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The hydraulic fracturing of geothermal formations

Description: Hydraulic fracturing has been attempted in geothermal formations as a means to stimulate both production and injection wells. Since most geothermal formations contain fissures and on occasion massive natural fissures, the production behavior of the man-made fractures results in certain characteristic trends. A model is offered that allows the presence of a finite or infinite conductivity fracture intercepting a fissured medium. The method is based on a numerical discretization of the formation allowing transient interporosity flow. Type curves for pressure drawdown and cumulative production are given for infinite acting and closed reservoirs. Since most of the fissured formations exhibit a degree of anisotropy, the effects of the orientation of the hydraulic fracture with respect to the fissure planes, and of the ratio between the directional permeabilities are then discussed. Guidelines are offered as to the size of appropriate stimulation treatments based on the observed fissured behavior of the reservoir.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Naceur, K. Ben; Economides, M.J. & Schlumberger, Dowell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Analysis of an extended flow test of well ST-1 on the flanks of Makushin Volcano indicates an extensive, water-dominated, naturally fractured reservoir. The reservoir appears to be capable of delivering extremely large flows when tapped by full-size production wells. A productivity index in excess of 30,000 lb/hr/psi implies a phenomenal permeability-thickness product, in the range of 500,000 to 1,000,000 md-ft. The flowing bottomhole (1,949-foot) temperature of the fluid is 379 F, which is lower than the measured static temperature at that depth (395 F). This phenomenon, coupled with an observed static temperature gradient reversal from the maximum 399 F observed at 1,500 feet, indicates that the reservoir proper is located some distance from the well. presumably it is at a temperature slightly lower than 379 F and communicates with the wellbore via a high conductivity fracture system. A material balance calculation yields an estimate of reserves that are capable of sustaining all of the present power needs of the island (13 {+-} MW peak) with a geothermal power plant for several hundred years. Theoretically, a single large diameter well at the site of ST-1 could satisfy this requirement.
Date: January 22, 1985
Creator: Economides, M.J.; Morris, C.W. & Campbell, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma scale chemistry progress report

Description: This report considers the work done during the year ending June 30, 1948, present work being done and future plans on the determination of formulas, methods of preparation, and properties of as many compounds of postum as possible. An experimental approach to such a research problem on the element postum requires that procedures which may be used deal with ultramicro quantities of material. Such procedures on an ultramicro or gamma scale require special techniques by personnel trained in manipulating these small quantities of radioactive material. Equipment which may be used varies with the experiment considered. Often new apparatus must be developed or equipment previously developed and used in some other experiment must be modified. This generalized research problem is subdivided in the {open_quotes}Research Problems Outline{close_quotes}. The presentation of a survey of these research problems with reference to the outline for the year ending June 30, 1948 is a critical review of the work done by the Gamma Scale Chemistry Group as well as a consideration of future plans. The course which these future plans may follow will depend upon information which may be obtained when carrying out planned experiments.
Date: June 1, 1948
Creator: Economides, M.; Estabrook, E. & Joy, E.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resource Evaluation and Development Plans for a 120 MW Geothermal Power Plant on Milos Island, Greece

Description: Five deep wells have been drilled on the Island of Milos, Greece, identifying a high-temperature, high-enthalpy geothermal reservoir. The thermodynamic properties of the fluid, and the estimated porosity and presumed thickness of the formation suggest a fluid and heat storage capacity that could support a 60 MWe power plant for 85 years or a 120 MWe for half that time. The existing five wells can deliver 180 t/h of steam at 10 bar abs pressure, capable of generating a maximum electric power output of slightly less than 20 MWe. This paper describes the geology, the drilling and the well testing results pertaining to the five wells, and discusses the reservoir potential for a 60 MWe geothermal power plant.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Economides, M. J.; Ehlig-Economides, C. A.; Speliotis, G. & Vrouzi, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure drawdown analysis for the Travale 22 well

Description: This work presents preliminary results on the analysis of drawdown data for Travale 22. Both wellhead pressure and flow rate data were recorded in this well for over a period of almost two years. In the past, Barelli et al. (1975) and Atkinson et al. (1977) presented the analysis of five pressure buildup tests. Figure 1 shows the Horner plot for these cases. They found that to have a good match in all cases, it was necessary to assume that the Travale 22 well is intersected by a partially penetrating vertical fracture in a parallel-piped whose bottom side is maintained at constant pressure (boiling front), as shown in Fig. 2. Atkinson et al. also presented an analysis for a pressure interface test run in the Travale-Radicondoli area. In this case, the Travale 22 well was flowing and the pressure recorded at wells R1, R3, R5, R6, R9, and Chl (see Fig. 3 ) . Analysis of these data showed that pressure interference in this reservoir can be matched by considering pure linear flow (Figs. 4 and 5 ) . This indicated the possible presence of a vertical fracture intersecting the Travale 22 well. It was determined that fracture is oriented along the N73{sup o}W direction. In addition, the pressure interference data showed that no boundary exists within 2 kilometers from the fracture plane. It was mentioned that linear flow should take place in both horizontal and vertical directions.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Barelli, A.; Brigham, W.E.; Cinco, H.; Economides, M.; Miller, F.G.; Ramey, H.J., Jr. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department