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Iron dominated magnets

Description: These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Fischer, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alignment and vibration issues in TeV linear collider design

Description: The next generation of linear colliders will require alignment accuracies and stabilities of component placement at least one, perhaps two, orders of magnitude better than can be achieved by the conventional methods and procedures in practice today. The magnitudes of these component-placement tolerances for current designs of various linear collider subsystems are tabulated. In the micron range, long-term ground motion is sufficiently rapid that on-line reference and mechanical correction systems are called for. Some recent experiences with the upgraded SLAC laser alignment systems and examples of some conceivable solutions for the future are described. The so called ''girder'' problem is discussed in the light of ambient and vibratory disturbances. The importance of the quality of the underlying geology is stressed. The necessity and limitations of public-beam-derived placement information are mentioned. 40 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: July 1, 1989
Creator: Fischer, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground Motions and Its Effects in Accelerator Design

Description: This lecture includes a discussion of types of motion, frequencies of interest, measurements at SLAC, some general comments regarding local sources of ground motion at SLAC, and steps that can be taken to minimize the effects of ground motion on accelerators. (GHT)
Date: July 1984
Creator: Fischer, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommendations for on-site vibration standards

Description: Unless certain common sense precautions are observed, the luminosity of the Collider may be adversely affected by otherwise preventable ground vibrations. Previous work indicates that ground vibrations can be thought of as being caused by the sum of (a) natural and (b) cultural (i.e., man-made) effects, of which the latter can be further divided into uncontrollable and controllable. Examples of category (b) include: traffic, both on site and off site; construction activity on site and off site; assembly of equipment in nearby I.R. Halls, even footsteps in the tunnel; or continuously operating machinery. This note addresses question with respect to category (b) iv., only. As a guide, the order of magnitude of amplitudes and frequencies of presently, (on site) known noise polluters is described in relation to naturally occurring disturbances and to the tolerances required for successful Collider operation. Some methods of mitigating the effects of on site machinery are suggested. Finally, a vibration tolerance level specification is recommended as well as a mechanism to police adherence to such standards. 6 figures.
Date: June 16, 1983
Creator: Fischer, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LMFBR core design for low capital cost and low-sodium void

Description: The need to design LMFBR reactor cores as well as plants for lowest possible capital costs has been apparent internationally as well as in the US. At the same time it is also important to keep the sodium void reactivity gain as low as possible for safety reasons and it has always been important to assure a plant design which most effectively serves the operational needs of the utility. This paper describes a LMFBR core design which has evolved as a result of a recent effort to achieve these objectives.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Fischer, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SLC - status and development

Description: The status of a three year construction program, begun October 1, 1983, of the SLAC Linear Collider is reviewed and evolutions of the original conceptual design are discussed. Subsystems of the project, that are described with emphasis on new or unusual technology, include: Electron Source and Injector, Damping Rings, Linear Accelerator Development, Energy (Klystron and Modulator) Upgrades, Positron Production and Reinjection, Arc Transport, Final Focus System, Control System and Conventional Facilities. Results from the commissioning program, which began in early 1986, and plans for the operation of the machine are presented.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Fischer, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground motion - some relative phase measurements in the PEP tunnel

Description: The spatial as well as the temporal characteristics of ground motion are of interest when one attempts to evaluate orbit distortions resulting from time varying quadrupole displacements. In other words, one needs to know the spatial correlations of quad displacements along the orbits path. A correlation with the betatron wavelength would be, for example, potentially more dangerous than from say purely statistically uncorrelated quad motions. The space versus time relationship of ground motion is, of course, related by the effective velocity of sound in the supporting medium. The medium consists of the ground itself, the tunnel floor and the magnet support structure - the latter two having perhaps transmission line characteristics of their own. The question therefore is: What values of velocity should one use for the various types of disturbances that will be encountered in practice. This note describes the results of a minimal experiment designed to answer two questions:(a) Is it at all possible to measure correlations in an existing tunnel with simple equipment. (b) Are the results consistent with the known geophysical characteristic of the site. The answer to both questions, we believe, is surprisingly, yes.
Date: May 9, 1984
Creator: Fischer, G.E. & Werner, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

Description: In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Fischer, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Focus Test Team Alighment - A Draft Proposal -

Description: In its present form, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to transmit 50 GeV electron beams of SLC emittance (3 x 10{sup -10} radian-meters) straight through the central arm of the Beam Switchyard (BSY C line) with a final focus point out in the Research Yard but relatively near the end of the switchyard tunnel. The axis of the incident beam coincides with that of the SLAC linear accelerator; the final focus, some 300 meters downstream of the end of the accelerator, is displaced from this axis by about 2 meters horizontally.
Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: Fischer, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alighment and Vibration Issues in TeV Linear Collider Design

Description: The next generation of linear colliders will require alignment accuracies and stabilities of component placement at least one, perhaps two, orders of magnitude better than can be achieved by the conventional methods and procedures in practice today. The magnitudes of these component-placement tolerances for current designs of various linear collider subsystems are tabulated. In the micron range, long-term ground motion is sufficiently rapid that on-line reference and mechanical correction systems are called for. Some recent experiences with the upgraded SLAC laser alignment systems and examples of some conceivable solutions for the future are described. The so called ''girder'' problem is discussed in the light of ambient and vibratory disturbances. The importance of the quality of the underlying geology is stressed. The necessity and limitations of particle-beam-derived placement information are mentioned.
Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: Fischer, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

Description: In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Fischer, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast-Mixed Spectrum Reactor. Progress report for 1979

Description: This report summarizes the progress of the Fast Mixed Spectrum Reactor (FMSR) since the publication of the Interim Report in January 1979. The FMSR program was initiated to determine the feasibility of a breeder reactor concept which operated on a once-through-and-store fuel cycle and for which the only feed would be natural uranium. A first or startup core enriched to a maximum of about eleven percent in uranium-235 would be required. The concept has excellent antiproliferation advantages. In the once-through and store mode, the FMSR has a resource utilization which is a factor of four higher than a light water reactor.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Fischer, G.J. & Cerbone, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single wavelength standard wiggler for PEP

Description: A 1lambda planar wiggler has been designed that will be used for the initial operation of the 4 to 18 GeV storage ring PEP. Three of these wigglers will be installed symmetrically around the ring at 120/sup 0/ intervals in three of six available 5 m straight sections with the purpose of providing: (1) beam size control to obtain better luminosities below 15 GeV, and (2) decreased damping times to obtain better injection rates at lower energies. Design goals are discussed and a description of the final system including cost estimates is given. Expected results and usage in PEP are discussed. Some possibilities for production of synchrotron radiation and beam monitoring with shorter wavelength, multiple-period wigglers at PEP energies are also discussed. Comparison to a wiggler now operating in SPEAR is given.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Brunk, W.; Fischer, G. & Spencer, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Lead-Bronze Bearings in the DVL Bearing-Testing Machine

Description: "The lead-bronze bearings tested in the DVL machine have proven themselves very sensitive to load changes as in comparison with bearings of light metal. In order to prevent surface injuries and consequently running interruptions, the increase of the load has to be made in small steps with sufficient run-in time between steps. The absence of lead in the running surface, impurities in the alloy (especially iron) and surface irregularities (pores) decreases the load-carrying capacity of the bearing to two or three times that of the static load" (p. 1).
Date: June 1940
Creator: Fischer, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast mixed spectrum reactor concept

Description: The Fast Mixed Spectrum Reactor is a highly promising concept for a fast reactor with improved features of proliferation resistance, and excellent utilization of uranium resources. In technology, it can be considered to be a branch of fast breeder development, though its operation and implications are different from those of FBR'S in important respects. Successful development programs are required in several areas to bring FMSR to reality, but the payoff from a successful program can be high.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Kouts, H.J.C.; Fischer, G.J. & Cerbone, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast-mixed spectrum reactor. Progress report for 1980

Description: Reactor physics, fuel cycle, thermal-hydraulics and fuel cycle cost studies have been performed for this concept and are reported. The most serious drawback of previous FMSR designs, namely the level of irradiation damage to the stainless steel of the cladding and duct materials, has been greatly reduced by the new design. The peak fuel burnup level is also reduced. Work continued on earlier FMSR designs, and in particular, the centrally-moderated FMSR. Emphasis was placed on defining the first core and then the total sequence of core histories over the 30-year life of the reactor. It was found possible to define a two-year fuel cycle with limited reactivity swing over the cycle. Fuel cycle cost studies were begun. The results indicate a modest fuel cycle cost advantage for the FMSR, but the basic cost assumptions must be improved for metal fuel. Improved thermal-hydraulic analysis capabilities have greatly improved the understanding of heat transfer behavior.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Fischer, G.J.; Galperin, A.; Shenoy, S. & Atefi, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast-Mixed Spectrum Reactor Interim Report Initial Feasibility Study.

Description: The report summarizes the results of an initial four-month feasibility study of the Fast-Mixed Spectrum Reactor (FMSR). Reactor physics, fuel cycle, and thermal-hydraulic analyses were performed on a reference design. These results when coupled to a fuel and materials evaluation performed in cooperation with the Argonne National laboratory indicate that the FMSR is feasible provided the fuels, cladding, and subassembly ducts can survive a peak fuel burnup of 15 to 20 atom percent heavy metal and peak fluences of 8 x 10/sub23/ (nvt > 0.1 MeV). the results of this short study have also provided a basis for exploring alternative designs requiring significantly lower peak burnup and fluences for their operation.
Date: January 31, 1979
Creator: Fischer, G. J. & Cerbone, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Miniaturized robotically deployed sensor systems for in-situ characterization of hazardous waste

Description: A series of ``MiniLab`` end effectors are currently being designed for robotic deployment in hazardous areas such as waste storage tanks at Idaho National Engineering Laboratories (INEL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These MiniLabs will be the first ever multichannel hazardous waste characterization end effectors deployed in underground high level waste storage tanks. They consist of a suite of chemical, radiological, and physical properties sensors integrated into a compact package mounted on the end of a robotic arm and/or vehicle. Most of the sensors are commercially available thus reducing the overall cost of design and maintenance. Sensor configurations can be customized depending on site/customer needs. This paper will address issues regarding the cost of field sampling verses MiniLab in-situ measurements and a brief background of the Light Duty utility Arm (LDUA) program. Topics receiving in depth attention will include package size parameters/constraints, design specifications, and investigations of currently available sensor technology. Sensors include radiological, gas, chemical, electrolytic, visual, temperature, and ranging. The effects of radiation on the life of the systems/sensors will also be discussed. Signal processing, control, display, and data acquisition methods will be described. The paper will conclude with an examination of possible applications for MiniLabs.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Fischer, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

Description: A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Fischer, G J; Atefi, B; Yang, J W; Galperin, A & Segev, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The proposed alignment system for the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC

Description: This report describes the current state of work in progress with respect to the geometry, alignment requirements, scenarios, and hardware for meeting the tolerances of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. The methods and systems proposed acknowledge that component motion at the micron level, from whatever cause (ground motion, thermal effects, etc.) must be measured on-line and compensated for on relatively short time scales. To provide an integrated alignment/positioning package, some unique designs for reference systems, calibration of effect electric and magnetic centers, and component movers are introduced. 24 refs., 28 figs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Ruland, R.E. & Fischer, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Dynamic Alignment System for the Final Focus Test Beam

Description: The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) was conceived as a technological stepping stone on the way to the next linear collider. Nowhere is this more evident than with the alignment subsystems. Alignment tolerances for components prior to beam turn are almost an order of magnitude smaller than for previous projects at SLAC. Position monitoring systems which operate independent of the beam are employed to monitor motions of the components locally and globally with unprecedented precision. An overview of the FFTB alignment system is presented herein.
Date: August 16, 2005
Creator: Ruland, R.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.; Plouffe, D. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finding the Magnetic Center of a Quadrupole to High Resolution

Description: In a companion pro, collposal it is proposed to align quadrupoles of a transport line to within transverse tolerances of 5 to 10 micrometers. Such a proposal is meaningful only if the effective magnetic center of such lenses can in fact be repeatably located with respect to some external mechanical tooling to comparable accuracy. It is the purpose of this note to describe some new methods and procedures that will accomplish this aim. It will be shown that these methods are capable of yielding greater sensitivity than the more traditional methods used in the past. The notion of the ''nodal'' point is exploited.
Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: Fischer, G.E.; Cobb, J.K.; Jenson, D.R. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department