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Beam Losses and Background Loads on Collider Detectors Due to Beam-Gas Interactions in the LHC

Description: With a fully-operational high-efficient collimation system in the LHC, nuclear interactions of circulating protons with residual gas in the machine beam pipe can be a major source of beam losses in the vicinity of the collider detectors, responsible for the machine-induced backgrounds. Realistic modeling of Coulomb scattering, elastic and inelastic interactions of 7-TeV protons with nuclei in the vacuum chamber of the cold and warm sections of the LHC ring--with an appropriate pressure profile--is performed with the STRUCT and MARS15 codes. Multi-turn tracking of the primary beams, propagation of secondaries through the lattice, their interception by the tertiary collimators TCT as well as properties of corresponding particle distributions at the CMS and ATLAS detectors are studied in great detail and results presented in this paper.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Drozhdin, A.I.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transition crossing simulation at the Fermilab Booster

Description: The demand in high intensity and low emittance of the beam extracted from the Booster requires a better control over the momentum spread growth and bunch length shortening at transition crossing, in order to prevent beam loss and coupled bunch instability. Since the transition crossing involves both longitudinal and transverse dynamics, the recently modified 3-D STRUCT code provides an opportunity to numerically investigate the different transition crossing schemes in the machine environment, and apply the results of simulation to minimize the beam loss and emittance growth operationally.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Yang, X.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Pellico, W. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detector-accelerator interface studies at the Tevatron

Description: A summary of studies is presented towards minimization of beam loss in the critical locations at the Fermilab Tevatron to reduce background rates in the collider detectors and to protect machine components. Based on detailed Monte-Carlo simulations, measures have been proposed and incorporated in the machine to reduce accelerator-related instantaneous and residual background levels in the D0 and CDF detectors. Measurements performed are in good agreement with the predictions. Most recent results on acceptance and background rates in the D0 and CDF forward detectors are presented and discussed in detail.
Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Drozhdin, A.I. & Mokhov, N.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam loss and radiation effects in the SSC lattice elements

Description: The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is designed to be an advanced machine with relatively low beam loss-induced radiation levels. However, a fraction of the beam lost in the lattice due to pp-collisions at the interaction points, beam-gas scattering, bearn-halo scraping, various instabilities and errors will result in the irradiation of conventional and superconducting components of the accelerator and experimental apparatus. The level of the beam loss and its distribution along the machine structure has impact on all of the three crucial radiation effects at the SSC: quenching of the superconducting magnets, survivability of the accelerator and detectors components in the near-beam regions, and influence to the environment. This paper, based on the full-scale Monte Carlo simulation, will explore all major sources of beam loss in the Collider and measures to reduce the irradiation of the accelerator components. Basic parameters of the Super Collider accepted throughout this report are as follows: Proton energy E{sub 0} = 20 TeV, injection energy is 2 TeV, number of protons circulating in each of the collider rings is N = 1.3 {times} 10{sup 14}, circumference is 87.12 km, the transverse normalized emittance {var_epsilon}{sub N}({sigma}) = 1 {pi} mm-mrad, for the regular lattice ({beta} = 305 m) the beam R.M.S. sizes are {sigma} = 0.12 mm at 20 TEV and {sigma} = 0.38 mm at the injection energy. The dipole length is 15.815 m with the effective field length of 15.165 m. The magnetic field map for B{sub 0} = 6.5999 T has been calculated with the POISSON program by Greg Snitchler. The turn angle of each dipole is {alpha} = 1.50027 mrad. The dipole aperture is 50 mm. The two beam pipe diameters are studied 33 and 40 mm. The operating temperature is T{sub 0} = 4.35 K.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Baishev, I.S.; Drozhdin, A.I. & Mokhov, N.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collider and detector protection at beam accidents

Description: Dealing with beam loss due to abort kicker prefire is considered for hadron colliders. The prefires occurred at Tevatron (Fermilab) during Run I and Run II are analyzed and a protection system implemented is described. The effect of accidental beam loss in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on machine and detector components is studied via realistic Monte Carlo calculations. The simulations show that beam loss at an unsynchronized beam abort would result in severe heating of conventional and superconducting magnets and possible damage to the collider detector elements. A proposed set of collimators would reduce energy deposition effects to acceptable levels. Special attention is paid to reducing peak temperature rise within the septum magnet and minimizing quench region length downstream of the LHC beam abort straight section.
Date: December 10, 2003
Creator: Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V. & Drozhdin, A. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam loss handling at the SSC

Description: A scraper/collimation system is required to localize the beam loss in the Collider of the Superconducting Super Collider to a few predefined locations and by doing so to minimize the irradiation of superconducting magnets, to sustain favorable background conditions in the Interaction Regions (IR), and to reduce the impact of radiation on other equipment, personnel, and the environment. Results of full-scale simulation are presented for various systematic and accidental beam loss.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Baishev, I. S.; Drozhdin, A. I. & Mokhov, N. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of Extinction Efficiency in the 8-GeV Mu2e Beam Line

Description: A muon-to-electron conversion experiment at Fermilab, Mu2e, is being designed to probe for new physics beyond the standard model at mass scales up to 10{sup 4} TeV. For this experiment, the advance in experimental sensitivity will be four orders of magnitude when compared to existing data on charged lepton flavor violation. The muon beam will be produced by delivering a proton beam contained in short 100-ns bunches onto a muon production target, with an inter-bunch separation of about 1700 ns. A critical requirement of the experiment is to ensure a low level of background at the muon detector consistent with the required sensitivity. To meet the sensitivity requirement, protons that reach the target between bunches must be suppressed by an enormous factor, so that an extinction factor, defined as a number of background protons between main bunches per proton in such a bunch, should not exceed 10{sup -9}. This paper describes the advanced beam optics and results of numerical modeling with STRUCT and MARS codes for a beam line with a collimation system that allows us to achieve the experimental extinction factor of one per billion.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Rakhno, I.L.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Johnstone, C.; Mokhov, N.V.; Prebys, E. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving the Fermilab Booster Notching Efficiency, Beam Losses and Radiation Levels

Description: A fast vertical 1.08-m long kicker (notcher) located in the Fermilab Booster Long-05 straight section is currently used to remove 3 out of 84 circulating bunches after injection to generate an abort gap. With the maximum magnetic field of 72.5 Gauss, it removes only 87% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400 MeV, with 75% loss on pole tips of the focusing Booster magnets, 11% on the Long-06 collimators, and 1% in the rest of the ring. We propose to improve the notching efficiency and reduce beam loss in the Booster by using three horizontal kickers in the Long-12 section. STRUCT calculations show that using horizontal notchers, one can remove up to 96% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400-700 MeV, directing 95% of it to a new beam dump at the Long-13 section. This fully decouples notching and collimation. The beam dump absorbs most of the impinging proton energy in its jaws. The latter are encapsulated into an appropriate radiation shielding that reduces impact on the machine components, personnel and environment to the tolerable levels. MARS simulations show that corresponding prompt and residual radiation levels can be reduced ten times compared to the current ones.
Date: May 14, 2012
Creator: Rakhno, I.L.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Mokhov, N.V.; Sidorov, V.I.; Tropin, I.S. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam Loss Studies for the 2-MW LBNE Proton Beam Line

Description: Severe limits are put on allowable beam loss during extraction and transport of a 2.3 MW primary proton beam for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab. Detailed simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes have evaluated the impact of beam loss of 1.6 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 120 GeV, ranging from a single pulse full loss to sustained small fractional loss. It is shown that loss of a single beam pulse at 2.3 MW will result in a catastrophic event: beam pipe destruction, damaged magnets and very high levels of residual radiation inside and outside the tunnel. Acceptable beam loss limits have been determined and robust solutions developed to enable efficient proton beam operation under these constraints.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Drozhdin, A.I.; Childress, S.R.; Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S.; Zwaska, R. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collimation system design for beam loss localization with slipstacking injection in the Fermilab Main Injector

Description: Results of modeling with the 3-D STRUCT and MARS15 codes of beam loss localization and related radiation effects are presented for the slipstacking injection to the Fermilab Main Injector. Simulations of proton beam loss are done using multi-turn tracking with realistic accelerator apertures, nonlinear fields in the accelerator magnets and time function of the RF manipulations to explain the results of beam loss measurements. The collimation system consists of one primary and four secondary collimators. It intercepts a beam power of 1.6 kW at a scraping rate of 5% of 5.5E+13 ppp, with a beam loss rate in the ring outside the collimation region of 1 W/m or less. Based on thorough energy deposition and radiation modeling, a corresponding collimator design was developed that satisfies all the radiation and engineering constraints.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Drozhdin, A.I.; Brown, B.C.; Johnson, D.E.; Koba, K.; Kourbanis, I.; Mokhov, N.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation and Thermal Analysis of Superconducting Quadrupoles in the Interaction Region of Linear Collider

Description: Radiation heat deposition in the superconducting magnets of the Interaction Region (IR) of a linear collider can be a serious issue that limits the magnet operating margins and shortens the material lifetime. Radiation and thermal analyses of the IR quadrupoles in the incoming and extraction beam lines of the ILC are performed in order to determine the magnet limits. This paper presents an analysis of the radial, azimuthal and longitudinal distributions of heat deposition in the incoming and disrupted beam doublets. Operation margins of the magnets based on NbTi superconductor are calculated and compared. The radiation and thermal analysis of the ILC IR quadrupoles based on Rutherford type cables was performed. It was found that the peak radiation heat deposition takes place in the second extraction quadrupole QFEX2. The maximum power density in the coil is {approx}17mW/g. This is rather high, comparing to the proton machines (LHC). However, the fast radial decay of the heat deposition together with the high thermal conductivity of the Rutherford type cable limits the coil temperatures to a moderate level. It was determined that both 2-layer and 4-layer QFEX2 magnet designs have thermal margins of a factor of {approx}4 at the nominal gradient of 31.3 T/m. Because of the large margins, these magnets can easily accommodate possible changes in the IR optics and heat deposition levels.
Date: October 14, 2011
Creator: Drozhdin, A. I.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Kashikhin, V. S.; Lopes, M. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Zlobin, A. V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation and thermal analysis of superconducting quadrupoles in the interaction region of linear collider

Description: CERN has encouraged the US-LARP collaboration to participate in Phase I of the LHC luminosity upgrade by analyzing the benefits gained by using Nb3Sn technology to replace the functionality of select NbTi magnets that CERN is committed to construct. Early studies have shown that the much higher gradients (shorter magnetic lengths) and temperature margins (quench stability) of Nb3Sn magnets compared to their NbTi counterparts is favorable--allowing the insertion of additional absorbers between Q1 and Q2, for example. This paper discusses the relative merits of the NbTi and Nb3Sn options.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Drozhdin, A.I.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Zlobin, A.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam-induced damage to the Tevatron components and what has been done about it

Description: A beam-induced damage to the Tevatron collimators happened in December 2003 was induced by a failure in the CDF Roman Pot detector positioning during the collider run. Possible scenarios of this failure resulted in an excessive halo generation and superconducting magnet quench have been studied via realistic simulations using the STRUCT and MARS14 codes. It is shown that the interaction of a misbehaved proton beam with the collimators result in a rapid local heating and a possible damage. A detailed consideration is given to the ablation process for the collimator material taking place in high vacuum. It is shown that ablation of tungsten (primary collimator) and stainless steel (secondary collimator) jaws results in creation of a groove in the jaw surface as was observed after the December's accident. The actions undertaken to avoid such an accident in future are described in detail.
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Mokhov, N.V.; Czarapata, P.C.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Still, D.A.; /Fermilab; Samulyak, R.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

50x50 GeV Muon Collider Beam Collimation

Description: A summary of different techniques and systems to scrape beam halo in a 50 x 50 GeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider is presented. Such systems are installed in a special utility section with optics specifically designed to meet both the requirements of the scraping system and of injection. Results froma realistic Monte Carlo simulation (STRUCT-MARS) show that a system consisting of steel absorbers several meters in length suppresses halo-induced backgrounds in the collider detector by more than three orders of magnitude. The heat load in superconducting magnets near the scraper system can be reduced to tolerable levels by appropriate collimator design and location. This reduction applies to both injection and collider mode of operation. Also discussed is extraction of halo particles using electrostatic deflectors and bent crys-tals, although neither appears to be effective for a muon collider at this energy.
Date: April 14, 1999
Creator: Drozhdin, A. I.; Johnstone, C. J.; Mokhov, N. V.; Garen, A. A. & Biryukov, V. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dealing with abort kicker prefire in the Superconducting Super Collider

Description: The Superconducting Super Collider uses a single-turn extraction abort system to divert the circulating beam to a massive graphite absorber at normal termination of the operating cycle or in case of any of a number of predefined fault modes. The Collider rings must be designed to be tolerant to abort extraction kicker prefires and misfires because of the large circulating beam energy. We have studied the consequences of beam loss in the accelerator due to such prefires and misfires in terms of material heating and radiation generation using full scale machine simulations and Monte-Carlo energy deposition calculations. Some results from these calculations as well as possible protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of kicker prefire and misfire are discussed in this paper.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Drozhdin, A. I.; Baishev, I. S.; Mokhov, N. V.; Parker, B.; Richardson, R. D. & Zhou, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fermilab Main Injector Collimation Systems: Design, Commissioning and Operation

Description: The Fermilab Main Injector is moving toward providing 400 kW of 120 GeV proton beams using slip stacking injection of eleven Booster batches. Loss of 5% of the beam at or near injection energy results in 1.5 kW of beam loss. A collimation system has been implemented to localize this loss with the design emphasis on beam not captured in the accelerating RF buckets. More than 95% of these losses are captured in the collimation region. We will report on the construction, commissioning and operation of this collimation system. Commissioning studies and loss measurement tools will be discussed. Residual radiation monitoring of the Main Injector machine components will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of these efforts.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Brown, Bruce; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Drozhdin, A.I.; Johnson, David E.; Kourbanis, Ioanis et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of the ILC Collimation System using BDSIM, MARS15 and STRUCT

Description: The simulation codes BDSIM, MARS15 and STRUCT are used to simulate in detail the collimation section of the International Linear Collider (ILC). A comparative study of the collimation system performance for the 250 x 250 GeV machine is conducted, and the key radiation loads are calculated. Results for the latest ILC designs are presented together with their implications for future design iterations.
Date: July 12, 2006
Creator: Carter, J.; Agapov, I.; Blair, G.A.; Deacon, L.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Drozhdin, A.I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent T980 Crystal Collimation Studies at the Tevatron Exploiting a Pixel Detector System and a Multi-Strip Crystal Array

Description: With the shutdown of the Tevatron, the T-980 crystal collimation experiment at Fermilab has been successfully completed. Results of dedicated beam studies in May 2011 are described in this paper. For these studies, two multi-strip crystals were installed in the vertical goniometer and an O-shaped crystal installed in a horizontal goniometer. A two-plane CMS pixel detector was also installed in order to enhance the experiment with the capability to image the profile of crystal channeled or multiple volume reflected beam. The experiment successfully imaged channeled beam from a crystal for 980-GeV protons for the first time. This new enhanced hardware yielded impressive results. The performance and characterization of the crystals studied have been very reproducible over time and consistent with simulations.
Date: May 15, 2012
Creator: Still, D.; Annala, G. E.; Carrigan, R. A.; Drozhdin, A. I.; Johnson, T. R.; Mokhov, N. V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crystal Collimation Studies at the Tevatron (T-980)

Description: Bent-crystal channeling is a technique with a potential to increase beam-halo collimation efficiency in high-energy colliders. First measurements at the Tevatron in 2005 have shown that using a thin silicon crystal to deflect the 1-TeV proton beam halo onto a secondary collimator improves the system performance by reducing the machine impedance, beam losses in the collider detectors and irradiation of the superconducting magnets, all in agreement with simulations. Recent results, obtained with an improved goniometer and enhanced beam diagnostics, are reported here for dedicated beam studies and first full collider stores along with simulation results and plans for substantial enhancement of the T-980 experimental setup.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Mokhov, N. V.; Annala, G. E.; Apyan, A.; Carrigan, R. A.; Drozhdin, A. I.; Johnson, T. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

Description: Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department