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Impurities, temperature, and density in a miniature electrostatic plasma and current source

Description: We have spectroscopically investigated the Sterling Scientific miniature electrostatic plasma source-a plasma gun. This gun is a clean source of high density (10{sup 19} - 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}), low temperature (5 - 15 eV) plasma. A key result of our investigation is that molybdenum from the gun electrodes is largely trapped in the internal gun discharge; only a small amount escapes in the plasma flowing out of the gun. In addition, the gun plasma parameters actually improve (even lower impurity contamination and higher ion temperature) when up to 1 kA of electron current is extracted from the gun via the application of an external bias. This improvement occurs because the internal gun anode no longer acts as the current return for the internal gun discharge. The gun plasma is a virtual plasma electrode capable of sourcing an electron emission current density of 1 kA/cm{sup 2}. The high emission current, small size (3 - 4 cm diameter), and low impurity generation make this gun attractive for a variety of fusion and plasma technology applications.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Den Hartog, D. J.; Craig, D. J.; Fiksel, G. & Sarff, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confinement in the RFP: Lundquist number scaling, plasma flow, and reduced transport

Description: Global heat and particle transport in the reversed field pinch (RFP) result primarily from large-scale, resistive MHD fluctuations which cause the magnetic field in the core of the plasma to become stochastic. Achieving a better understanding of t his turbulent transport and identifying ways to reduce it are critical RFP development issues. The authors report measurements of the Lundquist number (S-scaling) of magnetic and ion flow velocity fluctuations in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) RFP. The S-scaling of magnetic fluctuations in MST is weaker than previous measurements {tilde b}/B {approximately} S{sup {minus}1/2} in smaller (lower S) RFP plasmas. Impurity ion flow velocity fluctuations (measured with fast Doppler spectroscopy) have a scaling similar to the magnetic fluctuations, falling in the range {tilde V}/V{sub A} {approximately} S{sup {minus}[0.08-0.10]}. The MHD dynamo ({tilde V} x {tilde b}) up to 15 V/cm was measured in the plasma core. Interestingly, the scaling of the MHD dynamo ({tilde V} x {tilde b}) {approximately} S{sup {minus}[0.64-0.88]} is stronger than for its constituents, a result of decreased coherency between {tilde V} and {tilde b} with increasing S. A weak S-scaling of magnetic fluctuations implies fluctuation suppression measures (e.g., current profile control) may be required in higher-S RFP plasmas. Two types of current profile modifications have been examined--inductive and electrostatic. The inductive control halves the amplitude of global magnetic fluctuations and improves the confinement by a factor of 5. The electrostatic current injection, localized in the edge plasma, reduces edge resonant fluctuations and improves the energy confinement. In addition, regimes with confinement improvement associated with the plasma flow profile are attained.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F. & Anderson, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High current plasma electron emitter

Description: A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F. & Craig, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced heat transport in tokamaks and RFP

Description: It has long been recognized that fluctuations in the magnetic field are a potent mechanism for the anomalous transport of energy in confined plasmas. The energy transport process originates from particle motion along magnetic fields, which have a fluctuating component in the radial direction (perpendicular to the confining equilibrium magnetic surfaces). A key feature is that the transport can be large even if the fluctuation amplitude is small. If the fluctuations are resonant with the equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., the fluctuation amplitude is constant along an equilibrium field line) then a small fluctuation can introduce stochasticity to the field line trajectories. Particles following the chaotically wandering field lines can rapidly carry energy across the plasma.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Hartog, D.D.; Cekic, M. & Prager, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The perpendicular electron energy flux driven by magnetic fluctuations in the edge of TEXT-U

Description: A fast bolometer was used for direct measurements of parallel electron energy flux in the edge of TEXT-U. The fluctuating component of the parallel electron energy flux, combined with a measurement of magnetic fluctuations, provides an upper limit to the perpendicular electron flux. This magnetically driven energy flux cannot account for the observed energy flux.
Date: June 12, 1995
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Bengtson, R.D. & Wootton, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch

Description: Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Den Hartog, D. J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P. W.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Study of Ion Heating and Acceleration During Magnetic Reconnection

Description: Ion heating and acceleration has been studied in the well-characterized reconnection layer of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. Ion temperature in the layer rises substantially during null-helicity reconnection in which reconnecting field lines are anti-parallel. The plasma out flow is sub-Alfvonic due to a downstream back pressure. An ion energy balance calculation based on the data and including classical viscous heating indicates that the ions are heated largely due to non-classical mechanisms. The Ti rise is much smaller during co-helicity reconnection in which field lines reconnect obliquely. This is consistent with a slower reconnection rate and a smaller resistivity enhancement over the Spitzer value. These observations indicate strongly that non-classical dissipation mechanisms can play an important role both in heating the ions and in facilitating the reconnection process.
Date: October 24, 2000
Creator: Hsu, S.C.; Carter, T.A.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M. & Yamada, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department