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Impact of state and federal law on development of geothermal resources in Texas. Project L/R-9, final report

Description: The significant geothermal resource in Texas consists of enormous reservoirs of hot, geopressed water, which formed along the Gulf Coast when water-laden sediments were deposited between surrounding impermeable features, so that the water which would otherwise have been forced out of the sediments was unable to escape. These deposits exist under tremendous pressure created by the weight of the overburden. A geopressure source absorbs heat indirectly, because the geopressured deposits create an insulating barrier that traps and absorbs the thermal energy of the underlying magma. The water from a geopressure source will not be as hot as water from a dry steam or wet steam source, but the quantity available is enormous, and the water pressure itself would be an additional energy source along with the thermal energy. The water may be fresh, or nearly so, and it will contain significant amounts of recoverable methane gas in solution. It may be possible to utilize the water pressure, thermal energy, and the methane gas to generate electricity in small power plants at the recovery site, and the water that has been passed through the turbines and heat exchangers may be a valuable by-product in itself, depending on its quality and regional demands for agriculture and industry. One of the impediments to the development of this resource, given the very sizable commitments of capital entailed, is the uncertain legal status of geothermal resources. This report attempts to locate geothermal resources within the general framework of Texas property law and to determine whether these resources can be developed under the law as it now exists. (MCW)
Date: October 31, 1974
Creator: Edwards, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

French intensive truck garden

Description: The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.
Date: unknown
Creator: Edwards, T.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

Description: The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.
Date: April 6, 1999
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of Total Error in DWPF Reported Radionuclide Inventories

Description: This report investigates the impact of random errors due to measurement and sampling on the reported concentrations of radionuclides in DWPF`s filled canister inventory resulting from each macro-batch. The objective of this investigation is to estimate the variance of the total error in reporting these radionuclide concentrations.
Date: February 28, 1995
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composition and property measurements for PHA Phase 4 glasses

Description: The results presented in this report are for nine Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) Phase 4 glasses. Three of the glasses contained HM sludge at 22, 26, and 30 wt% respectively, 10 wt% PHA and 1.25 wt% monosodium titanate (MST), all on an oxide basis. The remaining six glasses were selected from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies (Purex sludge) but with an increased amount of MST. The high-end target for MST of 2.5 wt% oxide was missed in Phases 1 and 2 due to {approximately}30 wt% water content of the MST. A goal of this Phase 4 study was to determine whether this increase in titanium concentration from the MST had any impact on glass quality or processibility. Two of the glasses, pha14c and pha15c, were rebatched and melted due to apparent batching errors with pha14 and pha15. The models currently in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) were used to predict durability, homogeneity, liquidus, and viscosity for these nine glasses. All of the HM glasses and half of the Purex glasses were predicted to be phase separated, and consequently prediction of glass durability is precluded with the cument models for those glasses that failed the homogeneity constraint. If one may ignore the homogeneity constraint, the measured durabilities were within the 95% prediction limits of the model. Further efforts will be required to resolve this issue on phase separation (inhomogeneity). The liquidus model predicted unacceptable liquidus temperatures for four of the nine glasses. The approximate, bounding liquidus temperatures measured for all had upper limits of 1,000 C or less. Given the fact that liquidus temperatures were only approximated, the 30 wt% loading of Purex may be near or at the edge of acceptability for liquidus. The measured viscosities were close to the predictions of ...
Date: January 25, 2000
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Cooling Rate on the Durability of CST Glasses: A Nonproprietary Summary

Description: This report is a modified version of WSRC-TR-2001-00124, Revision 0. Information related to the chemical compositions of the study glasses has been removed from this version. WSRC has submitted a patent application for the frit (designated as BD1) utilized in the study and is limiting the distribution of the details of the compositions of the study glasses to protect its intellectual property rights pending patent clearance.
Date: June 4, 2001
Creator: Edwards, T. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Statistical Review of Composition Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Macro-Batch 1

Description: The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of macro-batch 1 (MB1) at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) have been reviewed and compared in this report. Batches 22 through 93 were the focal point of this study. Statistical control charts were developed for each analyte for each vessel to identify influential or exceptional results in the variation, central tendency, or both for the measurements. These charts should serve as a basis for observing the (expected) impact of some decisions made during the processing of this macro-batch.
Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Cooling Rate on the Durability of PHA Glasses

Description: This study was conducted to determine the effect, if any, on the PCT responses of glasses cooled at different rates. Two bounding cooling profiles were used in this study: rapidly quenched and a canister centerline cooling curve. Glasses were selected based on a number of criteria, but mainly to challenge the regions where amorphous phase separation is expected based upon current model predictions. The current DWPF homogeneity constraint, imposed to preclude regions of phase separation, predicted that most of the glasses selected would be phase separated. It was, therefore, important to ensure that deleterious phase separation does not occur at either cooling profile. In this case, deleterious phase separation is defined as the formation of an amorphous phase in the glass that significantly decreases the glass durability as measured by the PCT response.
Date: June 4, 2001
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Software verification and validation for commercial statistical packages utilized by the statistical consulting section of SRTC

Description: The purpose of this report is to provide software verification and validation for the statistical packages used by the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River Technology Center. The need for this verification and validation stems from the requirements of the Quality Assurance programs that are frequently applicable to the work conducted by SCS. The IBM Personal Computer 300PL and 300XL are both Pentium II based desktops. Therefore the software verification and validation in this report is valid interchangeably between both platforms. As new computing platforms, statistical packages, or revisions to existing packages are reevaluated using these new tools, this report is to be revised to address their verification and validation.
Date: March 22, 2000
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A statistical review of the oxygen data from the gas generation tests supporting the revision of the 9975 SARP

Description: The Chemical and Hydrogen Technology Section (CHT) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has conducted a series of gas generation tests in support of the revision of the safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) for the 9975 container, developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Packaging and Transportation Group of SRTC is coordinating the revision to this SARP. A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan directing this work was issued by CHT in February 1999. Initially, the primary interest in this testing was hydrogen generation. From these ``gas generation tests can be tracked in real-time by measuring the pressure of a sealed container of the materials being studied. Because multiple gas phase reactions are produced in the radiation field of the sample, material pressure measurements do not necessarily define the quantity of H{sub 2} generated. However, the change in total molecules of gas can be calculated using the ideal gas law from the pressure measurement, known container volume and sample temperature. A measurement of the actual headspace gases must be completed to calculate the H{sub 2} generation rate for a particular sample.'' As the results from these tests were reviewed, however, questions arose regarding the oxygen in the headspace gases. Specifically, do the data from some tests indicate that oxygen was generated for those tests? And do the data for other tests indicate that the oxygen was depleted for them? A statistical analysis of the oxygen data derived from these tests is provided in this report to help answer these questions.
Date: January 20, 2000
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of vitrification factors from DWPF's macro-batch 1

Description: The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is evaluating new sampling and analytical methods that may be used to support future Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) batch acceptability decisions. This report uses data acquired during DWPF's processing of macro-batch 1 to determine a set of vitrification factors covering several SME and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batches. Such values are needed for converting the cation measurements derived from the new methods to a ``glass'' basis. The available data from macro-batch 1 were used to examine the stability of these vitrification factors, to estimate their uncertainty over the course of a macro-batch, and to provide a recommendation on the use of a single factor for an entire macro-batch. The report is in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-980015.
Date: January 25, 2000
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Software Verification and Validation for Commercial Statistical Packages Utilized by the Statistical Consulting Section of SRTC

Description: The purpose of this report is to provide software verification and validation (v and v) for the statistical packages utilized by the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The need for this v and v stems from the requirements of the Quality Assurance (QA) programs that are frequently applicable to the work conducted by SCS. This document is designed to comply with software QA requirements specified in the 1Q Manual Quality Assurance Procedure 20-1, Revision 6. Revision 1 of this QA plan adds JMP Version 4 to the family of (commercially-available) statistical tools utilized by SCS. JMP Version 3.2.2 is maintained as a support option due to features unique to this version of JMP that have not as yet been incorporated into Version 4. SCS documents that include JMP output should provide a clear indication of the version or versions of JMP that were used. The IBM Personal Computer 300PL and 300XL are both Pentium II based desktops. Therefore, th e software verification and validation in this report is valid interchangeably between both platforms. As new computing platforms, statistical packages, or revisions to existing packages are introduced into the Statistical Consulting Section, the appropriate problems from this report are to be re-evaluated, and this report is to be revised to address their verification and validation.
Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SME Acceptability Determination for DWPF Process Control

Description: This document has supported the technical basis for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of the Savannah River Site since the DWPF began radioactive operation in 1996. The purpose of this report is to provide the technical basis for the Product Composition Control System.
Date: December 13, 2002
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Decision Support Tool for Planning the Sampling of Tank 19

Description: The Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to develop a decision support system (DSS) to aid in the planning of the process to characterize the heel of Tank 19. This characterization is to be based on samples of the tank heel, and the DSS is to be used to help determine the number of samples that might be needed to provide a meaningful characterization based upon assumptions for relevant variations and volumes. The objective of this report is to describe the framework used to develop the DSS and to document its calculations. The DSS was developed as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Detailed input and output for two test cases are provided in the appendix as part of the documentation of this spreadsheet.
Date: June 3, 2002
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of total error in DWPF reported radionuclide inventories. Revision 1

Description: The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is required to determine and report the radionuclide inventory of its glass product. For each macro-batch, the DWPF will report both the total amount (in curies) of each reportable radionuclide and the average concentration (in curies/gram of glass) of each reportable radionuclide. The DWPF is to provide the estimated error of these reported values of its radionuclide inventory as well. The objective of this document is to provide a framework for determining the estimated error in DWPF`s reporting of these radionuclide inventories. This report investigates the impact of random errors due to measurement and sampling on the total amount of each reportable radionuclide in a given macro-batch. In addition, the impact of these measurement and sampling errors and process variation are evaluated to determine the uncertainty in the reported average concentrations of radionuclides in DWPF`s filled canister inventory resulting from each macro-batch.
Date: June 5, 1995
Creator: Edwards, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integration of the Uncertainties of Anion and TOC Measurements into the Flammability Control Strategy for Sludge Batch 8 at the DWPF

Description: The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of a flammability control strategy for DWPF’s melter operation during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). SRNL’s support has been in response to technical task requests that have been made by SRR’s Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) organization. The flammability control strategy relies on measurements that are performed on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples by the DWPF Laboratory. Measurements of nitrate, oxalate, formate, and total organic carbon (TOC) standards generated by the DWPF Laboratory are presented in this report, and an evaluation of the uncertainties of these measurements is provided. The impact of the uncertainties of these measurements on DWPF’s strategy for controlling melter flammability also is evaluated. The strategy includes monitoring each SME batch for its nitrate content and its TOC content relative to the nitrate content and relative to the antifoam additions made during the preparation of the SME batch. A linearized approach for monitoring the relationship between TOC and nitrate is developed, equations are provided that integrate the measurement uncertainties into the flammability control strategy, and sample calculations for these equations are shown to illustrate the impact of the uncertainties on the flammability control strategy.
Date: March 14, 2013
Creator: Edwards, T. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A REVIEW OF RECENT IMPURITY MEASUREMENTS OF LANL MATERIAL

Description: The Applied Computational Engineering and Statistics (ACES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to review recent measurements performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on material from that facility that is being considered for processing through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). There are specification limits for impurities in the feed to the MOX facility: a maximum limit and an exceptional limit. The limits for an impurity apply to the population of concentration values for that impurity for a class of material that is to be processed through MOX. For the purposes of this report, these limits were defined as follows. The concentration of an elemental impurity, expressed as micrograms of the element per gram of plutonium ({micro}g/g Pu), is to be no more than the maximum limit for that element for 98% of the material coming through MOX; that is, 98% of the material processed at MOX is to have a concentration of the given element less than the maximum limit. In addition, the concentration for a given element is to be no more than the exceptional limit for that element for 99.9% of the material processed through MOX. The measurements evaluated as part of this study included LANL blend lots 1 through 29 and cover carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and sulfur (S). Note that all of the measurements for each impurity were below their respective maximum (and obviously, therefore, their exceptional) limits. Thus, there is no immediate concern regarding the LANL material being suitable for processing through MOX. Two approaches were used to investigate the quantiles of the impurity populations. The first approach used was a nonparametric approach. While the results from this approach did not indicate any problems ...
Date: July 12, 2012
Creator: Edwards, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UNCERTAINTIES OF ANION AND TOC MEASUREMENTS AT THE DWPF LABORATORY

Description: The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has identified a technical issue related to the amount of antifoam added to the Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Specifically, due to the long duration of the concentration and reflux cycles for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), additional antifoam has been required. The additional antifoam has been found to impact the melter flammability analysis as an additional source of carbon and hydrogen. To better understand and control the carbon and hydrogen contributors to the melter flammability analysis, SRR's Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested, via a Technical Task Request (TTR), that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conduct an error evaluation of the measurements of key Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) anions. SRNL issued a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) [2] in response to that request, and the work reported here was conducted under the auspices of that TTQAP. The TTR instructs SRNL to conduct an error evaluation of anion measurements generated by the DWPF Laboratory using Ion Chromatography (IC) performed on SME samples. The anions of interest include nitrate, oxalate, and formate. Recent measurements of SME samples for these anions as well as measurements of total organic carbon (TOC) were provided to SRNL by DWPF Laboratory Operations (Lab OPS) personnel for this evaluation. This work was closely coordinated with the efforts of others within SRNL that are investigating the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) contributions to the melter flammability. The objective of that investigation was to develop a more comprehensive melter flammability control strategy that when implemented in DWPF will rely on process measurements. Accounting for the uncertainty of the measurements is necessary for successful implementation. The error evaluations conducted as part of this task will facilitate the integration of appropriate uncertainties for the measurements utilized in that ...
Date: April 7, 2011
Creator: Edwards, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department