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Fast pyrobolometers for measurements of plasma heat fluxes and radiation losses in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

Description: Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO[sub 3] or LiNbO[sub 3] as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm[sup 2] 10 kW/cm[sup 2] and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor.
Date: January 7, 1993
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Frank, J. & Holly, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impurities, temperature, and density in a miniature electrostatic plasma and current source

Description: We have spectroscopically investigated the Sterling Scientific miniature electrostatic plasma source-a plasma gun. This gun is a clean source of high density (10{sup 19} - 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}), low temperature (5 - 15 eV) plasma. A key result of our investigation is that molybdenum from the gun electrodes is largely trapped in the internal gun discharge; only a small amount escapes in the plasma flowing out of the gun. In addition, the gun plasma parameters actually improve (even lower impurity contamination and higher ion temperature) when up to 1 kA of electron current is extracted from the gun via the application of an external bias. This improvement occurs because the internal gun anode no longer acts as the current return for the internal gun discharge. The gun plasma is a virtual plasma electrode capable of sourcing an electron emission current density of 1 kA/cm{sup 2}. The high emission current, small size (3 - 4 cm diameter), and low impurity generation make this gun attractive for a variety of fusion and plasma technology applications.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Den Hartog, D. J.; Craig, D. J.; Fiksel, G. & Sarff, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confinement in the RFP: Lundquist number scaling, plasma flow, and reduced transport

Description: Global heat and particle transport in the reversed field pinch (RFP) result primarily from large-scale, resistive MHD fluctuations which cause the magnetic field in the core of the plasma to become stochastic. Achieving a better understanding of t his turbulent transport and identifying ways to reduce it are critical RFP development issues. The authors report measurements of the Lundquist number (S-scaling) of magnetic and ion flow velocity fluctuations in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) RFP. The S-scaling of magnetic fluctuations in MST is weaker than previous measurements {tilde b}/B {approximately} S{sup {minus}1/2} in smaller (lower S) RFP plasmas. Impurity ion flow velocity fluctuations (measured with fast Doppler spectroscopy) have a scaling similar to the magnetic fluctuations, falling in the range {tilde V}/V{sub A} {approximately} S{sup {minus}[0.08-0.10]}. The MHD dynamo ({tilde V} x {tilde b}) up to 15 V/cm was measured in the plasma core. Interestingly, the scaling of the MHD dynamo ({tilde V} x {tilde b}) {approximately} S{sup {minus}[0.64-0.88]} is stronger than for its constituents, a result of decreased coherency between {tilde V} and {tilde b} with increasing S. A weak S-scaling of magnetic fluctuations implies fluctuation suppression measures (e.g., current profile control) may be required in higher-S RFP plasmas. Two types of current profile modifications have been examined--inductive and electrostatic. The inductive control halves the amplitude of global magnetic fluctuations and improves the confinement by a factor of 5. The electrostatic current injection, localized in the edge plasma, reduces edge resonant fluctuations and improves the energy confinement. In addition, regimes with confinement improvement associated with the plasma flow profile are attained.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F. & Anderson, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High current plasma electron emitter

Description: A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F. & Craig, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced heat transport in tokamaks and RFP

Description: It has long been recognized that fluctuations in the magnetic field are a potent mechanism for the anomalous transport of energy in confined plasmas. The energy transport process originates from particle motion along magnetic fields, which have a fluctuating component in the radial direction (perpendicular to the confining equilibrium magnetic surfaces). A key feature is that the transport can be large even if the fluctuation amplitude is small. If the fluctuations are resonant with the equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., the fluctuation amplitude is constant along an equilibrium field line) then a small fluctuation can introduce stochasticity to the field line trajectories. Particles following the chaotically wandering field lines can rapidly carry energy across the plasma.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Hartog, D.D.; Cekic, M. & Prager, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The perpendicular electron energy flux driven by magnetic fluctuations in the edge of TEXT-U

Description: A fast bolometer was used for direct measurements of parallel electron energy flux in the edge of TEXT-U. The fluctuating component of the parallel electron energy flux, combined with a measurement of magnetic fluctuations, provides an upper limit to the perpendicular electron flux. This magnetically driven energy flux cannot account for the observed energy flux.
Date: June 12, 1995
Creator: Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Bengtson, R.D. & Wootton, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch

Description: Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Den Hartog, D. J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P. W.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Study of Ion Heating and Acceleration During Magnetic Reconnection

Description: Ion heating and acceleration has been studied in the well-characterized reconnection layer of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. Ion temperature in the layer rises substantially during null-helicity reconnection in which reconnecting field lines are anti-parallel. The plasma out flow is sub-Alfvonic due to a downstream back pressure. An ion energy balance calculation based on the data and including classical viscous heating indicates that the ions are heated largely due to non-classical mechanisms. The Ti rise is much smaller during co-helicity reconnection in which field lines reconnect obliquely. This is consistent with a slower reconnection rate and a smaller resistivity enhancement over the Spitzer value. These observations indicate strongly that non-classical dissipation mechanisms can play an important role both in heating the ions and in facilitating the reconnection process.
Date: October 24, 2000
Creator: Hsu, S.C.; Carter, T.A.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M. & Yamada, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

B sub 4 C solid target boronization of the MST reversed-field pinch

Description: A solid rod of hot-pressed boron carbide is being used as the source of boron during boronization of MST. The most striking result of this procedure is the reduction in oxygen contamination of the plasma (O III radiation, characteristic of oxygen at the edge, falls by about a factor of 3 after boronization.). The radiated power fraction drops to about half its initial value. Particle reflux from the wall is also lowered, making density control simpler. The rod (12.7 mm diameter) is inserted into the edge plasma of normal high-power RFP discharges. B{sub 4}C is ablated from the surface of the rod and deposited in a thin film (a-B/C:H) on the walls and limiters. The energy flux carried by superthermal'' (not runaway'') electrons at the edge of MST appears to enhance the efficient, non-destructive ablation of the boron carbide rod.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Den Hartog, D.J.; Cekic, M.; Fiksel, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Kendrick, R.D.; Prager, S.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reversed-field pinch studies in the Madison Symmetric Torus

Description: Studies of large-size (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.5 m), moderate current (I < 750 kA) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas are carried out in the Madison Symmetric Torus in order to evaluate and improve RFP confinement, study general toroidal plasma MHD issues, determine the mechanism of the RFP dynamo, and measure fluctuation-induced transport and anomalous ion heating. MST confinement has been improved by reduction of magnetic field errors with correction coils in the primary circuit and reduction of impurities using boronization; high densities have been achieved with hydrogen pellet injection. MHD tearing modes with poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n = 5--7 are prevalent and nonlinearly couple to produce sudden relaxations akin to tokamak sawteeth. Edge fluctuation-induced transport has been measured with a variety of insertable probes. Ions exhibit anomalous heating, with increases of ion temperature occuring during strong MHD relaxation. The RFP dynamo has been studied with attention to various possible mechanisms, including motion-EMF drive, the Hall effect, and superthermal electrons. Initial profile control experiments have begun using insertable biased probes and plasma guns. The toroidal field capacity of MST will be upgraded during Summer, 1993 to allow low-current tokamak operation as well as improved RFP operation.
Date: April 3, 1993
Creator: Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear coupling of tearing fluctuations in the Madison Symmetric Torus

Description: Three-wave, nonlinear, tearing mode coupling has been measured in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP) [Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] using bispectral analysis of edge magnetic fluctuations resolved in k-space. The strength of nonlinear three-wave interactions satisfying the sum rules m[sub 1] + m[sub 2] = m[sub 3] and n[sub 1] + n[sub 2] = n[sub 3] is measured by the bicoherency. In the RFP, m=l, n[approximately]2R/a (6 for MST) internally resonant modes are linearly unstable and grow to large amplitude. Large values of bicoherency occur for two m=l modes coupled to an m=2 mode and the coupling of intermediate toroidal modes, e.g., n=6 and 7 coupled to n=13. These experimental bispectral features agree with predicted bispectral features derived from MHD computation. However, in the experiment, enhanced coupling occurs in the crash'' phase of a sawtooth oscillation concomitant with a broadened mode spectrum suggesting the onset of a nonlinear cascade.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Cekic, M.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Hokin, S.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalous ion heating and superthermal electrons in the MST reversed-field pinch

Description: Anomalous ion heating and superthermal electron populations have been studied in the MST reversed-field pinch. The ion heating is much stronger than that given by classical electron-ion friction, and is particularly strong during dynamo bursts. The heating displays a marked density dependence: in a 350-kA discharge with a maximum {bar n} = 0.9 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus} 3}, T{sub i} rises sharply as {bar n} drops below 0.4 {times} 10{sub 13} cm{sup {minus}3} late in the discharge. Superthermal electrons are produced in the core, with temperatures of T{sub eh}, = 350--700 eV while the bulk core temperature is T{sub e}o = 130--230 eV. The fraction of superthermal electrons decreases with increasing density, from 40% at {bar n} = 0.5 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} to 8% at {bar n} = 1.9 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} at I = 350 kA. However, data with similar plasma parameters but higher oxygen impurity content had a lower T{sub eh} and higher hot fraction. The edge superthermal electron distribution is well fit by a drifted bi-Maxwellian distribution with T{sub {parallel}} {approximately} T{sub e0} and relative drift speed v{sub d}/v{sub th} = 0.4. With the assumption that the parallel heat flux measured with a pyroelectric probe is carried by superthermal electrons, the measured electron current is consistent with T{sub {perpendicular}} {approximately} T{sub ea} {approximately} T{sub e0}/3 and accounts for over half of the total edge parallel current measured with magnetic probes.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Assadi, S.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Chartas, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department