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FINAL REPORT - CENTER FOR GRID MODERNIZATION

Description: The objective of the CGM was to develop high-priority grid modernization technologies in advanced sensors, communications, controls and smart systems to enable use of real-time or near real-time information for monitoring, analyzing and managing distribution and transmission grid conditions. The key strategic approach to carry out individual CGM research and development (R&D) projects was through partnerships, primarily with the GridApp™ Consortium utility members.
Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Markiewicz, Daniel R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cycling of DOC and DON by Novel Heterotrophic and Photoheterotrophic Bacteria in the Ocean: Final Report

Description: The flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) through aquatic bacterial communities is a major process in carbon cycling in the oceans and other aquatic systems. Our work addressed the general hypothesis that the phylogenetic make-up of bacterial communities and the abundances of key types of bacteria are important factors influencing the processing of DOM in aquatic ecosystems. Since most bacteria are not easily cultivated, the phylogenetic diversity of these microbes has to be assessed using culture-independent approaches. Even if the relevant bacteria were cultivated, their activity in the lab would likely differ from that under environmental conditions. This project found variation in DOM uptake by the major bacterial groups found in coastal waters. In brief, the data suggest substantial differences among groups in the use of high and molecular weight DOM components. It also made key discoveries about the role of light in affecting this uptake especially by cyanobacteria. In the North Atlantic Ocean, for example, over half of the light-stimulated uptake was by the coccoid cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, with the remaining uptake due to Synechococcus and other photoheterotrophic bacteria. The project also examined in detail the degradation of one organic matter component, chitin, which is often said to be the second most abundant compound in the biosphere. The findings of this project contribute to our understanding of DOM fluxes and microbial dynamics supported by those fluxes. It is possible that these findings will lead to improvements in models of the carbon cycle that have compartments for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the largest pool of organic carbon in the oceans.
Date: December 9, 2008
Creator: Kirchman, David L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Technologies for Decontamination of Crated Large Metal Objects LANL Release No: LA-UR-02-0072

Description: The Los Alamos Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) is identifying and demonstrating technologies to reduce the cost and risk of management of transuranic element contaminated large metal objects, i.e. gloveboxes. The previously conducted demonstrations supported characterization and ''front end'' aspects of the Los Alamos Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) project. The first demonstration was shown to save the DVRS project approximately $200,000 per year and characterization technologies have been estimated to save DVRS a month of DVRS operation per year. In FY01 demonstrations for decontamination technologies, communication systems, and waste data collection systems have provided additional savings equivalent to another $200K per year of operation. The Los Alamos Large Scale demonstration and Deployment Project continues to provide substantial cost savings to the DVRS process in this second round of demonstrations. DVRS cost savings of $400K per year can now be counted, with additional efficiency savings of up to 30% on many tasks.
Date: February 26, 2002
Creator: McFee, J.; Stallings, E. & Barbour, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shortwave Spectroradiometer (SWS) Handbook

Description: The Shortwave Spectroradiometer (SWS), measures the absolute visible and near infrared spectralradiance (units of watts per meter square per nanometer per steradian) of the zenith directly above the instrument. The SWS is a moderate resolution sensor comprised of two Zeiss spectrometers (MMS 1 NIR enhanced and NIR-PGS 2.2) for visible and near-infrared detection in the wavelength range 350 – 2170 nm. The sampling frequency is 1 Hz. The spectral resolution is 8 nm for the MMS 1 NIR and 12 nm for the NIR-PGS 2.2. The light collector is a narrow field of view (1.4°) collimator at the front end of a high-grade custom-made fiber optic bundle. The SWS does daily daytime measurements. The SWS is located in a darkroom, constructed by Southern Great Plains (SGP) site personnel within the optical trailer, to permit calibrations to be conducted without the necessity of moving the instrument to a different location. Calibrations are performed at regularly scheduled times using the ARM 12” integrating sphere.
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Pilewskie, P & Pommier, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Shortwave (SW) Clear-Sky Detection and Fitting Algorithm: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations

Description: This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for detecting clear skies and fitting clear-sky shortwave (SW) functions described in Long and Ackerman (2000). This algorithm forms the basis of the ARM SW FLUX ANAL 1Long VAP. In the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) case, the value added procedures (VAP) can be described as having three parts: a “front end,” a “black box,” and a “back end.” The “front end” handles the file management of the processing, what range of data files to process in the run, which configuration file to use for each site, extracting the data from the ARM NetCDF files into an ASCII format for the code to process, etc. The “back end” produces ARM-format NetCDF files of the output and other file management. The “black box” is the processing code(s), and is what is discussed in this document. Details on the “front” and “back” ends of the ARM VAP are presented elsewhere.
Date: January 31, 2004
Creator: Long, CN & Gaustad, KL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

Description: This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.
Date: May 4, 2011
Creator: Dupont, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstrating and Deploying Private Sector Technologies at DOE Sites - Issues to be Overcome

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) continues to pursue cost-effective, environmental cleanup of the weapons complex sites with a concomitant emphasis on deployment of innovative technologies as a means to this end. The EM Office of Science and Technology (OST) pursues a strategy that entails identification of technologies that have potential applications throughout the DOE complex: at multiple DOE sites and at multiple facilities on those sites. It further encourages a competitive procurement process for the various applications entailed in the remediation of a given facility. These strategies require a competitive private-sector supplier base to help meet EM needs. OST supports technology development and deployment through investments in partnerships with private industry to enhance the acceptance of their technology products within the DOE market. Since 1992, OST and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have supported the re search and development of technology products and services offered by the private sector. During this time, NETL has managed over 140 research and development projects involving industrial and university partners. These projects involve research in a broad range of EM related topics, including deactivation and decommissioning, characterization, monitoring, sensors, waste separation, groundwater remediation, robotics, and mixed waste treatment. Successful partnerships between DOE and Industry have resulted in viable options for EM's cleanup needs, and require continued marketing efforts to ensure that these technology solutions are used at multiple DOE sites and facilities.
Date: February 27, 2002
Creator: Bedick, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D&D

Description: The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D&D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D&D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance & monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D&D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D&D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D&D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost-savings. This paper will discuss the development of technologies currently modified with sensor technology by the TDID group, from conceptual design to Deployment at a DOE or commercial nuclear facility. Cost information associated with the respective technology will also be ...
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Varona, J. M. & Lagos, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EM Safety Innovations Aim Toward Safer Technologies and Better Information for Users

Description: Beginning in 2000, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Technology (OST) has substantially re-examined and improved our approach to worker safety and health. Consistent with OST's responsibilities for safety, these initiatives can be categorized generally as: (1) Making our technologies inherently safer to use; and (2) Providing useful safety and health information about our technologies to the sites and technology operators. This evolved through a collaborative process by the EM Office of Safety, Health and Security, the EM Office of Science and Technology, EM Focus Areas and others. It was, initially, largely in response to a set of eight recommendations by the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB) and to lessons learned from a serious accident in August, 2000 involving an OST-funded new technology. The cornerstone of this effort is the Policy for Occupational Safety and Health in EM's Science and Technology Program, issued in January 2001. DOE Focus Areas are focusing more attention on worker safety and health in their solicitations and procurement documents for new technology research and development (R&D) projects. EM Headquarters is working with Focus Areas, site environmental contractors, technology developers, and their respective DOE field organizations to ensure that roles and responsibilities for worker safety and health are clearly defined when a new technology is demonstrated at an environmental management site. The peer review process administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) now requires technology developers to think through their approach to safety and health in a more detailed, focused way than previously. In Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs), developers are comparing their new technologies to baseline technologies on the basis of safety and health. Technology Safety Data Sheets (TSDSs) are being prepared for new technologies when they reach the appropriate stage of development.
Date: February 26, 2002
Creator: Lankford, M.; Geiger, J. & Carpenter, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCNP Analysis and Optimization of a Triple Crystal Phoswich Detector

Description: Researchers at the University of Missouri-Columbia have designed a triple crystal phoswich detector that allows for simultaneous detection of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. A ZnS:Ag layer detects alpha particles, a CaF2:Eu scintillator preferentially interacts with beta particles, and a NaI:Tl cell is used for gamma detection. The detector output is digitally collected, processed, and analyzed by a personal computer using custom software. MCNP simulations of this detector found that the phoswich design has inherent minimum energy limits of 250 keV Emax for beta particles and 50 keV for gamma-rays. For a 2.54 cm thick NaI:Tl crystal, intrinsic gamma efficiency for photons ranges from a maximum of 80% at 100 keV to 26% for 2 MeV photons. Mischaracterized gamma events in the CaF2:Eu crystal above 175 keV can be corrected by subtracting 26 +/- 4% of the total number of counts in the NaI:Tl crystal from the CaF2:Eu response. Beta induced events in the NaI:Tl crystal primarily result from Bremsstrahlung interactions and can be estimated by multiplying the CaF2:Eu energy spectrum by a normalizing factor.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Miller, William H. & Childress, Nathan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCNP Analysis of a Phoswich Detector

Description: A series of triple crystal phosphor sandwich detectors have been developed and constructed for testing at the University of Missouri-Columbia [1-7]. These detectors can simultaneously measure alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and utilize digital pulse shape discrimination to identify and separate radiation events coming from each of the separate phosphors. The research reported here uses Monte Carlo [8] software analysis to determine operating parameters for this detector system and optimizes its design for measuring trace amounts of alpha, beta and gamma-ray activity in effluent streams from nuclear waste cleanup processes. The previously designed, fabricated and tested phoswich detector [5] consisted of three scintillators placed on top of each other with a common diameter of 5.08 cm and viewed with a single photomultiplier tube. The scintillators (ZnS-0.00376 cm, CaF{sub 2}-0.254 cm and NaI-2.54 cm) interact preferentially with alpha, beta and gamma-ray radiation, respectively. This design allows preferential, but not exclusive, interaction of various radiations with specific layers. Taking into account and correcting for events that can occur in the ''wrong'' phosphor, this system was experimentally shown to have a 99% accuracy for properly identifying radiation coming from a mixed alpha/beta/gamma-ray source. In an attempt to better understand this system and provide design guidance for a detector system to be used in monitoring effluents from nuclear waste treatment facilities, this detector was modeled using MCNP [8]. This analysis [9] indicated that the thin ZnS layer adequately stops alpha particle energy, but greatly reduces beta detection efficiency to essentially zero at beta E{sub max} energies below 300 keV. The CaF{sub 2} layer, designed to keep any beta particle energy from entering the NaI detector results in an incorrect gamma-ray response that is approximately 23% of the NaI's response and is variable with energy. High energy beta events in the CaF{sub 2} can lead ...
Date: June 12, 2002
Creator: Childress, Nathan & Miller, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UTILIZATION OF PHOSWICH DETECTORS FOR SIMULTANEOUS, MULTIPLE RADIATION DETECTION

Description: A phoswich radiation detector is comprised of a phosphor sandwich in which several different phosphors are viewed by a common photomultiplier. By selecting the appropriate phosphors, this system can be used to simultaneously measure multiple radiation types (alpha, beta, gamma and/or neutron) with a single detector. Differentiation between the signals from the different phosphors is accomplished using digital pulse shape discrimination techniques. This method has been shown to result in accurate discrimination with highly reliable and versatile digital systems. This system also requires minimal component count (i.e. only the detector and a computer for signal processing). A variety of detectors of this type have been built and tested including: (1) a triple phoswich system for alpha/beta/gamma swipe counting, (2) two well-type detectors for measuring low levels of low energy photons in the presence of a high energy background, (3) a large area detector for measuring beta contamination in the presence of a photon background, (4) another large area detector for measuring low energy photons from radioactive elements such as uranium in the presence of a photon background. An annular geometry, triple phoswich system optimized for measuring alpha/beta/gamma radiation in liquid waste processing streams is currently being designed.
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Miller, William H. & Leon, Manuel Diaz de
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive Study of the Solubility, Thermochemistry, Ion Exchange, and Precipitation Kinetics of NO3 Cancrinite and NO33 Sodalite

Description: The precipitation of aluminosilicate phases from caustic nuclear wastes has proven to be problematic in a number of processes including radionuclide separations (cementation of columns by aluminosilicate phases), tank emptying (aluminosilicate tank heels), and condensation of wastes in evaporators (aluminosilicate precipitates in the evaporators, providing nucleation sites for growth of critical masses of radioactive actinide salts). In a collaboration between SNL and UCD, we have investigated why and how these phases form, and which conditions favor the formation of which phases. These studies have involved synthesis and characterization of aluminosilicate phases formed using a variety of synthesis techniques, kinetics of precipitation, structural investigations of aluminosilicate phases, thermodynamic calculations of aluminosilicate solubility, calorimetric studies of aluminosilicate precipitation, and a limited investigation of radionuclide partitioning and ion exchange processes (involving typical tank fluid chemistries and these materials). The predominant phases that are observed in the aluminosilicate precipitates from basic tanks wastes (i.e. Hanford, Savannah River Site ''SRS'' wastes) are the salt enclathrated zeolites: sodium nitrate, sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide sodalite and cancrinite. These phases precipitate readily from the high ionic strength, highly basic solutions at ambient temperatures as well as at elevated temperatures, with or without the presence of an external Al and Si source (both are contained in the waste solutions), and upon interactions with reactive soil components such as clays.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Navrotsky, Alexandra & Liu, Qinyuan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing the attitudes and understanding of participants in Nugene: Impacts on informed consent for a large-scale DNA research and banking project

Description: Genetic databases are generally created with the long-term goal of establishing genotype-phenotype correlations, and are explicitly NOT intended for participant benefit through the personal receipt of genetic information. In fact, most well-known genetic databases are set up to preclude the recontact of participants, both to protect confidentiality and because any genetic discoveries will likely have unclear implications in the near future. Issues of recontact and sample use raise significant issues around the informed consent process for such genetic databases. The NUgene study is a longitudinal genetic database at Northwestern University created to assess the genetic components of common diseases. In summer 2001, prior to the start of NUgene recruitment, a planning committee met for over one year to discuss the project's format, including ethical aspects. The project's advisory committee felt strongly that recontact of study participants was not warranted. However, because of the broad and longitudinal nature of the project, the IRB requested a modified consent process for recontacting subjects. This consent allowed participants to opt for recontact under either of the following circumstances: (1) if more information was required for a future study or to participate in future research and (2) if ''clinically significant results'' were discovered through research examination. During the first year of the study, 808 participants were enrolled in NUgene. 92% opted for recontact regarding more information or future research and 96% opted for recontact for ''medically significant'' findings. The current DOE funded study of NUgene participants examined informed consent, including recontact options. In November 2002, the NUgene project began recruiting for a large, longitudinal genetic database; concurrent with NUgene enrollment, we solicited 200 participants for interviews to address attitudes about participation in NUgene in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Demographic data on these subjects was representative of the participants in the overall NUgene project. ...
Date: January 20, 2005
Creator: Ormond, Kelly E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

Description: Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.
Date: August 17, 2004
Creator: Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

Description: During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general public benefits indirectly. The original intent of this ...
Date: April 14, 2006
Creator: DuBois, Robert D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SEPRADYNE/REDUCE HIGH VACUUM THERMAL PROCESS FOR DESTRUCTION OF DIOXINS IN INEEL/WERF FLY ASH.

Description: This study investigated the use of an indirectly heated, high temperature (900 C), high vacuum (28'' Hg) rotary kiln, developed and patented by Raduce, Inc. (subsidiary of Sepradyne Corp.), to treat a dioxin contaminated mixed waste incinerator ash from the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). A 500 cm{sup 3} bench-scale rotary vacuum thermal desorption and destruction unit (DDU) was used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to demonstrate this thermal treatment process. Dioxins and furans were successfully decomposed at both low (450 C) and high (700-800 C) temperature regimes. In addition, substantial volume and mass reduction of the ash was achieved. Stabilization of the nonvolatile residues by a post-treatment encapsulation process may be required to reduce the leachability of RCRA metals to levels below the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements.
Date: August 2, 1999
Creator: ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D. & MALKMUS,D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

Description: One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is ...
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Drover, Damion, Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report for Phase I Award DE-SC0003559

Description: The Smart Grid opens the door to the development of many companion technologies which will in turn enable the development of a variety of devices for household electricity-consuming appliances that can communicate with it; especially, many major appliance manufacturers (such as Whirlpool and General Electric) have made public commitments to design their appliances to be Smart Grid-compatible over the next several years. Yet during that same time period, customers will purchase many millions of long-lasting appliances which are not compatible with the Smart Grid. This research project's purpose is to bring significant Smart Grid compatibility to previously-installed appliances that were not specifically designed for any Smart Grid communications, in a way that is both economical and attractive for users who want to share in the energy cost savings and reduction of peak power demand opportunities provided by the evolving Smart Grid infrastructure. The focus of this effort is to identify and research smart control solutions which take advantage of the effective strategies of demand-response (DR) communications from utilities [including time-of-day (TOD) and peak-demand pricing options] and function apart from any need for operational changes to be designed into the non-smart appliances. Our Phase I concepts promote technological advancements for enabling devices that shift the available-use time of millions of different appliances which otherwise have no Smart Grid capability. We researched low-cost microcontroller-based ways of creating devices with the ability to: (1) maintain an accurate time and day (with no need for battery backup throughout a power outage); (2) perform two-way wired and wireless communications directly with the utility company's demand management signals, to identify both low-cost time periods as well as critical-reduction periods when the cost of energy use would otherwise be much higher; (3) measure the power usage of the connected non-smart appliance; and (4) remove power for a ...
Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Blair, Jeff L. & Glenn, Lee J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department