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Life on the edge: squirrel-cage fringe fields and their effects in the MBE-4 combiner experiment

Description: The MBE-4 combiner experiment employs an electrostatic combined-function focusing/bending element, the so-called ``squirrel-cage`` just before the actual merging region. There has been concern that non-linear fields, primarily in the fringe regions at the beginning and end of the cage, may be strong enough to lead to significant emittance degradation. This note present the results of numerical calculations which determined the anharmonic, non-linear components of the 3D fields in the cage and the resultant, orbit-integrated effects upon the MBE-4 beamlets. We find that while the anharmonic effects are small compared to the dipole deflection, the resultant transverse emittance growth is significant when compared to the expected value of the initial emittance of the individual beamlets.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Fawley, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

{open_quotes}Optical Guiding{close_quotes} limits on extraction efficiencies of single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers

Description: Single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers have an attractive feature of being able, in theory at least, of extracting a large portion of the electron beam energy into light. In circumstances where an optical FEL wiggler length is significantly longer than the Rayleigh length Z{sub R} corresponding to the electron beam radius, diffraction losses must be controlled via the phenomenon of optical guiding. Since the strength of the guiding depends upon the effective refractive index n exceeding one, and since (n-1) is inversely proportional to the optical electric field, there is a natural limiting mechanism to the on-axis field strength and thus the rate at which energy may be extracted from the electron beam. In particular, the extraction efficiency for a prebunched beam asymptotically grows linearly with z rather than quadratically. We present analytical and numerical simulation results concerning this behavior and discuss its applicability to various FEL designs including oscillator/amplifier-radiator configurations.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Fawley, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Start-Up of FEL Oscillator from Shot Noise

Description: In free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators, as inself-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FELs, the buildup of cavitypower starts from shot noise resulting from the discreteness ofelectronic charge. It is important to do the start-up analysis for thebuild-up of cavity power in order to fix the macropulse width from theelectron accelerator such that the system reaches saturation. In thispaper, we use the time-dependent simulation code GINGER [1]toperformthis analysis. We present results of this analysis for theparameters of the Compact Ultrafast TErahertz FEL (CUTE-FEL) [2]beingbuilt atRRCAT.
Date: January 25, 2007
Creator: Kumar, V.; Krishnagopal, S. & Fawley, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multidimensional simulation studies of the SELENE FEL oscillator/buncher followed by a radiator/amplifier output scheme

Description: We analyze and present numerical simulations of the so-called electron output scheme [G. I. Erg et al., 15th Int. FEL Conf., The Hague, The Netherlands, 1993, Book of Abstracts p. 50; Preprint Budker INP 93-75] applied to the SELENE proposal of using a high power FEL to illuminate satellite solar cells. In this scheme, a first stage FEL oscillator bunches the electron beam while a second stage ``radiator`` extracts high power radiation. Our analysis suggests only in the case where the radiator employs a long, tapered undulator will the electron output scheme produce a significant increase in extraction efficiency over what is obtainable from a simple, single-stage oscillator. 1- and 2-D numerical simulations of a 1.7{mu}m FEL employing the electron output scheme show reasonably large bunching fractions ({approximately} 0.3--0.4) at the output of the oscillator stage but only {le}2% extraction efficiency from the radiator stage.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Hahn, S.J. & Fawley, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A pre- and post-processor for the ICOOL muon transport code

Description: ICOOL[1] is a Fortran77 macroparticle transport code widely used by researchers to study the front end of a neutrino factory/muon collider[2]. In part due to the desire that ICOOL be usable over multiple computer platforms and operating systems, the code uses simple text files for input/output services. This choice together with user-driven requests for greater and greater choice of lattice element type and configuration has led to ICOOL input decks becoming rather difficult to compose and modify easily. Moreover, the lack of a standard graphical post-processor has prevented many ICOOL users from extracting all but the most simple results from the output files. Here I present two attempts to improve this situation: First, a simple but quite general graphical pre-processor (NIME) written in the Tcl/TK[3] to permit users to write and maintain ASCII-formatted input files by use of simple macro definitions and expansions. Second, an interactive post-processor written in Fortran90 and NCAR graphics, which allows users to define, extract, and then examine the behavior of various particle subsets. In this paper I show some examples of use of both the pre- and post-processor for a standard ICOOL run.
Date: May 30, 2001
Creator: Fawley, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Output characteristics of SASE-driven short wavelength FEL`s

Description: This paper investigates various properties of the ``microspikes`` associated with self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in a short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL). Using results from the 2-D numerical simulation code GINGER, we confirm theoretical predictions such as the convective group velocity in the exponential gain regime. In the saturated gain regime beyond the initial saturation, we find that the average radiation power continues to grow with an approximately linearly dependence upon undulator length. Moreover, the spectrum significantly broadens and shifts in wavelength to the redward direction, with{ital P(w)} approaching a constant, asymptotic value. This is in marked contrast to the exponential gain regime where the spectrum steadily narrows, {ital P(w)} grows, and the central wavelength remains constant with {ital z}. Via use of a spectrogram diagnostic {ital S(w,t)}, it appears that the radiation pattern in the saturated gain regime is composed of an ensemble of distinct ``sinews`` whose widths AA remain approximately constant but whose central wavelengths can ``chirp`` by varying a small extent with {ital t}.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Fawley, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and construction of a large aperture quadrupole electromagnet for ILSE

Description: We are currently constructing a prototype quadrupole electromagnet for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE) at LBNL. ILSE will address many physics and engineering issues relevant to the design of a heavy-ion fusion driver accelerator. The pulsed electromagnet has two layers of current windings and will produce a field gradient of 28 T/m, wi a usable aperture of 6 cm. It operates at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, steady-state. In this paper, we discuss how the interaction of various concerns such as maximum dynamic aperture, short lattice period, field quality, iron yoke weight, heat transfer, and voltage standoff have led to our particular design choices. We also present 2- and 3-D numerical calculations concerning field topography and the results of transport simulations of space-charge dominated ion beams with ILSE parameters.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Fawley, W.M.; Vella, M.C.; Peters, C.; Stuart, M. & Faltens, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and construction of a large aperture, quadrupole electromagnet prototype for ILSE

Description: We are currently constructing a prototype quadrupole electromagnet for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE) at LBL. ILSE will address many physi and engineering issues relevant to the design of a heavy-ion fusion driver accelerator. The pulsed electromagnet has two layers of current windings and will produce a field gradient exceeding 25 T/m at a repetition rate of 1 Hz steady-state. In this paper, we discuss how the interaction of various concerns such as maximum dynamic aperture, short lattice period, field quality, iron yoke weight, heat transfer, and voltage standoff have led to our particular design choices. We also present 2- and 3-D numerical calculations concerning field topography and the results of transport simulations of space-charge dominated ion beams with ILSE parameters.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Stuart, M.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.M.; Peters, C. & Vella, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GINGER simulations of short-pulse effects in the LEUTL FEL

Description: While the long-pulse, coasting beam model is often used in analysis and simulation of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs), many current SASE demonstration experiments employ relatively short electron bunches whose pulse length is on the order of the radiation slippage length. In particular, the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL at the Advanced Photon Source has recently lased and nominally saturated in both visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength regions with a sub-ps pulse length that is somewhat shorter than the total slippage length in the 22-m undulator system. In this paper we explore several characteristics of the short pulse regime for SASE FELs with the multidimensional, time-dependent simulation code GINGER, concentrating on making a direct comparison with the experimental results from LEUTL. Items of interest include the radiation gain length, pulse energy, saturation position, and spectral bandwidth. We address the importance of short-pulse effects when scaling the LEUTL results to proposed x-ray FELs and also briefly discuss the possible importance of coherent spontaneous emission at startup.
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: Huang, Z. & Fawley, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of the Lorentz-Boosted Frame Transformation to Simulate Free-Electron Laser Amplifier Physics

Description: Recently [1]it has been pointed out that numerical simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz boosted frame. A particularly good example is that of short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) in which a high energy (E0>_ 250 MeV) electron beam interacts with a static magnetic undulator. In the optimal boost frame with Lorentz factor gamma F, the red-shifted FEL radiation and blue shifted undulator have identical wavelengths and the number of required time-steps (presuming the Courant condition applies) decreases by a factor of g2 F for fullyelectromagnetic simulation. We have adapted the WARP code [2]to apply this method to several FEL problems including coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) from pre-bunched e-beams, and strong exponential gain in a single pass amplifier configuration. We discuss our results and compare with those from the"standard" FEL simulation approach which adopts the eikonal approximation for propagation ofthe radiation field.
Date: July 27, 2008
Creator: Fawley, W.M. & Vay, J.-L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Merits of a sub-harmonic approach to a single-pass, 1.5-{Angstrom} FEL

Description: SLAC/SSRL and collaborators elsewhere are studying th physics of a single-pass, FEL amplifier operating in th 1 -- 2 {Angstrom}, wavelength region based on electron beams from the SLAC linac at {approximately} 15 GeV energy. Hoping to reduce the total wiggler length needed to reach saturation when starting from shot noise, we have examined the benefits of making the first part of the wiggler resonant at a subharmonic wavelength (e.g. 4.5 {Angstrom}) at which the gain length can be significantly shorter. This leads to bunching of the electron beam at both the subharmonic and fundaments wavelengths, thus providing a strong coherent ``seed`` for exponential growth of radiation at the fundamental in the second part of the wiggler. Using both multi-harmonic and multi-frequency 2D FEL simulation codes, we have examined the predicted performance of such devices and the sensitivity to electron beam parameters such as current, emittance, and instantaneous energy spread.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Fawley, W.M.; Nuhn, H.D.; Bonifacio, R. & Scharlemann, E.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BBU and Corkscrew Growth Predictions for the Darht Second Axis Accelerator

Description: The second axis accelerator of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT-II) facility will produce a 2-kA, 20-MeV, 2-{micro}s output electron beam with a design goal of less than 1000 {pi} mm-mrad normalized transverse emittance. In order to meet this goal, both the beam breakup instability (BBJ) and transverse corkscrew motion (due to chromatic phase advance) must be limited in growth. Using data from recent experimental measurements of the transverse impedance of actual DARHT-II accelerator cells by Briggs et al. [2], they have used the LLNL BREAKUP code to predict BBU and corkscrew growth in DARHT-II. The results suggest that BBU growth should not seriously degrade the final achievable spot size at the x-ray converter, presuming the initial excitation level is of the order 100 microns or smaller. For control of corkscrew growth, a major concern is the number of tuning shots needed to utilize effectively the tuning-V algorithm [3]. Presuming that the solenoid magnet alignment falls within spec, they believe that possibly as few as 50-100 shots will be necessary to set the dipole corrector magnet currents. They give some specific examples of tune determination for a hypothetical set of alignment errors.
Date: June 12, 2001
Creator: Chen, Y.J. & Fawley, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE SECOND STAGE OF FERMI@ELETTRA: A SEEDED FEL IN THE SOFT X-RAY SPECTRAL RANGE

Description: The second stage of the FERMI FEL, named FEL-2, is based on the principle of high-gain harmonic generation and relies on a double-seeded cascade. Recent developments stimulated a revision of the original setup, which was designed to cover the spectral range between 40 and 10 nm. The numerical simulations we present here show that the nominal (expected) electron-beam performance allows extension of the FEL spectral range down to 4 nm. A significant amount of third harmonic power can be also expected. We also show that the proposed setup is flexible enough for exploiting future developments of new seed sources, e.g., high harmonic generation in gases.
Date: August 14, 2009
Creator: Allaria, E.; DeNinno, G. & Fawley, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation studies of a XUV/soft X-ray harmonic-cascade FEL for the proposed LBNL recirculating linac*

Description: Presently there is significant interest at LBNL in designing and building a facility for ultrafast (i.e. femtosecond time scale) x-ray science based upon a superconducting, recirculating RF linac (see Corlett et al. for more details). In addition to producing synchrotron radiation pulses in the 1-15 keV energy range, we are also considering adding one or more free-electron laser (FEL) beamlines using a harmonic cascade approach to produce coherent XUV soft X-ray emission beginning with a strong input seed at {approx}200 nm wavelength obtained from a ''conventional'' laser. Each cascade is composed of a radiator together with a modulator section, separated by a magnetic chicane. The chicane temporally delays the electron beam pulse in order that a ''virgin'' pulse region (with undegraded energy spread) be brought into synchronism with the radiation pulse, which together then undergo FEL action in the modulator. We present various results obtained with the GINGER simulation code examining final output sensitivity to initial electron beam parameters. We also discuss the effects of spontaneous emission and shot noise upon this particular cascade approach which can limit the final output coherence.
Date: June 2, 2003
Creator: Fawley, W. M.; Barletta, W. A.; Corlett, J. N. & Zholents, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of an XUV FEL Driven by the Laser-Plasma Accelerator at theLBNL LOASIS Facility

Description: We present a design for a compact FEL source of ultrafast, high-peak flux, soft x-ray pulses employing a high-current, GeV-energy electron beam from the existing laser-plasma accelerator at the LBNL LOASIS laser facility. The proposed ultra-fast source would be intrinsically temporally synchronized to the drive laser pulse, enabling pump-probe studies in ultra-fast science with pulse lengths of tens of fs. Owing both to the high current ({approx} 10 kA) and reasonable charge/pulse ({approx} 0.1-0.5 nC) of the laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams, saturated output fluxes are potentially 10{sup 13}--10{sup 14} photons/pulse. We examine devices based both on SASE and high-harmonic generated input seeds to give improved coherence and reduced undulator length, presenting both analytic scalings and numerical simulation results for expected FEL performance. A successful source would result in a new class of compact laser-driven FELs in which a conventional RF accelerator is replaced by a GeV-class laser-plasma accelerator whose active acceleration region is only a few cm in length.
Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Schroeder, Carl B.; Fawley, W.M.; Esarey, Eric & Leemans, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the transverse beam motion in the DARHT Phase II accelerator

Description: The accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility will accelerate a 4-kA, 3-MeV, 2--µs long electron current pulse to 20 MeV. The energy variation of the beam within the flat-top portion of the current pulse is (plus or equal to) 0.5%. The performance of the DARHT Phase II radiographic machine requires the transverse beam motion to be much less than the beam spot size which is about 1.5 mm diameter on the x-ray converter. In general, the leading causes of the transverse beam motion in an accelerator are the beam breakup instability (BBU) and the corkscrew motion. We have modeled the transverse beam motion in the DARHT Phase II accelerator with various magnetic tunes and accelerator cell configurations by using the BREAKUP code. The predicted sensitivity of corkscrew motion and BBU growth to different tuning algorithms will be presented.
Date: August 20, 1998
Creator: Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Fawley, W M & Houck, T L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical issues for high-power FEL based on microtron recuperator/electron out-coupling scheme

Description: The FELs based on the RF accelerator-recuperator and the electron outcoupling is promising for obtaining average output power of hundreds of kilowatts. We present basic considerations for the system stability and performance optimization for this scheme.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Vinokurov, N.A.; Zholents, A.A.; Fawley, W.M. & Kim, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation Studies of the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator

Description: Simulations of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator are presented that include transverse effects and realistic Bragg crystal properties with the two-dimensional code GINGER. In the present cases considered the radiation divergence is much narrower than the crystal acceptance, and the numerical algorithm can be simplified by ignoring the finite angular bandwidth of the crystal. In this regime GINGER shows that the saturated x-ray pulses have 109 photons and are nearly Fourier-limited with peak powers in excess of 1 MW. Wealso include preliminary results for a four-mirror cavity that can be tuned in wavelength over a few percent, with future plans to incorporate the full transverse response of the Bragg crystals into GINGER to more accurately model this tunable source.
Date: August 14, 2009
Creator: Lindberg, R. R.; Shyd'ko, Y.; Kim, K.-J & Fawley, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A possible experiment at LEUTL to characterize surface roughness Wakefield effects

Description: Wakefield effects due to internal vacuum chamber roughness may increase the electron beam energy spread and so have become an immediate concern for future x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project developments such as the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the DESY TESLA x-ray FEL. We describe a possible experiment to characterize the effects of surface roughness on an FEL driven by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) operation. Although the specific system described is not completely identical to the above-proposed projects, much useful scaling information could be obtained and applied to shorter wavelength systems.
Date: January 10, 2001
Creator: Biedron, S.G.; Dattoli, G.; Fawley, W.M.; Freund, H.P.; Huang, Zhirong; Lewellen, J.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The beamline for the second axis of the dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility

Description: During normal DARHT II operation, the beam exiting the accelerator will be well characterized by its nominal design parameters of 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-{micro}sec-pulse length, and 3 cm-mr unnormalized emittance. Normal operation will have the beam delivered to a beam dump via several DC magnets. A 2-way kicker magnet is used to deflect portions of the beam into the straight ahead beamline leading to either a diagnostic beamline or to the converter target beamline. During start up and or beam development periods, the beam exiting the accelerator may have parameters outside the acceptable range of values for normal operation. The Enge beamline must accommodate this range of unacceptable beam parameters, delivering the entire 80 KiloJoule of beam to the dump even though the energy, emittance, and/or match is outside the nominal design range.
Date: March 23, 1999
Creator: Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y J; Fawley, W M; Lee, E P; Paul, A C & Westenkow, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transverse beam motion on the second axis of the dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility

Description: The accelerator on the second-axis of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT-II) facility will generate a 20 MeV, 2-4 kA, 2 µs long electron beam with an energy variation {<=} ± 0.5%. Four short current pulses with various lengths will be selected out of this 2 µs long current pulse and delivered to an x-ray converter target. The DARHT-II radiographic resolution requires these electron pulses to be focused to sub-millimeter spots on Bremsstrahlung targets with peak-to-peak transverse beam motion less than a few hundred microns. We have modeled the transverse beam motion, including the beam breakup instability, corkscrew motion, transverse resistive wall instability and beam induced transverse deflection in the kicker system, from the DARHT-II injector exit to the x-ray converter target. Simulations show that the transverse motion at the x-ray converters satisfies the DARHT-II radiographic requirements.
Date: March 23, 1999
Creator: Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y J; Fawley, W M & Paul, A C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transverse combining of 4 beams in MBE-4

Description: Transverse beam combining is a cost-saving optio employed in many designs for induction linac heavy ion fusion drivers. But resultant transverse emittance increase, due predominantly to anharmonic space charoe forces, must be kept minimal so as not to sacrifice focusability at the target. A prototype combining experiment has been built, using the MBE-4 experiment. Four sources produce four 4 mA Cs{sup +} beams at 200 keV. The ion sources are angled toward each other, so that beams converge. Focusing upstream of the merge consists of 4 quadrupoles and a final combined-function element (quadrupole & dipole). All lattice elements are electrostatic. Due to the small distance between beams at the last element ({approximately} 2 mm), the electrodes here are a cage of small wires, each at different voltage. The beams emerge into the 30 period transport lattice of MBE-4 where emittance growth due to merging, as well as the subsequent evolution of the distribution function, can be diagnosed. The combiner design, simulation predictions, and preliminary results from the experiment are presented.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Celata, C.M.; Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.M.; Ghiorso, W.; Hahn, K.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department