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Effect of material heterogeneities on flow through porous media

Description: Yucca Mountain, located in southwestern Nevada, is the site for a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. The hydrologic units at Yucca Mountain appear to have quite different material characteristics. Additionally, measurements show that the material properties within each hydrologic unit vary significantly. Rock core samples taken from this site indicate that the volcanic tuff is highly fractured and nonhomogeneous. Modeling studies were conducted to determine the effects of material heterogeneities on the flow of water through rock. Multiple numerical calculations were made using random variations in spatial distributions of material properties. The results of these material variations on flow resistance, mechanical dispersion, and channeling were determined. Computed results were compared with a linear analytical model. Good agreement was obtained in the majority of the flow cases investigated.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Eaton, R.R. & Dykhuizen, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater flow code verification ``benchmarking`` activity (COVE-2A): Analysis of participants` work

Description: The Nuclear Waste Repository Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is investigating the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for underground burial of nuclear wastes. One element of the investigations is to assess the potential long-term effects of groundwater flow on the integrity of a potential repository. A number of computer codes are being used to model groundwater flow through geologic media in which the potential repository would be located. These codes compute numerical solutions for problems that are usually analytically intractable. Consequently, independent confirmation of the correctness of the solution is often not possible. Code verification is a process that permits the determination of the numerical accuracy of codes by comparing the results of several numerical solutions for the same problem. The international nuclear waste research community uses benchmarking for intercomparisons that partially satisfy the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) definition of code verification. This report presents the results from the COVE-2A (Code Verification) project, which is a subset of the COVE project.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Dykhuizen, R.C. & Barnard, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PACE-90 water and solute transport calculations for 0.01, 0.1, and 0. 5 mm/yr infiltration into Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

Description: Numerical results are presented for the Performance Assessment Calculational Exercise (PACE-90). One- and two-dimensional water and solute transport are presented for steady infiltration into Yucca Mountain. Evenly distributed infiltration rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mm/yr were considered. The calculations of solute transport show that significant amounts of radionuclides can reach the water table over 100,000 yr at the 0.5 mm/yr rate. For time periods less than 10,000 yr or infiltrations less than 0.1 mm/yr very little solute reaches the water table. The numerical simulations clearly demonstrate that multi-dimensional effects can result in significant decreases in the travel time of solute through the modeled domain. Dual continuum effects are shown to be negligible for the low steady state fluxes considered. However, material heterogeneities may cause local amplification of the flux level in multi-dimensional flows. These higher flux levels may then require modeling of a dual continuum porous medium.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Dykhuizen, R. C.; Eaton, R. R.; Hopkins, P. L. & Martinez, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model predictions of dynamic instability threshold for boiling flow systems

Description: Boiling flow systems such as boiling water nuclear reactors and once-through steam generators may be susceptible to dynamic instabilities of various types. The most common among these is a low frequency (0.1 to 2 Hz, typically) oscillatory flow instability of the limit-cycle type termed ''density-wave oscillations (DWO)''. In the present paper, two different computer models have been used to predict the DWO threshold power input for various operating conditions of an experimental system which features an electrically-heated test section assembly and water as the experimental fluid. One of the models, a frequency-domain model, has been in use for quite some time in the nuclear industry. The other is an improved version of a time-domain two-fluid model proposed by us recently.
Date: December 1, 1984
Creator: Roy, R.P.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; France, D.M. & Kalra, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle Velocity and Deposition Efficiency in the Cold Spray Process

Description: Copper powder was sprayed by the cold-gas dynamic method. In-flight particle velocities were measured with a laser-two-focus system as a function of process parameters such as gas temperature, gas pressure, and powder feed rate. Particle velocities were uniform in a relatively large volume within the plume and agreed with theoretical predictions. The presence of the substrate was found to have no significant effect on particle velocities. Cold-spray deposition efficiencies were measured on aluminum substrates as a function of particle velocity and incident angle of the plume. Deposition efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved. The critical velocity for deposition was determined to be about 640 meters per second. This work investigates both the in-flight characteristics of copper particles in a supersonic cold-spray plume and the build-up of the subsequent coating on aluminum substrates. Velocities were found to be relatively constant within a large volume of the plume. Particle counts dropped off sharply away from the central axis. The presence of a substrate was found to have no effect on the velocity of the particles. A substantial mass-loading effect on the particle velocity was observed; particle velocities begin to drop as the mass ratio of powder to gas flow rates exceeds 3%. The measured variation of velocity with gas pressure and pre-heat temperature was in fairly good agreement with theoretical predictions. Helium may be used as the driving gas instead of air in order to achieve higher particle velocities for a given temperature and pressure. Coating deposition efficiencies were found to increase with particle velocity and decrease with gun- substrate angle. There did not appear to be any dependence of the deposition efficiency on coating thickness. A critical velocity for deposition of about 640 mk appears to fit the data well. The cold-spray technique shows promise as a method for the ...
Date: November 12, 1998
Creator: Dykhuizen, R.C.; Gilmore, D.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J. & Smith, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxidation in HVOF-sprayed steel

Description: It is widely held that most of the oxidation in thermally sprayed coatings occurs on the surface of the droplet after it has flattened. The evidence in this paper suggests that, for the conditions studied here, oxidation of the top surface of flattened droplets is not the dominant oxidation mechanism. In this study, a mild steel wire (AISI 1025) was sprayed using a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) torch onto copper and aluminum substrates. Ion milling and Auger spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of oxides within individual splats. Conventional metallographic analysis was also used to study oxide distributions within coatings that were sprayed under the same conditions. An analytical model for oxidation of the exposed surface of a splat is presented. Based on literature data, the model assumes that diffusion of iron through a solid FeO layer is the rate limiting factor in forming the oxide on the top surface of a splat. An FeO layer only a few thousandths of a micron thick is predicted to form on the splat surface as it cools. However, the experimental evidence shows that the oxide layers are typically 100x thicker than the predicted value. These thick, oxide layers are not always observed on the top surface of a splat. Indeed, in some instances the oxide layer is on the bottom, and the metal is on the top. The observed oxide distributions are more consistently explained if most of the oxide formed before the droplets impact the substrate.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Smith, M. F.; Neiser, R. A. & Dykhuizen, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transformation kinetics in controlled-power and controlled-temperature cycle testing

Description: On-heating transformation kinetics were investigated for several steels by using a Gleeble capable of programmable power input as well as programmable temperature cycling. Transformation kinetics determined in both modes are reported. The temperature cycles are significantly different between the two modes due to the latent heat associated with the phase transformations. Both diffusion rates and transformation driving force increase with temperature above the eutectoid temperature, therefore the latent heat can potentially have a significant impact on the transformation kinetics. Experiments with plain carbon steels illustrate that the latent heat of austenite formation causes an appreciable temperature arrest during transformation, and the dilatation response is similarly altered. A kinetic transformation model, based on the decomposition of pearlite and the diffusional growth of austenite, reproduced the transient dilatation data obtained from both control modes reasonably well using the same kinetic parameter values.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Robino, C.V.; Knorovsky, G.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; MacCallum, D.O. & Damkroger, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Hight Velocity Cold Spray Particles

Description: This paper presents experimental data and an computational model of the cold spray solid particle impact process. Copper particles impacting onto a polished stainless steel substrate are examined. The high velocity impact causes significant plastic deformation of both the particle and the sub- strate, but no melting is observed. The plastic deformation exposes clean surfaces that, under the high impact pressures, result in significant bond strengths between the particle and substrate. Experimental measurements of the splat and crater sizes compare well with the numerical calculations. It is shown that the crater depth is significant and increases with impact velocity. However, the splat diameter is much less sensitive to the impact velocity. It is also shown that the geometric lengths of the splat and crater scale linearly with the diameter of the impacting particle. It is hoped that the results presented will allow better understanding of the bonding process during cold spray.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Dykhuizen, R.C.; Gilmore, D.L.; Jiang, X.; Neiser, R.A.; Sampath, S. & Smith, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dilatometry in the Gleeble: What did you really measure?

Description: The Gleeble is an oft-used tool for welding metallurgy research. Besides producing synthetic weld specimens, it is used to determine phase transformation temperatures and kinetics via dilatometry. Experimental data and an FEM model are used to examine measured dilatation errors because of non-uniform heating of the dilatometer and other sources such as sample elastic and plastic deformation. Both isothermal and constant heating/cooling rate scenarios are considered. Further errors which may be introduced when the dilatation is incorrectly assumed to be linearly related to the volume fraction transformed are also discussed.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Knorovsky, G.A.; Robino, C.V.; Dykhuizen, R.C. & MacCallum, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department