Description: The production of W bosons in association with jets is an important background to new physics at the LHC. Events in which the W carries large transverse momentum and decays leptonically lead to large missing energy and are of particular importance. We show that the left-handed nature of the W coupling, combined with valence quark domination at a pp machine, leads to a large left-handed polarization for both W{sup +} and W{sup -} bosons at large transverse momenta. The polarization fractions are very stable with respect to QCD corrections. The leptonic decay of the W{sup +-} bosons translates the common left-handed polarization into a strong asymmetry in transverse momentum distributions between positrons and electrons, and between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos (missing transverse energy). Such asymmetries may provide an effective experimental handle on separating W +jets from top quark production, which exhibits very little asymmetry due to C invariance, and from various types of new physics.
Date: May 20, 2011
Creator: Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Diana, G.; /Saclay, SPhT; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC, /CERN et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vector Boson Jets with BlackHat and Sherpa

Description: We review recent NLO QCD results for W, Z + 3-jet production at hadron colliders, computing using BlackHat and SHERPA, and including also some new results for Z + 3-jet production for the LHC at 7 TeV. We report new progress towards the NLO cross section for W + 4-jet production. In particular, we show that the virtual matrix elements produced by BlackHat are numerically stable. We also show that with an improved integrator and tree-level matrix elements from BlackHat, SHERPA produces well-behaved real-emission contributions. As an illustration, we present the real-emission contributions - including dipole-subtraction terms - to the p{sub T} distribution of the fourth jet, for a single subprocess with the maximum number of gluons.
Date: August 25, 2010
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precise Predictions for W 4 Jet Production at the Large Hadron Collider

Description: We present the first next-to-leading order QCD results for W + 4-jet production at hadron colliders. Total cross sections, as well as distributions in the jet transverse momenta and in the total transverse energy HT, are provided for the initial LHC energy of {radical}s = 7 TeV. We use a leading-color approximation, known to be accurate to 3% for W production with fewer jets. The virtual matrix elements and the most complicated real-emission matrix elements are handled by the BlackHat library, based on on-shell methods. The remaining parts of the calculation, including the integration over phase space, are performed by the SHERPA package.
Date: September 14, 2010
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC, /CERN et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Next-to-Leading Order QCD Predictions for Z, gamma^* 3-Jet Distributions at the Tevatron

Description: Using BlackHat in conjunction with SHERPA, we have computed next-to-leading order QCD predictions for a variety of distributions in Z, {gamma}{sup {asterisk}}+ 1, 2, 3-jet production at the Tevatron, where the Z boson or off-shell photon decays into an electron-positron pair. We find good agreement between the NLO results for jet {sub pT} distributions and measurements by CDF and D0. We also present jetproduction ratios, or probabilities of finding one additional jet. As a function of vector-boson {sub pT} , the ratios have distinctive features which we describe in terms of a simple model capturing leading logarithms and phase-space and parton-distribution-function suppression.
Date: June 2, 2010
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department