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Energy Distribution of Sputtered Neutral Atoms from a Multilayer Target

Description: Energy distribution measurements of sputtered neutral particles contribute to the general knowledge of sputtering, a common technique for surface analysis. In this work emphasis was placed on the measurement of energy distribution of sputtered neutral atoms from different depths. The liquid Ga-In eutectic alloy as a sample target for this study was ideal due to an extreme concentration ratio gradient between the top two monolayers. In pursuing this study, the method of sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS) was utilized. SIRIS employs a pulsed ion beam to initiate sputtering and tunable dye lasers for resonance ionization. Observation of the energy distribution was achieved with a position-sensitive detector. The principle behind the detector's energy resolution is time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For this specific detector, programmed time intervals between the sputtering pulse at the target and the ionizing laser pulse provided information leading to the energy distribution of the secondary neutral particles. This experiment contributes data for energy distributions of sputtered neutral particles to the experimental database, required by theoretical models and computer simulations for the sputtering phenomenon.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Bigelow, Alan W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Angular Distribution and Total Flux of Neutrons Obtained from the Deuterium-Tritium Reaction

Description: Mono-energetic neutrons have been produced with the low-voltage Cockroft-Walton accelerator at North Texas State College using two different reactions. It is the purpose of this paper to report the angular distribution and total flux of the neutrons obtained from the T(D,n) reaction.
Date: 1956
Creator: Duggan, Jerome L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

M-shell x-ray production cross sections in thin targets of ₇₉Au, ₈₂Pb, ₈₃Bi, and ₉₂U by 0.3 - 2.6-MeV ₁¹H+ and ₂⁴He+ ions

Description: Article discussing M-shell x-ray-production cross sections in thin targets of ₇₉Au, ₈₂Pb, ₈₃Bi, and ₉₂U by 0.3 - 2.6-MeV ₁⁴H+ and ₂⁴He+ ions.
Date: October 1982
Creator: Mehta, R.; Duggan, Jerome L.; Price, J. L.; McDaniel, Floyd Del. (Floyd Delbert), 1942- & Lapicki, Gregory
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Projectile charge-state dependence of K-shell ionization by silicon ions: A comparison of Coulomb ionization theories for direct ionization and electron capture with x-ray production data

Description: Article discussing projectile charge-state dependence of K-shell ionization by silicon ions and a comparison of Coulomb ionization theories for direct ionization and electron capture with x-ray production data.
Date: October 1977
Creator: McDaniel, Floyd Del. (Floyd Delbert), 1942-; Duggan, Jerome L.; Basbas, George; Miller, P. D. & Lapicki, Gregory
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

M-shell x-ray production cross sections for 0.5-2.5-MeV Be+ ions incident upon selected elements from praseodymium to bismuth

Description: This article discusses M-shell x-ray production cross sections for 0.5-2.5-MeV Be+ ions incident upon selected elements from praseodymium to bismuth.
Date: January 15, 1988
Creator: Price, J. L.; Duggan, Jerome L.; McDaniel, Floyd Del. (Floyd Delbert), 1942-; Lapicki, Gregory & Mehta, R.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

K-shell ionization by low-velocity ions

Description: Article discussing K-shell ionization by low-velocity ions. K-shell x-ray-production measurements are reported for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles incident on thin foils of copper, niobium, silver, and antimony.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Rice, R.; McDaniel, Floyd Del. (Floyd Delbert), 1942-; Basbas, George & Duggan, Jerome L.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

A Novel Process for GeSi Thin Film Synthesis

Description: A unique process of fabricating a strained layer GexSi1-x on insulator is demonstrated. Such strained heterostructures are useful in the fabrication of high-mobility transistors. This technique incorporates well-established silicon processing technology e.g., ion implantation and thermal oxidation. A dilute GeSi layer is initially formed by implanting Ge+ into a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Thermal oxidation segregates the Ge at the growing oxide interface to form a distinct GexSi1-x thin-film with a composition that can be tailored by controlling the oxidation parameters (e.g. temperature and oxidation ambient). In addition, the film thickness can be controlled by implantation fluence, which is important since the film forms pseudomorphically below 2×1016 Ge/cm2. Continued oxidation consumes the underlying Si leaving the strained GeSi film encapsulated by the two oxide layers, i.e. the top thermal oxide and the buried oxide. Removal of the thermal oxide by a dilute HF etch completes the process. Strain relaxation can be achieved by either of two methods. One involves vacancy injection by ion implantation to introduce sufficient open-volume within the film to compensate for the compressive strain. The other depends upon the formation of GeO2. If Ge is oxidized in the absence of Si, it evaporates as GeO(g) resulting in spontaneous relaxation within the strained film. Conditions under which this occurs have been discussed along with elaborated results of oxidation kinetics of Ge-ion implanted silicon. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used as the characterization techniques.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Hossain, Khalid
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ion Beam Synthesis of Carbon Assisted Nanosystems in Silicon Based Substrates

Description: The systematic study of the formation of β-SiC formed by low energy carbon ion (C-)implantation into Si followed by high temperature annealing is presented. The research is performed to explore the optimal annealing conditions. The formation of crystalline β-SiC is clearly observed in the sample annealed at 1100 °C for a period of 1 hr. Quantitative analysis is performed in the formation of β-SiC by the process of implantation of different carbon ion fluences of 1×1017, 2×1017, 5×1017, and 8×1017 atoms /cm2 at an ion energy of 65 keV into Si. It is observed that the average size of β-SiC crystals decreased and the amount of β-SiC crystals increased with the increase in the implanted fluences when the samples were annealed at 1100°C for 1 hr. However, it is observed that the amount of β-SiC linearly increased with the implanted fluences up to 5×1017 atoms /cm2. Above this fluence the amount of β-SiC appears to saturate. The stability of graphitic C-C bonds at 1100°C limits the growth of SiC precipitates in the sample implanted at a fluence of 8×1017 atoms /cm2 which results in the saturation behavior of SiC formation in the present study. Secondly, the carbon cluster formation process in silica and the characterization of formed clusters is presented. Silicon dioxide layers ~500 nm thick are thermally grown on a Si (100) wafer. The SiO2 layers are then implanted with 70 keV carbon ions at a fluence of 5×1017 atoms/cm2. The implanted samples are annealed 1100 °C for different time periods of 10 min., 30 min., 60 min., 90 min., and 120 min., in the mixture of argon and hydrogen gas (96 % Ar + 4% hydrogen). Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals UV to visible emission from the samples. A detail mechanism of the photoluminescence and its possible origin is discussed ...
Date: May 2011
Creator: Poudel, Prakash Raj
Partner: UNT Libraries

Thorium and Uranium M-shell X-ray Production Cross Sections for 0.4 – 4.0 MeV Protons, 0.4 - 6.0 MeV Helium Ions, 4.5 – 11.3 MeV Carbon Ions, and 4.5 – 13.5 MeV Oxygen Ions.

Description: The M-shell x-ray production cross section for thorium and uranium have been determined for protons of energy 0.4 - 4.0 MeV, helium ions of energy 0.4 - 6.0 MeV, carbon ions of energy 4.5 - 11.3 MeV and oxygen ions of energy 4.5 - 13.5 MeV. The total cross sections and the cross sections for individual x-ray peaks in the spectrum, consisting of the following transitions Mz (M4-N2, M5-N3, M4-N3), Ma (M5-N6,7), Mb (M4-N6, M5-O3, M4- O2), and Mg (M4-O3, M5-P3, M3-N4, M3-N5), were compared to the theoretical values determined from the PWBA + OBKN and ECUSAR. The theoretical values for the carbon and oxygen ions were also modified to take into account the effects of multiple ionizations of the target atom by the heavier ions. It is shown that the results of the ECUSAR theory tend to provide better agreement with the experimental data.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Phinney, Lucas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Stopping of Energetic Si, P and S Ions in Ni, Cu, Ge and GaAs Targets

Description: Accurate knowledge of stopping powers is essential for these for quantitative analysis and surface characterization of thin films using ion beam analysis (IBA). These values are also of interest in radiobiology and radiotherapy, and in ion- implantation technology where shrinking feature sizes puts high demands on the accuracy of range calculations. A theory that predicts stopping powers and ranges for all projectile-target combinations is needed. The most important database used to report the stopping powers is the SRIM/TRIM program developed by Ziegler and coworkers. However, other researchers report that at times, these values differ significantly from experimental values. In this study the stopping powers of Si, P and S ions have been measured in Ni, Cu, Ge and GaAs absorbers in the energy range ~ 2-10 MeV. For elemental films of Ni, Cu and Ge, the stopping of heavy ions was measured using a novel ERD (Elastic Recoil Detection) based technique. In which an elastically recoiled lighter atom is used to indirectly measure the energy of the incoming heavy ion using a surface barrier detector. In this way it was possible to reduce the damage and to improve the FWHM of the detector. The results were compared to SRIM-2000 predictions and other experimental measurements. A new technique derived from Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) was developed to prepare stoichiometric GaAs films on thin carbon films for use in transmission ion beam experiments. The GaAs films were characterized using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). These films were used to investigate the stopping powers of energetic heavy ions in GaAs and to provide data for the calculation of Bethe-Bloch parameters in the framework of the Modified Bethe-Bloch theory. As a result of this study, stopping power data are available for the first time for Si and P ions ...
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Date: December 2001
Creator: Nigam, Mohit
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ion-Induced Damage In Si: A Fundamental Study of Basic Mechanisms over a Wide Range of Implantation Conditions

Description: A new understanding of the damage formation mechanisms in Si is developed and investigated over an extended range of ion energy, dose, and irradiation temperature. A simple model for dealing with ion-induced damage is proposed, which is shown to be applicable over the range of implantation conditions. In particular the concept of defect "excesses" will be discussed. An excess exists in the lattice when there is a local surplus of one particular type of defect, such as an interstitial, over its complimentary defect (i.e., a vacancy). Mechanisms for producing such excesses by implantation will be discussed. The basis of this model specifies that accumulation of stable lattice damage during implantation depends upon the excess defects and not the total number of defects. The excess defect model is validated by fundamental damage studies involving ion implantation over a range of conditions. Confirmation of the model is provided by comparing damage profiles after implantation with computer simulation results. It will be shown that transport of ions in matter (TRIM) can be used effectively to model the ion-induced damage profile, i.e. excess defect distributions, by a simple subtraction process in which the spatially correlated defects are removed, thereby simulating recombination. Classic defect studies illuminate defect interactions from concomitant implantation of high- and medium-energy Si+-self ions. Also, the predictive quality of the excess defect model was tested by applying the model to develop several experiments to engineer excess defect concentrations to substantially change the nature and distribution of the defects. Not only are the excess defects shown to play a dominant role in defect-related processing issues, but their manipulation is demonstrated to be a powerful tool in tailoring the implantation process to achieve design goals. Pre-amorphization and dual implantation of different energetic ions are two primary investigative tools used in this work. Various analyses, ...
Date: May 2006
Creator: Roth, Elaine Grannan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Magnetotransport Properties of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y/GaSb and Optical Properties of GaAs1-xSbx

Description: Multilayer structures of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y/GaSb (0.37 £ x £ 0.43, 0.50 £ y £ 0.52), grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb (100) substrates were characterized using variable temperature Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas techniques. For nominally undoped structures both p and n-type conductivity was observed. The mobilities obtained were lower than those predicted by an interpolation method using the binary alloys; therefore, a detailed analysis of mobility versus temperature data was performed to extract the appropriate scattering mechanisms. For p-type samples, the dominant mechanism was ionized impurity scattering at low temperatures and polar optical phonon scattering at higher temperatures. For n-type samples, ionized impurity scattering was predominant at low temperatures, and electron-hole scattering dominated for both the intermediate and high temperature range. Analyses of the Shubnikov-de Haas data indicate the presence of 2-D carrier confinement consistent with energy subbands in GaAszSb1-z potential wells. Epilayers of GaAs1-xSbx (0.19<x<0.71), grown by MBE on semi-insulating GaAs with various substrate orientations, were studied by absorption measurements over the temperature range of 4-300 K. The various substrate orientations were chosen to induce different degrees of spontaneous atomic ordering. The temperature dependence of the energy gap (Eg) for each of these samples was modeled using three semi-empirical relationships. The resulting coefficients for each model describe not only the temperature dependence of Eg for each of the alloy compositions investigated, but also for all published results for this alloy system. The effect of ordering in these samples was manifested by a deviation of the value of Eg from the value of the random alloy. The presence of CuPt-B type atomic ordering was verified by transmission electron diffraction measurements, and the order parameter was estimated for all the samples investigated and found to be larger for the samples grown on the (111) A offcut orientations. This result strongly suggests ...
Date: May 2003
Creator: Lukic- Zrnic, Reiko
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neutron Transmutation and Hydrogenation Study of Hg₁₋xCdxTe

Description: Anomalous Hall behavior of HgCdTe refers to a "double cross-over" feature of the Hall coefficient in p-type material, or a peak in the Hall mobility or Hall coefficient in n-type material. A magnetoconductivity tensor approach was utilized to identify presence of two electrons contributing to the conduction as well as transport properties of each electron in the material. The two electron model for the mobility shows that the anomalous Hall behavior results from the competition of two electrons, one in the energy gap graded region near the CdZnTe/HgCdTe interface with large band gap and the other in the bulk of the LPE film with narrow band gap. Hg0.78Cd0.22Te samples grown by LPE on CdZnTe(111B)-oriented substrates were exposed to various doses of thermal neutrons (~1.7 x 1016 - 1.25 x 1017 /cm2) and subsequently annealed at ~220oC for ~24h in Hg saturated vapor to recover damage and reduce the presence of Hg vacancies. Extensive Magnetotransport measurements were performed on these samples. SIMS profile for impurities produced by neutron irradiation was also obtained. The purpose for this study is to investigate the influence of neutron irradiation on this material as a basis for further study on HgCdTe74Se. The result shows that total mobility is observed to decrease with increased neutron dose and can be fitted by including a mobility inverse proportional to neutron dose. Electron introduction rate of thermal neutron is much smaller than that of fission neutrons. Total recovering of the material is suggested to have longer time annealing. Using Kane's model, we also fitted carrier concentration change at low temperature by introducing a donor level with activation energy changing with temperature. Results on Se diffusion in liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown HgCdTe epilayers is reported. The LPE Hg0.78Cd0.22Te samples were implanted with Se of 2.0×1014/cm2 at 100keV and annealed at ...
Date: December 2007
Creator: Zhao, Wei
Partner: UNT Libraries

Charge Collection Studies on Integrated Circuit Test Structures using Heavy-Ion Microbeams and MEDICI Simulation Calculations

Description: Ion induced charge collection dynamics within Integrated Circuits (ICs) is important due to the presence of ionizing radiation in the IC environment. As the charge signals defining data states are reduced by voltage and area scaling, the semiconductor device will naturally have a higher susceptibility to ionizing radiation induced effects. The ionizing radiation can lead to the undesired generation and migration of charge within an IC. This can alter, for example, the memory state of a bit, and thereby produce what is called a "soft" error, or Single Event Upset (SEU). Therefore, the response of ICs to natural radiation is of great concern for the reliability of future devices. Immunity to soft errors is listed as a requirement in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors prepared by the Semiconductor Industry Association in the United States. To design more robust devices, it is essential to create and test accurate models of induced charge collection and transport in semiconductor devices. A heavy ion microbeam produced by an accelerator is an ideal tool to study charge collection processes in ICs and to locate the weak nodes and structures for improvement through hardening design. In this dissertation, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate recoil effects of ions in ICs. These silicon or light ion recoils are usually produced by the elastic scattering or inelastic reactions between cosmic neutrons or protons and the lattice atoms in ICs. Specially designed test structures were experimentally studied, using microbeams produced at Sandia National Laboratories. A new technique, Diffusion Time Resolved IBICC, is first proposed in this work to measure the average arrival time of the diffused charge, which can be related to the first moment (or the average time) of the arrival carrier density at the junction. A 2D device simulation ...
Date: May 2000
Creator: Guo, Baonian
Partner: UNT Libraries

₁¹H+ - and ₂⁴He+ - induced M-shell x-ray-production cross sections for selected elements in the rare-earth region

Description: Article on ₁¹H+ and ₂⁴He+ -induced M-shell x-ray-production cross sections for selected elements in the rare-earth region.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Mehta, R.; Duggan, Jerome L.; Price, J. L.; Kocur, P. M.; McDaniel, Floyd Del. (Floyd Delbert), 1942- & Lapicki, Gregory
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences