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Active Power Control Testing at the U.S. National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) (Presentation)

Description: In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Ela, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing Active Power Control from Wind Power at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) [Presentation]

Description: In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Ela, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Active Power Control from Wind Power (Presentation)

Description: In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Ela, E. & Brooks, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

Description: This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.
Date: August 1, 2011
Creator: Ela, E.; Milligan, M. & Kirby, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

Description: With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.
Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: Ela, E. & Kemper, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts of Variability and Uncertainty in Solar Photovoltaic Generation at Multiple Timescales

Description: The characteristics of variability and uncertainty of PV solar power have been studied extensively. These characteristics can create challenges for system operators who must ensure a balance between generation and demand while obeying power system constraints at the lowest possible cost. A number of studies have looked at the impact of wind power plants, and some recent studies have also included solar PV. The simulations that are used in these studies, however, are typically fixed to one time resolution. This makes it difficult to analyze the variability across several timescales. In this study, we use a simulation tool that has the ability to evaluate both the economic and reliability impacts of PV variability and uncertainty at multiple timescales. This information should help system operators better prepare for increases of PV on their systems and develop improved mitigation strategies to better integrate PV with enhanced reliability. Another goal of this study is to understand how different mitigation strategies and methods can improve the integration of solar power more reliably and efficiently.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Ela, E.; Diakov, V.; Ibanez, E. & Heaney, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probability-Weighted LMP and RCP for Day-Ahead Energy Markets using Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment: Preprint

Description: Variable renewable generation resources are increasing their penetration on electric power grids. These resources have weather-driven fuel sources that vary on different time scales and are difficult to predict in advance. These characteristics create challenges for system operators managing the load balance on different timescales. Research is looking into new operational techniques and strategies that show great promise on facilitating greater integration of variable resources. Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment models are one strategy that has been discussed in literature and shows great benefit. However, it is rarely used outside the research community due to its computational limits and difficulties integrating with electricity markets. This paper discusses how it can be integrated into day-ahead energy markets and especially on what pricing schemes should be used to ensure an efficient and fair market.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Ela, E. & O'Malley, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint

Description: This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N. & Smith, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

Description: Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. Frequency responsive reserve arrests the frequency decline resulting in the stabilization of system frequency, and avoids the triggering of under-frequency load-shedding or the reaching of unstable frequencies that could ultimately lead to system blackouts. It is a crucial service required to maintain a reliable and secure power system. Regions with restructured electricity markets have historically had a lack of incentives for frequency responsive reserve because generators inherently provided the response and on large interconnected systems, more than sufficient response has been available. This may not be the case in future systems due to new technologies and declining response. This paper discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Tuohy, A. & Brooks, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

Description: Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B. & Milligan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

Description: This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R. & Tuohy, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation (Report Summary) (Presentation)

Description: Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as "intermittent") output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).
Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B. & Milligan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

Description: This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.
Date: February 1, 2012
Creator: Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department