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Advanced Materials and Processes for High Energy Resolution Room Temperature Gamma Ray Spectrometers

Description: A significant amount of progress has been achieved in the development of the novel vacuum distillation method described in the proposal. The process for the purification of Te was fully developed and characterized in a series of trials. The purification effect was confirmed with GDMS sample analysis and indicates the process yields very high purity Te metal. Results of this initial process study have been submitted for publication in the Proceedings of the SPIE and will be presented on August 28, 2007 at the SPIE Optics and Photonics 2007 conference in San Diego, CA. Concurrent to the development of the Te process, processes for the purification of Cd, Zn, and Mn have also progressed. The development of the processes for Cd and Zn are nearly complete, while the development of the process for Mn is still in its infancy. It is expected that a full characterization of the Cd process will be completed within the next quarter, followed by Zn. Parallel to those characterization studies, efforts will be made to further develop the Mn purification process. Zone melting work for Te and Cd has also been efforted as per the project work schedule. Initial trials have been completed and the processes developed. Characterization of the results will be completed within the first fiscal year. Finally, an apparatus for the zone refinement of Cd, Zn, and Mn has been constructed and initial trials are set to begin shortly.
Date: December 12, 2007
Creator: McGregor, Douglas S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, fabrication and testing of a low headroom conveyor transfer chute. Final technical report. [Chutes for transferring material from one conveyor to another]

Description: This document contains the results of tests performed on eight one-sixth scale models of low headroom transfer chutes for underground belt conveyors. The models were evaluated using a methodology technique to select one chute for further full-scale testing in an underground mine. The study concludes that the slide chute should be tested in an underground 90/sup 0/ transfer point. The report contains a state-of-the-art survey, a literature search, data from mine visits, test results, evaluation based on the methodology technique, and a set of guidelines for the design of low headroom transfer chutes. Also included are the preliminary designs of the slide and stone box chutes, scaled up from the designs used in the tests. Following the first phase of the program, the contract was terminated for the convenience of the government; therefore, the program did not progress to the Phase II full-scale chute fabrication or Phase III field testing.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Douglas, S. B. & Larson, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Project Summary: Synthesis, Analysis, and Integration of Air Quality and Meteorological Data for the Gulf of Mexico Region]

Description: Summary describing the work completed at ICF International for a Synthesis, Analysis, and Integration of Air Quality and Meteorological Data for the Gulf of Mexico Region. It includes background information on the project funding and sponsorship, goals, methodology, and findings.
Date: December 2009
Creator: ICF International
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Project Summary: Five-Year Meteorological Datasets for CALMET/CALPUFF and OCD5 Modeling of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Region]

Description: Summary describing the work completed at ICF International for 'Five-Year Meteorological Datasets for CALMET/CALPUFF and OCD5 Modeling of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Region.' It includes background information on the project funding and sponsorship, goals, methodology, and findings.
Date: July 2008
Creator: ICF International
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Hand Lay-Up and Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing

Description: The majority of the wind turbine blade industry currently uses low cost hand lay-up manufacturing techniques to process composite blades. While there are benefits to the hand lay-up process, drawbacks inherent to this process along with advantages of other techniques suggest that better manufacturing alternatives may be available. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was identified as a processing alternative and shows promise in addressing the shortcomings of hand lay-up. This report details a comparison of the RTM process to hand lay-up of composite wind turbine blade structures. Several lay-up schedules and critical turbine blade structures were chosen for comparison of their properties resulting from RTM and hand lay-up processing. The geometries investigated were flat plate, thin and thick flanged T-stiffener, I-beam, and root connection joint. It was found that the manufacturing process played an important role in laminate thickness, fiber volume, and weight for the geometries investigated. RTM was found to reduce thickness and weight and increase fiber volumes for all substructures. RTM resulted in tighter material transition radii and eliminated the need for most secondary bonding operations. These results would significantly reduce the weight of wind turbine blades. Hand lay-up was consistently slower in fabrication times for the structures investigated. A comparison of mechanical properties showed no significant differences after employing fiber volume normalization techniques to account for geometry differences resulting from varying fiber volumes. The current root specimen design does not show significant mechanical property differences according to process and exceeds all static and fatigue requirements.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: CAIRNS,DOUGLAS S. & SHRAMSTAD,JON D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

History of the Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cell Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: The Sandia Photovoltaic Program conducted research in crystalline-silicon solar cells between 1986 and 2000 for the U.S. Department of Energy. This period saw rapid improvements in the fundamental understanding of c-Si materials and devices, improvements in c-Si PV manufacturing and control, and a rapid expansion of c-Si PV manufacturing capacity. Crystalline-silicon technology has provided the basis for PV to emerge as a serious option for global energy needs. The c-Si cell research at Sandia examined c-Si materials, devices, processing, and process integration. This report summarizes research conducted in this program over the past 15 years.
Date: April 1, 2001
Creator: RUBY, DOUGLAS S. & GEE, JAMES M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report

Description: Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.
Date: January 10, 2003
Creator: Beck, Douglas S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, fabrication and testing of a low headroom conveyor transfer chute. Final technical report. [Chutes for transferring material from one conveyor to another]

Description: This document contains the results of tests performed on eight one-sixth scale models of low headroom transfer chutes for underground belt conveyors. The models were evaluated using a methodology technique to select one chute for further full-scale testing in an underground mine. The study concludes that the slide chute should be tested in an underground 90/sup 0/ transfer point. The report contains a state-of-the-art survey, a literature search, data from mine visits, test results, evaluation based on the methodology technique, and a set of guidelines for the design of low headroom transfer chutes. Also included are the preliminary designs of the slide and stone box chutes, scaled up from the designs used in the tests. Following the first phase of the program, the contract was terminated for the convenience of the government; therefore, the program did not progress to the Phase II full-scale chute fabrication or Phase III field testing.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Douglas, S. B. & Larson, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Description: The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.
Date: January 27, 2007
Creator: Bessette, Norman; Schmidt, Douglas S.; Rawson, Jolyon; Foster, Rhys & Litka, Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

Description: MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.
Date: June 12, 2006
Creator: McGregor, Douglas S.; Adams, Marvin L.; Carron, Igor & Nelson, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports

Description: This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Swanson, Douglas S. & Thieme, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program Area of Interest: Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Description: The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Bessette, Norman; Schmidt, Douglas S.; Rawson, Jolyon; Foster, Rhys & Litka, Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Description: The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.
Date: July 27, 2006
Creator: Bessette, Norman; Schmidt, Douglas S.; Rawson, Jolyon; Foster, Rhys & Litka, Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diffraction Grating Structures in Solar Cells

Description: Sub-wavelength periodic texturing (gratings) of crystalline-silicon (c-Si) surfaces for solar cell applications can be designed for maximizing optical absorption in thin c-Si films. We have investigated c-Si grating structures using rigorous modeling, hemispherical reflectance, and internal quantum efficiency measurements. Model calculations predict almost {approximately}100% energy coupling into obliquely propagating diffraction orders. By fabrication and optical characterization of a wide range of 1D & 2D c-Si grating structures, we have achieved broad-band, low ({approximately} 5%) reflectance without an anti-reflection film. By integrating grating structures into conventional solar cell designs, we have demonstrated short-circuit current density enhancements of 3.4 and 4.1 mA/cm{sup 2} for rectangular and triangular 1D grating structures compared to planar controls. The effective path length enhancements due to these gratings were 2.2 and 1.7, respectively. Optimized 2D gratings are expected to have even better performance.
Date: December 1, 2000
Creator: ZAIDI,SALEEM H.; GEE,JAMES M. & RUBY,DOUGLAS S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research needs of c-Si technology required to meet roadmap milestones

Description: In this paper, the authors examined the areas in c-Si growth, materials, and processing that require improvement through research to overcome barriers to the implementation of the photovoltaic road maps's Si goals. To obtain PV module throughput to the roadmap target of 200 MW/factory/year, the typical Si PV factory must produce >4,000 m{sup 2}/day of silicon.
Date: April 22, 2000
Creator: RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; CISZEK,T.F. & SOPORI,B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

Description: In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S. & YANG,PIN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Description: The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Bessette, Norman; Schmidt, Douglas S.; Rawson, Jolyon; Allfather, Lars & Litka, Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma Texturing of Silicon Solar Cells

Description: Surface texture promotes enhanced light absorption in Si solar cells. The quality of lower cost multicrystalline-silicon (mc-Si) has increased to the point that its cell performance is close to that of single c-Si cells, with the major difference resulting from the inability to texture mc-Si affordably. This has reduced the cost-per-watt advantage of mc-Si. Surface texturing aimed at enhanced absorption in Si has been historically obtained by creating multimicrometer-sized pyramids using anisotropic wet etchants on single-crystalline silicon that take advantage of its single crystalline orientation. Since the surface feature sizes are several times the length of the incident solar wavelengths involved, the optical analysis of the reflected and absorbed light can be understood using geometrical optics. Geometrical textures reduce reflection and improve absorption by double-bounce and oblique light coupling into the semiconductor. However, geometrical texturing suffers from several disadvantages that limit its effectiveness. Some of these are listed below: (a) Wet-chemical anisotropic etching used to form random pyramids on <100> crystal orientation is not effective in the texturing of low-cost multicrystalline wafers, (b) Anti-reflection films deposited on random features to reduce reflection have a resonant structure limiting their effectiveness to a narrow range of angles and wavelengths. Various forms of surface texturing have been applied to mc-Si in research, including laser-structuring, mechanical grinding, porous-Si etching, and photolithographically defined etching. However, these may be too costly to ever be used in large-scale production. A Japanese firm has reported the development of an RIE process using Cl{sub 2} gas, which textures multiple wafers per batch, making it attractive for mass-production [1]. Using this process, they have produced a 17.1% efficient 225-cm{sup 2} mc-Si cell, which is the highest efficiency mc-Si cell of its size ever reported. This proves that RIE texturing does not cause performance-limiting damage to Si cells. In this paper, ...
Date: July 20, 1999
Creator: Narayanan, Mohan; Roy, Madhu; Ruby, Douglas S. & Zaidi, Saleem H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Horizontal Ampoule Growth and Characterization of Mercuric Iodide at Controlled Gas Pressures for X-Ray and Gamma Ray Spectrometers

Description: The project developed a new method for producing high quality mercuric iodide crystals of x-ray and gamma spectrometers. Included are characterization of mercuric iodide crystal properties as a function of growth environment and fabrication and demonstration of room-temperature-operated high-resolution mercuric iodide spectrometers.
Date: April 30, 2004
Creator: Corcoran, Douglas S. McGregor Elsa Ariesanti Bridget
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

Description: The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.
Date: March 24, 2005
Creator: Bessette, Norman; Schmidt, Douglas S.; Rawson, Jolyon; Allfather, Lars & Litka, Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a High-Throughput Plasma-Processing System

Description: Sandia National Laboratories has demonstrated significant performance gains in crystalline silicon solar cell technology through the use of plasma-processing for the deposition of silicon nitride by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), plasma-hydrogenation of the nitride layer, and reactive-ion etching of the silicon surface prior to the deposition to decrease the reflectivity of the surface. One of the major problems of implementing plasma processing into a cell production line is the batch configuration and/or low throughput of the systems currently available. This report describes the concept of a new in-line plasma processing system that could meet the industrial requirements for a high-throughput and cost effective solution for mass production of solar cells.
Date: July 20, 1999
Creator: Darkazalli, Ghazi; Matthei, Keith & Ruby, Douglas S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department