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The Use of Multiple Stops in Works for Solo Violin by Johann Paul Von Westhoff and Its Relationship to German Polyphonic Writing for a Single Instrument

Description: Johann Paul von Westhoff's (1656-1705) solo violin works, consisting of Suite pour le violon sans basse continue published in 1683 and Six Suites for Violin Solo in 1696, feature extensive use of multiple stops, which represents a German polyphonic style of the seventeenth-century instrumental music. However, the Six Suites had escaped the public's attention for nearly three hundred years until its rediscovery by the musicologist Peter Várnai in the late twentieth century. This project will focus on polyphonic writing featured in the solo violin works by von Westhoff. In order to fully understand the stylistic traits of this less well-known collection, a brief summary of the composer, Johann Paul Westhoff, and an overview of the historical background of his time will be included in this document. I will analyze these works, including a comparison between the works of Westhoff and those of other composers during his time, to prove that Westhoff's solo works establish multiple stops as a central factor of German violin playing of the time, and, thus, to promote Westhoff's works as a complement to the extant repertoire of unaccompanied violin music written in the Baroque era before Johann Sebastian Bach's solo violin works and Georg Philipp Telemann's twelve fantasias for violin solo. Furthermore, this project will help one to better understand the use and function of multiple stops in the German violin repertoire in the seventeenth century
Date: May 2017
Creator: Gao, Beixi
Partner: UNT Libraries

John Playford's "The Division Violin": Improvisation and Variation Practice in English Violin Music of the Seventeenth Century

Description: English publisher John Playford (1623-1686/1687) first published his "The Division Violin: Containing a Collection of Divisions Upon Several Grounds for the Treble-Violin" in 1684. The first edition of this violin collection contains 26 written-out examples of improvisation, serving as a living snapshot of the performance practice of the time. This research is based on the second edition, which Playford had expanded into 30 pieces for the violin, published in 1685. The purpose of this study is to investigate the art of improvisation in England during the late 17th century, focusing on Playford's "The Division Violin." The dissertation first surveys the development of English violin music in the 17th century. Then, the dissertation traces eight selected 16th-century Italian diminution manuals. This will help readers understand the progression of the Italian diminution and improvisation practice in the 16th century and how it relates to the English division of the 17th century. Finally, based on a thorough research of the 17th-century improvisatory style and rhetorical approach, the author of this study provides performance suggestions on "Mr. Farinell's Ground," No. 5 from "The Division Violin."
Date: August 2017
Creator: Chan, Tzu-Ying
Partner: UNT Libraries

Extended String Techniques and Special Effects in Arnold Schoenberg's String Quartet No. 1 and Its Significance in Chamber Music Literature

Description: Arnold Schoenberg's String Quartet No. 1, Op. 7 stands out as being the first chamber music piece to use a vast number and variety of extended string techniques within one composition. This paper examines a brief history of extended string techniques in chamber music, analyses the unique ways in which Schoenberg applied extended string techniques to manipulate motives in his Op. 7 quartet, and ultimately shows that Schoenberg's use of extended string techniques influenced future composers to employ even more extended techniques and special effects in their own twentieth-century chamber music.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Greenfield, Leah Luke
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Chinese Instruments on the Violin: A Practice Guide of Three Violin Techniques

Description: Contemporary professional violinists face constant exposure to multicultural compositions. For best results, they should be able to understand, capture, and express the subtleties of different styles. The violin and its repertoire spread to China through European missionaries during the late seventeenth century and continued to be developed by Chinese scientists and musicians who studied abroad. During the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Chinese composers wrote many violin pieces inspired by the unique sounds of Chinese instruments. Additionally, Chinese music scholars wrote numerous essays to discuss the new Chinese style. However, much of this research has been focused on the composers and the structures of the compositions rather than on the details of violin techniques necessary to play the repertoire. The techniques in Chinese violin compositions are unique and are influenced by the traditional instruments including string, wind, and percussion instruments. Furthermore, the style of such compositions is affected by the elements of Chinese culture, such as the language, the elite society and its poetic tradition, and historical legends and events. This dissertation provides examples of Chinese violin repertoire which demonstrate the principles of three main violin techniques in the Chinese style: slides, chords, and pizzicati. In order to help professional violinists better perform Chinese violin compositions, the dissertation also includes a number of exercises covering each technique above.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Gao, Jie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Selected Works by Female Composers of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries for Advanced Suzuki Violin Students

Description: The intent of this dissertation is to identify and analyze several pieces by female composers that are technically suitable for the specific development of an advanced Suzuki violin student studying in Suzuki books 7 or 8. The selected pieces can then be used by trained Suzuki teachers, in conjunction with the male-composer-dominated Suzuki repertoire, to enhance students' technical development while also increasing their well-rounded musicianship by exposing them to female composers. The development of off-the-string bow strokes, string crossings, shifting, left-hand articulation and musical expression will be traced through the first six volumes of the Suzuki repertoire in order to understand a Suzuki student's expected abilities pertaining to these technical elements when beginning the repertoire in books 7 and 8. Pieces by female composers highlighting and enhancing the referenced techniques will be identified and analyzed in a similar manner. These pieces will be compiled into a document for Suzuki students and teachers to use, along with appropriate editorial markings and biographies of the composers. This document can be an inspirational supplement to Suzuki students' musical development and help develop an awareness of female composers.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Edelman, Rhea
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Similar Approach with Different Results: the Use of Baroque Elements in Stravinsky’s Suite Italienne (1933), Shostakovich’s Violin Sonata in G Major, Op 134 (1968) and Schnittke’s Suite in the Old Style (1972)

Description: Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975) and Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998) were three of the most important avant-garde Russian composers of the twentieth century. Even though their music shares a number of important traits, their work also reflects very individualized and distinct compositional styles. This study illustrates the similarities in their approach and the contrasting elements present in three selected pieces: Stravinsky´s Suite Italienne for Violin and Piano (1933), Shostakovich’s Violin Sonata in G Major, Op. 134 (1968), and Schnittke’s Suite in the Old Style for Violin and Piano (Harpsichord) (1972). The study disseminates Stravinsky, Shostakovich, and Schnittke’s musical influences in these works, focusing particularly in the use of baroque elements by tracing a number of important aspects from their backgrounds. In addition, a chronological outline of compositions containing baroque elements is provided. Finally, this research examines stylistic traits of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the three selected compositions: Suite Italienne, Violin Sonata, Op. 134, and Suite in the Old Style.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Oh, Hyun Sun
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Philosophy and an Approach to Teaching Non-professional-track Violin Students

Description: The aim of this dissertation is to lay the groundwork for an integrated approach to violin instruction for children who are not being groomed explicitly for professional careers as instrumentalists. The study presents a particular focus on the age of middle school children, in order to showcase a more specialized and definitive result of research without, however, distinguishing between advantages and limitations of different age groups of children who study music and learn to play the violin. My first goal is to craft a sample method of teaching with a premise that not all students studying music must or need to become professional musicians in their future. I promote an approach based on the premise that music has universal value available to all and that any kind of music education encourages the growth, personality development, and imagination of children. My second goal is to explore how music education functions in 21st century western culture. Research is based on teachings and methods established by Suzuki, Kodaly, Jaques-Dalcroze, and Orff, among others.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Bard-Schwarz, Anna Ewa
Partner: UNT Libraries

Violin and voice as partners in three early twentieth-century English works for voice and violin.

Description: The purpose of this study is to examine three works for the unusual combination of violin and voice. Chamber music for violin and keyboard and violin and other instruments has been extant since the Baroque period. However, three English composers found a unique chamber grouping in the first decades of the twentieth century: Gustav Holst (1874-1934), Rebecca Clarke (1886-1979), and Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958) each wrote works for violin and voice. Holst's Four Songs for Voice and Violin, Op. 35 (1917), Vaughan Williams' Along the Field, Eight Housman Songs for Voice and Violin (1927, revised 1954), and Clarke's Three Old English Songs (1924) each utilize the combination of violin and voice. The violin in each is not relegated to accompaniment but is instead a true partner. This study will investigate these works. A history of each composition will be chronicled. An analytical discussion of formal organization and significant style features will include consideration of the musical structure, harmonic language, and the use of text in select movements of each work. Finally, performance suggestions pertaining to technical and artistic issues offer specific recommendations as an aid in performance preparation. In order to provide historical and musical context, a brief overview of Late Romantic and early Twentieth-Century chamber music with strings and voice will be given. This overview will help to illuminate the uniqueness of the pairing of violin and voice. Discovery of the works discussed here makes possible an expanded repertoire of good music for both violinists and vocalists. It is also hoped that through the performance of these works a spark might be set with composers to create more pieces for this most intimate of duos.
Date: December 2005
Creator: Rutland, John Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Epidemiological Evaluation of Pain Among String Instrumentalists

Description: Pain and performance anxiety (PA) are common problems among string players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess and compare PA and prevalence rates and locations of pain in violinists, violists, cellists, and bassists. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included sections on demographics, musical background, practice habits, musculoskeletal problems, non-musculoskeletal problems, and PA. Anthropometric data were gathered on all 115 subjects. Results show that there are differences in both pain and PA across instrument groups. Violinists reported the highest number of pain sites, followed by violists, bassists, and cellists. The left shoulder was the most-often reported pain site, followed by the neck and right shoulder. Aching was the most cited term selected to describe pain. Several anthropometric indices were significantly correlated with pain, notably right thumb to index finger span in both cellists and bassists. In all instrument groups, at least one pain site was significantly correlated with one of four PA questions. Results warrant the development of intervention strategies and further study of the relationship between pain and performance anxiety.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Meidell, Katrin Liza
Partner: UNT Libraries

Utilizing Standard Violin Orchestral Excerpts As a Pedagogical Tool: an Analytical Study Guide with Functional Exercises

Description: Orchestral excerpts have been used as a teaching material by violin pedagogues to develop violin techniques in addition to scales and etudes in the twentieth century. However, instructions on developing specific techniques and the relationship to its musical content have been left out. This dissertation provides an analytical study guide addressing the common challenges for violinists. Ten orchestral excerpts are selected from surveying frequently requested orchestral excerpts for the first violin. Through analysis of each excerpt, insight from the other violinists and pedagogues are included. Fifty-four functional exercises with comments are created to help violinists practice effectively and serve as a pedagogical tool in violin instruction.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Chang, Ai-Wei
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Performance Edition of the Alessandro Rolla Concerto in F for Viola and Orchestra, Op 4 (Bi 549)

Description: The Concerto in F, Op. 4 (BI 549) by Alessandro Rolla (1757-1841) is a relatively unknown work that can serve as a complement for existing standard Classical repertoire for the viola, thus providing the means for greater stylistic education and technical foundation for viola study from this time period. In order to make the music from this lesser-known composer more readily available for future performers, a performance edition has been created from uncirculated sources using the notation software “Finale,” combining separate parts into a conductor’s full score, which did not exist before. This performance edition will provide greater access to Rolla’s music for viola performance and study. In addition to addressing the challenges to creating a performance edition, this lecture secondarily addresses Rolla’s biographical details relevant to the concerto and his stylistic influences.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Beall, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Rebecca Clarke: A Viola Duo Transcription of the Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale

Description: Throughout centuries of great classical music, many viola compositions have been crafted from a wealth of literature for instruments of similar range. Clarinet, violin, and cello concerti and ensemble literature often adapt into challenging literature for the viola. In November 2009, Oxford Music Publishing gave me permission to transcribe and perform the Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale by Rebecca Clarke in New York's famed Carnegie Hall - Weill Recital Hall. This dissertation explains the process by which I transcribed the Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale from an original Bb-clarinet/viola duo, to a new arrangement for two violas (approved by Oxford Music Press arrangement license #7007940), and discusses challenges faced throughout the transcription process.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Stevens, Daniel Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performer’s Guide to the Execution and Application of Karen Tuttle’s Coordination, As Applied to Ernest Bloch’s Suite Hébraïque

Description: Legendary violist and pedagogue Karen Tuttle developed a new approach to playing the viola known as Coordination. Coordination consists of a deep emotional connection to music, as well as highly specific motions of the body. This document details the execution of the physical motions of Coordination, through written descriptions and multimedia examples. A detailed discussion of the application of the motions is presented, using notated examples from Ernest Bloch’s Suite Hébraïque.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Sander, Amber
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evoking the Mystery: A Pedagogical Method to Enable an Advanced Violinist to Master George Crumb’s Four Nocturnes (Night Music II)

Description: For more than three centuries, violin pedagogical practices have been extensively developed towards music covering the common practice period. However, a problem arises when a violin student performing avant-garde music needs to find realistic solutions to problems that are not addressed in the standard repertoire. This critical essay offers a pedagogical approach to a work that fits well within this paradigm: Four Nocturnes (Night Music II), George Crumb’s only published work for violin and piano duo. The multi-dimensional aspect of this avant-garde work requires an equally multi-faceted approach to overcoming the inherent technical hurdles. Through practical illustrations and concise explanations, musical examples indicate how the score may be re-notated and simplified to create a preliminary step towards advancing to the original notation. Borrowing from the methodology of Otakar Ševčík and other leading twentieth-century violin pedagogues, the author shows how students can modify their approach to fit contextually in the realm of avant-garde music. Students who approach the work with this methodology will find it helpful in eliminating many of the potential pitfalls that they are likely to encounter.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Homer, Scott Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries

A comparison of Petar Christoskov’s Op. 1 and Op. 24 Caprices for Solo Violin: The effect of the changing Bulgarian political climate on his compositional style.

Description: Bulgaria, though a fairly small Eastern European country, boasts an ancient history of folk traditions and music; however, very few notated works exist due to the people's primitive lifestyle throughout Bulgaria's history. Singing and dancing as well as creating instruments from wood and animal skin were considered an integral part of everyday life, equal to cooking, sewing, herding, or farming; in fact, one almost always accompanied the other. Thus, more than 1500 years of folklore was orally passed on and preserved generation after generation; however, nothing was notated until only very recently when Bulgarians realized the cultural and national value of their history. After the liberation from Ottoman Rule (1453-1877) a nationalist movement spread throughout the Balkan countries, which resulted in the emergence of Bulgarian composers. Music and songs from the local folk traditions evolved, developed, and - with notation - became the foundation for the vocal and instrumental music of the so-called first generation of Bulgarian composers. Around the turn of the century, many Bulgarian artists and musicians traveled to Western Europe (mostly Austria, Germany, and Russia) and upon their return, their artistic output created an original mixture of Bulgarian national folk with influences from Western classical music. After World War II, Bulgaria became one of the countries governed by the Communist regime, which restricted all travel to and contact with the West, including cultural influences from the West. Gradually, as the Communist regime became less controlling until it dissolved completely in 1989, restrictions on music and culture started to lift. Petar Christoskov (1917-2006), considered part of the second generation of Bulgarian composers, began his compositional career immediately after returning from Germany to a communist-ruled Bulgaria. His first opus was the set of 12 Caprices for Solo Violin (1953, formerly known as Concert Etudes in Folk Style); they have ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Vassileva, Veronika
Partner: UNT Libraries

Traditional Korean Music in Contemporary Context:A Performance Guide to Gideon Gee Bum Kim's Kangkangsullae

Description: Gideon Gee Bum Kim is an internationally-acclaimed contemporary Korean-Canadian composer. Kim has utilized traditional Korean music with Western composition techniques in some of his works. Kim created his own style by incorporating traditional Korean musical elements such as the scale, rhythmic diversity, syncopation, variation, ornamentation, and the progression of melody into a body of music that is otherwise contemporary and Western. The purpose of this study is to develop a performance guide for Gideon Gee Bum Kim's Kangkangsullae for string trio. Kangkangsullae trio is based on Korean historical, cultural and musical influences. I give a detailed historical and cultural background for this work and demonstrate how Kim integrated Western compositional techniques with traditional Korean music. My emphasis is on defining specific characteristics of traditional Korean music which will provide several points toward understanding Kim's compositional style.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Lee, Hyejin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Contemporary Double Bass Techniques: An Advanced Technical Approach

Description: Diverse practicing methods are evidence of the importance of applying creativity in our practice regimes. Regardless of a player's technique - traditional or modern - it must be regularly practiced and then applied. One of the most common ways to do that is through practicing technical exercises, which generally means the practice of scales, arpeggios and etudes. These exercises generally function as a warm-up regime for all musicians, but this regime doesn't necessarily provide enough reference for the player in the learning process of a new piece. Adapting exercises to address technical difficulties in a newly learned piece can provide the player with a wide range of practice methods to use, to be creative, to be more aware while practicing, and to build a solid technical foundation for the newly learned piece. Two well-known pedagogues who applied this approach are German bassist Ludwig Streicher and Czech violinist Otakar Ševčik. By implementing analytical studies and composing exercises based on the standard repertoire, Ševčik and Streicher became highly influential teachers in the 20th century. Their work serves as a model in achieving the purposes of this dissertation: the assessment of technical difficulties and compilation of a technique booklet based on six unaccompanied contemporary solo pieces written as required works for the solo competition of the International Society of Bassists' biennial convention since 2007.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Meyer, Mariechen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Original Viola Study Literature: Analyzing the Pedagogical Contributions of Marco Frank

Description: Viola pedagogy has historically been closely intertwined with and highly dependent upon violin repertoire. As the viola emerged as an instrument worthy of independent study, many still rely on transcriptions of violin etudes. Fortunately, the efforts of performers, teachers, and scholars have brought forth discoveries of original viola literature and thus shifted toward the perception that viola should begin to embrace its individual pedagogy. Viennese composer and violist Marco Frank contributed three volumes of Viola-Etuden and a method book, Praktische Viola-Schule, which are suitable for the intermediate violist. This document explores and analyzes the usefulness of an original viola series in comparison to the ‘tried and true' violin transcriptions.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Salinas, Ashley Danielle
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prokofiev Beckons the Double Bass Into the Modern Age: a Pedagogical Study of the Op 39 Quintet

Description: Until Serge Prokofiev’s 1924 ballet score Trapèze, the double bass occupied a background or at best a doubling role in almost all composers’ use of the instrument. Technical challenge was limited in these pieces, because composers did not see the instrument’s potential in a chamber music environment. As luthiers developed the instrument, the technical ability of players grew, and composers began writing more challenging music for the instrument. As one of the first major composers to see the double bass in a new light, Prokofiev wrote challenging music for the instrument. This paper illuminates the alluring pedagogical aspects of Prokofiev's Quintet in G Minor, Op. 39 and provides recommendations for accomplishing some difficult passages with ease.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Jones, Kathryn E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study on Hybrid Style and Orchestration in Bright Sheng’s Postcards

Description: Bright Sheng (b. 1955) has won international acclaim for successfully fusing disparate musical elements in his works. Listeners can trace Chinese pentatonic scales and instrumental effects mixed with Western classical structures. Postcards (1997) is a well-received orchestral work that successfully merges diverse musical styles and compositional techniques. Sheng based Postcards on material from his Four Movements for Piano Trio (1990). He applies masterful and distinctive orchestration to transform the chamber work into a multi-layered and colorful orchestral canvas. He fuses polyrhythm and post-tonal compositional techniques such as polytonality with Chinese musical elements, including folk song quotations, pentatonic scales and extended instrumental effects. The resulting hybrid is an outstanding artistic work that warrants further discussion and analysis for deeper understanding This study provides an overview of Sheng’s life experience and educational background in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 and 3 present a detailed analysis of the important compositional attributes and orchestration techniques Sheng applies in Postcards. Chapter 4 provides important performance considerations for conductors to enhance preparation. With an understanding of Sheng’s hybrid style, it is hoped that conductors will have a better interpretative grasp to lead an informed performance and scholars will have a better context for Sheng’s orchestral compositions.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Lee, Hsuan-Yu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Physical Problems in Vibrato Amongst First-year College Violinists: a Descriptive Study

Description: The purpose of this descriptive study was to first identify to what extent first-year college violinists physically struggle with the vibrato motion, and further, to identify physical problems within the motion that are contributing to their challenges during the learning process. The 16 participants in this study were chosen randomly from the College Music Society Directory of Music Faculties in Colleges and Universities (2013-2014 edition). Participants completed a questionnaire of 32 quantitative and qualitative questions addressing the vibrato of their 2013-2014 first-year violinists. 62% of participants’ first-year students had a physical problem with vibrato, 70% of participants’ students were working on correcting physical problems in vibrato during lessons. Participants also reported that 15% of their students were not able to create a vibrato motion at all. Almost all professors (n=15) indicated that students with a problematic vibrato were too tense in parts of the arm or hand and this negatively affected the motion and thus, the sound. Specific problems also included vibrato being too narrow, but rarely too wide, vibrato being too fast or too slow caused by tension, problems with when and how vibrato was being applied, problems with maintaining intonation before or during use of vibrato, and problems with not understanding the motion needed or imagining an intended sound. Most professors used movement terminology to describe physical problems with vibrato as well as aural problems with vibrato. Only a few professors discussed aural problems in vibrato using terminology depicting the sound. Participants revealed that the most commonly used types of vibrato amongst their first-year students were arm vibrato and a combination vibrato (use of wrist, arm and finger vibratos). Most participants also listed these combined parts of finger, wrist and arm in their own definitions of a good-sounding vibrato. Results from this study can be directed to the ...
Date: August 2015
Creator: Manfredi, Zo Hurd
Partner: UNT Libraries

Benjamin Britten's Sonata in C for Cello and Piano, Op. 65: A Practical Guide for Performance

Description: Benjamin Britten is a renowned and prolific English composer, well known for his operas and vocal works. He did, however, also compose five works especially for the cello as a solo instrument of which the Sonata in C for Cello and Piano Op. 65 was the first. He was inspired by one of his musical contemporaries, the remarkable Soviet cellist, Mstislav Rostropovich. Rostropovich was famous for his amazing artistry which propelled him to become one of the most prominent cellists in the world during his time. Thus Britten, who had previously only composed for cello as part of ensembles, created this sonata specifically thinking of Rostropovich and his outstanding skill as a cellist. The premiere of the sonata took place in July 1961 at the Aldeburgh Festival and it was a great success. However, despite Britten's reputation as an outstanding composer and the significance of the sonata, this sonata has been performed infrequently. Britten utilized many challenging techniques and adapted them innovatively in the composition, and perhaps performers may be reluctant to choose this work due to the complexity and challenge inherent in the composition itself. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a practical guide for students and those who wish to learn and perform Britten's Sonata in C for Cello and Piano, Op. 65 by increasing understanding of the work, and by offering practical assistance.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Lee, Jeong-A
Partner: UNT Libraries