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Use of mass spectrometric methods for field screening of VOC`s

Description: While mass spectrometric (MS) methods of chemical analysis, particularly gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), have been the mainstay of environmental organic analytical techniques in the laboratory through the use of EPA and other standard methods, field implementation is relatively rare. Instrumentation and methods now exist for utilizing MS and GC/MS techniques in the field for analysis of VOC`s in gas phase, aqueous, and soil media. Examples of field investigations utilizing HP 5971A and Viking SpectraTrak systems for analysis of VOC`s in all three media will be presented. Mass spectral methods were found to offer significant advantages in terms of speed of analysis and reliability of compound identification over field gas chromatography (GC) methods while preserving adequate levels of detection sensitivity. The soil method in particular provides a method for rapid in-field analysis of methanol preserved samples thus minimizing the problem of volatiles loss which typically occurs with routine use of the EPA methods and remote analysis. The high cost of MS instrumentation remains a major obstacle to more widespread use.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Evans, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

Description: The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W. & Sherwood, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J. & Dennison, D.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multielement detector for gas chromatography

Description: This report describes the results of a study to improve the capabilities of a gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma (GC- MIP) detector system, determine the feasibility of empirical formula determination for simple mixtures containing elements of interest to fossil fuel analysis and, subsequently, explore applications for analysis of the complex mixtures associated with fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that the GC-MIP system is useful as a specific-element detector that provides excellent elemental specificity for a number of elements of interest to the analysis of fossil fuels. It has reasonably good sensitivity for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nickel, and better sensitivity for chlorine and fluorine. Sensitivity is poor for nitrogen and oxygen, however, probably because of undetected leaks or erosion of the plasma tube. The GC-MIP can also provide stoichiometric information about components of simple mixtures. If this powerful technique is to be available for complex mixtures, it will be necessary to greatly simplify the chromatograms by chemical fractionation. 38 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1988
Creator: Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C. & Olsen, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar neutrino problem

Description: A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J.C. & Cleveland, B.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102

Description: The objective of this report is to evaluate the equivalency of two methods used to sample nonradioactive gases and vapors in the Hanford Site high-level waste tank headspaces. In addition to the comparison of the two sampling methods, the effects of an in-line fine particle filter on sampling results are also examined to determine whether results are adversely affected by its presence. This report discusses data from a January 1996 sampling.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Huckaby, J. L.; Edwards, J. A. & Evans, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102. Revision 1

Description: This report discusses comparison tests for two methods of collecting vapor samples from the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank headspaces. The two sampling methods compared are the truck-mounted vapor sampling system (VSS) and the cart-mounted in-situ vapor sampling (ISVS). Three tanks were sampled by both the VSS and ISVS methods from the same access risers within the same 8-hour period. These tanks have diverse headspace compositions and they represent the highest known level of several key vapor analytes.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Huckaby, J.L.; Edwards, J.A. & Evans, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In Situ Redox Manipulation of Subsurface Sediments from Fort Lewis, Washington: Iron Reduction and TCE Dechlorination Mechanisms

Description: The feasibility of chemically treating sediments from the Ft. Lewis, Washington, Logistics Center to develop a permeable barrier for dechlorination of TCE was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments.
Date: March 17, 2000
Creator: Szecsody, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Sklarew, D.S. & Evans, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thomson scattering stray light reduction techniques using a CCD camera

Description: The DIII-D Thomson scattering system has been expanded to measure divertor plasma temperatures from 1-500 eV and densities from 0.05 to 8 X 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. To complete this system, a difficult stray light problem was overcome to allow for an accurate Rayleigh scattering density calibration. The initial stray light levels were over 500 times higher than the expected Rayleigh scattered signal. Using a CCD camera, various portions of the vessel interior were examined while the laser was fired through the vessel in air at atmospheric pressure. Image relaying, exit window tilting, entrance and exit baffle modifications, and a beam polarizer were then used to reduce the stray light to acceptable levels. The CCD camera gave prompt feedback on the effectiveness of each modification, without the need to re-establish vacuum conditions required when using the normal avalanche Photodiode detectors (APD). Once the stray light was sufficiently reduced, the APD detectors provided the signal time history to more accurately identify the source location. We have also found that certain types of high reflectance dielectric coatings produce 10 to 15 times more scatter than other types of more conventional coatings. By using low-scatter mirror coatings and these new stray light reduction techniques, we now have more flexibility in the design of complex Thomson scattering configurations required to probe the central core and the new radiative divertor regions of the DIII-D vessel.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Nilson, D.G.; Hill, D.N. & Evans, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Paraho oil shale products and effluents: an example of the multi-technique approach

Description: Inorganic analysis of solid, liquid and gaseous samples from the Paraho Semiworks Retort was completed using a multitechnique approach. The data were statistically analyzed to determine both the precision of each method and to see how closely the various techniques compared. The data were also used to determine the redistribution of 31 trace and major elements in the various effluents, including the offgas for the Paraho Retort operating in the direct mode. The computed mass balances show that approximately 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S and Se are released during retorting and redistributed to the product shale oil, retort water or product offgas. The fraction for these seven elements ranged from almost 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% of the As and Se are released. The mass balance redistribution during retorting for Al, Fe, Mg, V and Zn was observed to be no greater than .05%. These redistribution figures are generally in agreement with previous mass balance studies made for a limited number of elements on laboratory or smaller scale pilot retorts. 7 tables.
Date: June 10, 1979
Creator: Fruchter, J. S.; Wilkerson, C. L.; Evans, J. C. & Sanders, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

Description: This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J. & Kemner, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Source characterization studies at the Paraho semiworks oil shale retort. [Redistribution of trace and major elements]

Description: In order to determine the redistribution of trace and major elements and species during aboveground oil shale retorting, a comprehensive program was carried out for the sampling and analysis of feedstock, products, effluents, and ambient particulates from the Paraho Semiworks Retort. Samples were obtained during two periods in 1977 when the retort was operating in the direct mode. The data were used to construct mass balances for 31 trace and major elements in various effluents, including the offgas. The computed mass balances indicated that approx. 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S, and Se were released during retorting and redistributed to the product oil, retort water, or product offgas. The fraction released for these seven elements ranged from approx. 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% each of the As and Se were released. Ambient aerosols were found to be elevated near the retorting facility and associated crushing and retorted shale disposal sites. Approximately 50% of these particles were in the respirable range (< 5 ..mu..m). The elevated dust loadings are presented very local, as indicated by relatively low aerosol loadings at background sites 100 to 200 m away. State-of-the-art dust control measures were not employed. 15 figures, 19 tables.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Fruchter, J.S.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Evans, J.C.; Sanders, R.W. & Abel, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

Description: The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C. & Olsen, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent results from the Cl--Ar solar neutrino experiment and progress in the development of other radiochemical solar neutrino experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: A new statistical analysis has been used to treat all of the results from the /sup 37/Cl-/sup 37/Ar solar neutrino experiment obtained since 1970 which are based on counting /sup 37/Ar using both energy and rise-time to characterize the decays. The results of this treatment are reported. Recent results in the development of the /sup 71/Ga-/sup 71/Ge and /sup 7/Li-/sup 7/Be solar neutrino experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory are also reported.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Rowley, J.K.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr. & Evans, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intercomparison study of elemental abundances in raw and spent oil shales

Description: Two samples each of raw oil shale and spent oil shale were prepared as reference samples and analyzed by four laboratories using neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and other techniques. Excellent agreement was obtained between techniques and laboratories except for the thin-film XRF technique. The %RMS deviations were less than or equal to 10% for 85% of the values. In general, the INAA analysis procedures yielded the most accurate and precise results. The XRF and colorimetric methods compared well with INAA but they were not as precise. Poor interlaboratory agreement was obtained for Cr, Co, Dy, and Sm by INAA, and an analytical problem was noted for As and Zr. Additional work is required to develop and validate reliable methods for B, F, Cd, and As.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Fox, J.P.; Evans, J.C.; Wildeman, T.R. & Fruchter, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization and monitoring of total organic chloride vapors. [Halosnif sensor]

Description: Chemical sensors are being developed intermediate highly selective and broadly selective methods. PNL is developing an optical-emission based TOCl (total organic chlorinated compounds) sensor (Halosnif) which is capable of measuring TOCl in real time on an extracted gas sample over a wide linear dynamic range. Halosnif employs an atomic emission sensor that is broadly selective for any moderately volatile organic hclorinated vapor but does not distinguish between classes of chlorinated compounds. A rf-induced He plasma is used to excite the chlorine atoms, causing light emission at 837.6 nm. The sensitivity ranges from 1-2 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. Field tests were conducted at Tinker AFB in areas of high TCE contamination, in two boreholes at Savannah River, and at Hanford CCl{sub 4} vapor extraction system. This sensor is briefly compared with acoustic wave sensors being developed by SNL (PAWS). 4 figs. (DLC)
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Evans, J.C. Jr. & Olsen, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

Description: The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W. & Bates, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

Description: Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Liikala, T. L. & Evans, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department