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Vadose zone drilling at the NTS

Description: The Yucca Mountain Project has an opportunity to evaluate possible mobilization and transport of radioactive materials away from the storage horizon in the proposed repository. One scenario by which such transport could occur involves water leaving the storage area and carrying radioactive particulates of colloidal size. The colloids could move along the gas-liquid interface in partially filled fractures within the vadose zone. It should be possible to check the reality of this proposed scenario by examining ``anthropogenic analogs`` of the repository. These are sites of nuclear tests conducted in unsaturated tuff at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). We propose to drill under one or more such sites to determine if radionuclides have moved from their original confinement in the puddle- glass at the bottom of the cavity. This document examines the characteristics of an ideal test site for such a study, suggests several possible locations that have some of the desired characteristics, and recommends one of these sites for the proposed drilling.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Efurd, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

Description: Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Efurd, D.W. & Rokop, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a rapid radiochemical procedure for the separation of /sup 235m/U from /sup 239/Pu

Description: We have developed a rapid radiochemical procedure for the isolation and purification of /sup 235m/U (t/sub 1/2/ = 26 minutes) from /sup 239/Pu samples up to 250 mg. Purpose of developing the procedure was to measure the thermal neutron fission cross section of the isomeric meta state of /sup 235/U. We used rapid small-scale anion exchange columns that absorbed uranium in concentrated HBr but did not absorb plutonium. Uranium was easily eluted with very dilute HF. The separation time required 25 to 35 minutes. We were able to attain a separation factor of uranium from plutonium of approximately 1 x 10/sup 10/ with samples ranging from 1 x 10/sup 10/ to 3 x 10/sup 11/. The ratio of the fission cross sections for the meta to ground state was measured to be 1.42. 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Attrep, M. Jr.; Efurd, D.W. & Roensch, F.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory and field studies related to the hydrologic resources management program. Progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

Description: This report describes the work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY 1996 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. Despite declining financial support we have been able to maintain a significant analytical effort because the Underground Test Area Operable Unit at the Nevada Test Site has drilled several wells adjacent to cavities produced by nuclear tests. We measured the radionuclide content in groundwater samples and rock cores taken from near cavities at two sites on Pahute Mesa. At one of these sites we detected plutonium in the groundwater in significant concentrations. Also we detected {sup 137}Cs deposition in soils high in a collapsed chimney above the working point at a location in the Low Level Waste Management facility in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. We analyzed samples from four wells suspected or known to contain radionuclides. Sampling efforts in wells completed with small-bore tubing or casing continue to be hampered by our inability to adequately purge the well prior to sampling. We presented our work at a number of meetings and published several review articles.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Thompson, J.L.; Efurd, D.W. & Rokop, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantification of neptunium by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

Description: A surface ionization-diffusion-type ionization source that uses a rhenium filament overplated with platinum has been developed and optimized for 0.1-ng neptunium samples. This source is capable of measuring the neptunium content of nuclear-test-debris samples to 0.15% precision at the 95% confidence level. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Efurd, D.W.; Drake, J.; Roensch, F.R.; Cappis, J.H. & Perrin, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-precision isotopic analysis of nanogram quantities of plutonium

Description: A surface ionization-diffusion-type ionization source that uses a rhenium filament overplated with platinum has been developed and optimized for 0.5- to 2-ng plutonium samples. This source is capable of measuring the /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu atom ratio in nuclear-test-debris samples to 0.15% precision and accuracy at the 95% confidence level.
Date: June 1, 1984
Creator: Perrin, R.E.; Knobeloch, G.W.; Armijo, V.M. & Efurd, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide determination and analytical support for characterization of environmental samples

Description: Clean chemical and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) procedures have been developed to permit the determination of environmental actinide element concentrations and isotopic signatures. The isotopic signatures help identify element origin and separate naturally occurring or background contributions from local anthropogenic sources. Typical sample sizes for processing are 2 liters of water, 1--10 grams of sediment, and 1--20 grams of soil. Measurement limits for Pu, Am, and Np are < 1 {times} 18{sup 8} atoms, and for U are < 2.5 {times} 10{sup 12} atoms. For isotopic signatures, < 5 {times} 10{sup 8} atoms of Pu, Am, and Np are necessary, and 8 {times} 10{sup 12} atoms of U are required. Of potential interest to the IAEA is the incorporation of these techniques into their Safeguards Analytical Laboratory for environmental sampling. Studies made of surface waters, sediments and soils from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado, US, are used as examples of this methodology. These studies showed that, although plant boundary actinide concentrations approached, on the downstream side, natural or background levels, isotopic signatures characteristic of plant operations were still discernible.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Rokop, D. J.; Efurd, D. W. & Perrin, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of actinides in soil, sediments, water and vegetation in Northern New Mexico

Description: This study was undertaken during 1991 - 1998 to identify the origin of plutonium uranium in northern New Mexico Rio Grande and tributary stream sediments. Isotopic fingerprinting techniques help distinguish radioactivity from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from global fallout or natural sources. The geographic area covered by the study extended from the headwaters of the Rio Grande in southern Colorado to Elephant Butte Reservoir in southern New Mexico. Over 100 samples of stream channel and reservoir bottom sediments were analyzed for the atom ratios of plutonium and uranium isotopes using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Comparison of these ratios against those for fallout or natural sources allowed for quantification of the Laboratory impact. Of the seven major drainages crossing LANL, movement of LANL plutonium into the Rio Grande can only be traced via Los Alamos Canyon. The majority of sampled locations within and adjacent to LANL have little or no input of plutonium from the Laboratory. Samples collected upstream and distant to L A N show an average (+ s.d.) fallout 240Pu/239Pauto m ratio of 0.169 + 0.012, consistent with published worldwide global fallout values. These regional background ratios differ significantly from the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of 0.015 that is representative of LANL-derived plutonium entering the Rio Grande at Los Alamos Canyon. Mixing calculations of these sources indicate that the largest proportion (60% to 90%) of the plutonium in the Rio Grande sediments is from global atmospheric fallout, with an average of about 25% from the Laboratory. The LANL plutonium is identifiable intermittently along the 35-km reach of the Rio Grande to Cochiti Reservoir. The source of the LANL-derived plutonium in the Rio Grande was traced primarily to pre-1960 discharges of liquid effluents into a canyon bottom at a distance approximately 20 km upstream of the river. Plutonium ...
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Gallaher, B. M. (Bruce M.) & Efurd, D. W. (Deward W.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neptunium redox behavior and solubility in J-13 conditions

Description: In order to confirm that the redox reaction Np(V) to Np(IV) may occur, studies are being conducted including exposure of Np(V) to solutions of known E{sub h} vs pH, temperature. Analytic results from ongoing solubility experiments from undersaturation, using Np solids formed in previous oversaturation experiments, are reported.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Efurd, D.W.; Runde, W. & Tait, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

Description: This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough`s Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 214}Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G. & Rokop, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium and Uranium Atom Ratios and Activity Levels in Cochiti Lake Bottom Sediments Provided by Pueblo de Cochiti

Description: Historical operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory have contaminated stream sediments with plutonium and other radionuclides. A small portion of these contaminated sediments has been carried by floods into the Rio Grande drainage system, eventually to be trapped by Cochiti Lake located on Pueblo de Cochiti lands approximately 8 km downstream of the Laboratory. In this study, lake bottom sediment samples provided by the Pueblo de Cochiti were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine plutonium and uranium activity levels and isotopic atom ratios. This specialized analytical method allows us to take isotopic fingerprints of radionuclides found in the sediment and to determine how much plutonium and uranium came from the Laboratory and how much was deposited by worldwide fallout or is natural. Two distinct types of samples were processed: segments of a continuous vertical core of the entire accumulated sediment sequence and other samples from across the lake bottom at the water/sediment interface. Based on measurement of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio, Laboratory-derived plutonium is present in eight of nine samples at the core site. On a depth-weighted basis, approximately one-half of the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu came from early operations at the Laboratory; the remaining plutonium came from fallout dispersed by above-ground nuclear tests. In contrast to the core site, the samples from the other locations showed little or no evidence of Laboratory-derived plutonium, with more than 90 percent of the plutonium attributable to fallout. The overall amount of plutonium in all the samples is of the same magnitude as other reservoirs in the region. The net increase in plutonium over upstream reservoirs unaffected by Laboratory activities is a maximum of 0.014 pCi/g or 3.5 times. All of the samples reflect natural uranium compositions. Laboratory-derived uranium is not identifiable, presumably because the sediment contains ...
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J. & Benjamin, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capability of environmental sampling to detect undeclared cask openings

Description: The goal of this study is to determine the signatures that would allow monitors to detect diversion of nuclear fuel (by a diverter) from a storage area such as a geological repository. Due to the complexity of operations surrounding disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository, there are several places that a diversion of fuel could take place. After the canister that contains the fuel rods is breached, the diverter would require a hot cell to process or repackage the fuel. A reference repository and possible diversion scenarios are discussed. When a canister is breached, or during reprocessing to extract nuclear weapons material (primarily Pu), several important isotopes or signatures including tritium, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I are released to the surrounding environment and have the potential for analysis. Estimates of release concentrations of the key signatures from the repository under a hypothetical diversion scenario are presented and discussed. Gas analysis data collected from above-ground storage casks at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) are included and discussed in the report. In addition, LANL participated in gas sampling of one TAN cask, the Castor V/21, in July 1997. Results of xenon analysis from the cask gas sample are presented and discussed. The importance of global fallout and recent commercial reprocessing activities and their effects on repository monitoring are discussed. Monitoring and instrumental equipment for analysis of the key signature isotopes are discussed along with limits of detection. A key factor in determining if diversion activities are in progress at a repository is the timeliness of detection and analysis of the signatures. Once a clandestine operation is suspected, analytical data should be collected as quickly as possible to support any evidence of diversion.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Beckstead, L.W.; Efurd, D.W.; Hemberger, P.H.; Abhold, M.E. & Eccleston, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

Description: For more than three decades, Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. By measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate that the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1,000-fold along a 3,000-ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory-derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicate off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M. & Stoker, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic signatures: An important tool in today`s world

Description: High-sensitivity/high-accuracy actinide measurement techniques developed to support weapons diagnostic capabilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now being used for environmental monitoring. The measurement techniques used are Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), Alpha Spectrometry(AS), and High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry(HRGS). These techniques are used to address a wide variety of actinide inventory issues: Environmental surveillance, site characterizations, food chain member determination, sedimentary records of activities, and treaty compliance concerns. As little as 10 femtograms of plutonium can be detected in samples and isotopic signatures determined on samples containing sub-100 femtogram amounts. Uranium, present in all environmental samples, can generally yield isotopic signatures of anthropogenic origin when present at the 40 picogam/gram level. Solid samples (soils, sediments, fauna, and tissue) can range from a few particles to several kilograms in size. Water samples can range from a few milliliters to as much as 200 liters.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Benjamin, T.M.; Cappis, J.H.; Chamberlin, J.W.; Poths, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of uranium in surface-waters collected at the Rocky Flats Facility

Description: The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility where plutonium and uranium components were manufactured for nuclear weapons. During plant operations radioactivity was inadvertently released into the environment. This study was initiated to characterize the uranium present in surface-waters at RFP. Three drainage basins and natural ephemeral streams transverse RFP. The Woman Creek drainage basin traverses and drains the southern portion of the site. The Rock Creek drainage basin drains the northwestern portion of the plant complex. The Walnut Creek drainage basin traverses the western, northern, and northeastern portions of the RFP site. Dams, detention ponds, diversion structures, and ditches have been constructed at RFP to control the release of plant discharges and surface (storm water) runoff. The ponds located downstream of the plant complex on North Walnut Creek are designated A-1 through A-4. Ponds on South Walnut Creek are designated B-1 through B-5. The ponds in the Woman Creek drainage basin are designated C-1 and C-2. Water samples were collected from each pond and the uranium was characterized by TIMS measurement techniques.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Efurd, D. W.; Rokop, D. J.; Aguilar, R. D.; Roensch, F. R.; Perrin, R. E. & Banar, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of uranium and plutonium in surface-waters and sediments collected at the Rocky Flats Facility

Description: This study was initiated to characterize actinides in environmental samples collected at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) measurement techniques were used to measure the plutonium and uranium content of water and sediment samples collected from the ponds used to control surface-waters on-site at RFP. TIMS was also used to separate the uranium into anthropogenic and naturally occurring components. The results of these studies are presented.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Efurd, D. W.; Rokop, D. J.; Aguilar, R. D.; Roensch, F. R.; Perrin, R. E. & Banar, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose Estimates from Ingestion of Marine and Terrestrial Animals Harvested in the Beaufort Sea and Northwestern Alaska

Description: Between 1993 and 1995, marine and terrestrial animal samples were collected from the Beaufort Sea and northwest Alaska. These samples were analyzed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the presence of the anthropogenic radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The measurement data were combined with food consumption rates based on survey results for populations residing in three northwest Alaskan communities and published age-dependent ingestion dose coefficients to estimate potential radiological impacts from the consumption of traditional animal foods harvested in this region. The results of this study indicate that committed equivalent doses to adults from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, due to consumption of traditional food sources are consistent with currently accepted estimates of average doses to adults in North America due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing fallout.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Inkret, W. C. T.; Schillaci, M. E.; Efurd, D. W.; Ennis, M. E.; Hameedi, M. J.; Inkret, J. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the uranium double spike technique for environmental monitoring

Description: Use of a uranium double spike in analysis of environmental samples showed that a {sup 235}U enrichment of 1% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00732) can be distinguished from natural ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00725). Experiments performed jointly at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used a carefully calibrated double spike of {sup 233}U and {sup 236}U to obtain much better precision than is possible using conventional analytical techniques. A variety of different sampling media (vegetation and swipes) showed that, provided sufficient care is exercised in choice of sample type, relative standard deviations of less than {+-} 0.5% can be routinely obtained. This ability, unavailable without use of the double spike, has enormous potential significance in the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Hemberger, P.H.; Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.; Smith, D.H.; Turner, M.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose Estimates from Ingestion of Marine and Terrestrial Animals Harvested in the Beaufort Sea and Northwestern Alaska

Description: Between 1993 and 1995, marine and terrestrial animal samples were collected from the Beaufort Sea and northwest Alaska. These samples were analyzed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the presence of the anthropogenic radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The measurement data were combined with food consumption rates based on survey results for populations residing in three northwest Alaskan communities and published age-dependent ingestion dose coefficients to estimate potential radiological impacts from the consumption of traditional animal foods harvested in this region. The results of this study indicate that committed equivalent doses to adults from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, due to consumption of traditional food sources are consistent with currently accepted estimates of average doses to adults in North America due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing fallout.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Inkret, W. C. T.; Schillaci, M. E.; Efurd, D. W.; Ennis, M. E.; Hameedi, M. J.; Inkret, J. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second interlaboratory comparison study for the analysis of 239Pu in synthetic urine at the microBq (-100 aCi) level by mass spectrometry

Description: As a follow up to the initial 1998 intercomparison study, a second study was initiated in 2001 as part of the ongoing evaluation of the capabilities of various ultra-sensitive methods to analyze {sup 239}Pu in urine samples. The initial study was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of International Health Programs to evaluate and validate new technologies that may supersede the existing fission tract analysis (FTA) method for the analysis of {sup 239}Pu in urine at the {micro}Bq/l level. The ultra-sensitive techniques evaluated in the second study included accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) by LLNL, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) by LANL and FTA by the University of Utah. Only the results for the mass spectrometric methods will be presented. For the second study, the testing levels were approximately 4, 9, 29 and 56 {micro}Bq of {sup 239}Pu per liter of synthetic urine. Each test sample also contained {sup 240}Pu at a {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio of {approx}0.15 and natural uranium at a concentration of 50 {micro}Bq/ml. From the results of the two studies, it can be inferred that the best performance at the {micro}Bq level is more laboratory specific than method specific. The second study demonstrated that LANL-TIMS and LLNL-AMS had essentially the same quantification level for both isotopes. Study results for bias and precision and acceptable performance compared to ANSI N13.30 and ANSI N42.22 have been compiled.
Date: January 28, 2005
Creator: McCurdy, D.; Lin, Z.; Inn, K. W.; Bell, R., III; Wagner, S.; Efurd, D. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the effectiveness of flocculation for removal of {sup 239}Pu at concentrations of 1 pCi/L and 0.1 pCi/L. RFP Pond Water Characterization and Treatment (LATO-EG&G-91-022): Task C deliverables: 5.1.2 and 5.2.2

Description: The objective of this work is to assess the effectiveness of flocculation for the removal of Pu from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) pond waters spiked with {sup 239}Pu at the 1.0 and 0.1 pCi/L level. The flocculation treatment procedure is described in detail. Results are presented for treatment studies for the removal of Pu from C-2 pond water spiked with {sup 239}Pu and from distilled water spiked with {sup 239}Pu.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Triay, I. R.; Bayhurst, G. K.; Mitchell, A. J.; Cisneros, M. R.; Efurd, D. W.; Roensch, F. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department