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Description: This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration ...
Date: July 6, 2006
Creator: DOUGLAS, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

At tank Low Activity Feed Homogeneity Analysis Verification

Description: This report evaluates the merit of selecting sodium, aluminum, and cesium-137 as analytes to indicate homogeneity of soluble species in low-activity waste (LAW) feed and recommends possible analytes and physical properties that could serve as rapid screening indicators for LAW feed homogeneity. The three analytes are adequate as screening indicators of soluble species homogeneity for tank waste when a mixing pump is used to thoroughly mix the waste in the waste feed staging tank and when all dissolved species are present at concentrations well below their solubility limits. If either of these conditions is violated, then the three indicators may not be sufficiently chemically representative of other waste constituents to reliably indicate homogeneity in the feed supernatant. Additional homogeneity indicators that should be considered are anions such as fluoride, sulfate, and phosphate, total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon, and total alpha to estimate the transuranic species. Physical property measurements such as gamma profiling, conductivity, specific gravity, and total suspended solids are recommended as possible at-tank methods for indicating homogeneity. Indicators of LAW feed homogeneity are needed to reduce the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) Program's contractual risk by assuring that the waste feed is within the contractual composition and can be supplied to the waste treatment plant within the schedule requirements.
Date: September 28, 2000
Creator: DOUGLAS, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report of FY 1995 Raman spectroscopy technology development

Description: US DOE is sponsoring development of remote, fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for rapid chemical characterization of Hanford high-level radioactive tank waste. Deployment targets for this technology are analytical hot cells and, via the Light-Duty Utility Arm and cone penetrometer, the waste tanks themselves. Perceived benefits of fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy are (1) rapid generation of tank-waste safety-related data, (2) reduced personnel exposure to highly radioactive waste, (3) reduced tank-waste sampling and analysis costs, and (4) reduced radioactive analytical waste. This document presents the results from the investigation of two dispersive, transmission-grating Raman systems and four fiber-optic Raman probe designs with non-radioactive tank waste simulants. One Raman system used a 532-nm, 400 mW, solid-state laser; the other used a 785-nm, 500 mW, solid-state diode laser. We found (1) the transmission-grating systems had better wavelength stability than previously tried Czerny-Turner-Based systems and (2) the 785-nm system`s specie detection limits in the spectral fingerprint regiion were at least as good as those for the 532-nm system. Based on these results, and the fact that some tank wastes luminesce with 514.5nm excitation, we selected the 785-nm system for hot-cell use. Of the four probes tested, three had a ``six-around-on`` fiber probe design; the fourth probe was a one-fiber-in-one-fiber-out, diffuse-relectance design. Comparison of the four probes` signal-to-noise rations, rations, transmission/collection efficiencies, and probe-silica Raman backgrounds showed that the best probe for use with Hanford-Site tank waste should (1) be filtered as close to the probe tip as possible to reduce the probe-silica Raman background and (2) have multiple collection fibers. The responses of all the probes tested showed a strong dependence on probe-sample distance, and the presence of a probe window appeared to increase the probe`s silica Raman background.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Douglas, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deposition and corrosion phenomena on aluminum surfaces under deluged dry cooling-tower condisions. Interim report

Description: Deposition and corrosion on aluminum heat exchanger surfaces resulting from deluge in wet/dry cooling towers is simulated in a laboratory Corrosion/Deposition Loop (CDL). Heat exchanger deposition buildup was found to be linearly dependent on concentration factor and number of wet/dry cycles. Deionized water rising after deluge reduced rate of deposition. Laboratory data obtained from CDL relates directly to operation of the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) demonstration cooling tower. Technology transferable to ACT shows that deposition from supersaturated solution can be effectively controlled by attention to water chemistry, pH, water conditioning, and good heat transfer design. The additional mechanism of deposition by water film evaporation is effectively managed by soft water rinsing and uniform surface wetting. Exposure of a model TRANE surface (the ACT wet/dry exchanger) produced short-term deposition extrapolating to 0.011 mm buildup in three years. Studies continue to verify 4X as maximum cycles of concentration through control of water chemistry and rinsing after deluge. Deluge water used at ACT facility is sufficiently aggressive to warrant use of Alclad to extend tube service life.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Wheeler, K.R.; May, R.P.; Douglas, J.G. & Tylczak, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectroscopy applied to problems in Nuclear Waste Management

Description: High-resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is a variant of the more conventional ICP-AES that is widely used for environmental monitoring. The relevance of high-resolution capabilities of three such analytical problems are discussed herein. (1) Pu in very complex, radioactive matrices can be determined with good accuracy without the need for prior chemical separations. Isotopically resolved spectra from actinides in fuel dissolver solutions can be obtained after a simple ion-exchange step. (2) High-resolution methods permit the simultaneous determination of fission products and actinides in simulated high-level nuclear waste solutions. Such measurements can be useful for both safeguards and waste processing. (3) The ICP-AES technique, with a photodiode array detector, can be used to determine the composition of nuclear waste glasses. Such measurements can assist the glass producer as well as providing predictors of nuclear waste form performance in a repository. 16 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Edelson, M.C.; Winge, R.K.; Eckels, D.E. (Ames Lab., IA (United States)) & Douglas, J.G. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of some inorganic compounds by Raman spectroscopy

Description: Raman spectra have been measured for several nitrates, nitrites, sulfates, ferrocyanides and ferricyanides, both in the solid phase and in aqueous solution. Accurate locations of peak maxima are given. Limits of detection for some of the compounds are given for solutions and for solid mixtures in NaNO{sub 3}. Preliminary measurements have been made on core material recovered from the storage tanks on the Hanford Site. Representative spectra are presented, showing that it is possible to observe responses of individual components from measurements made directly on untreated cores using a fiber optic sampling probe.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Lombardi, D. R.; Wang, C.; Sun, B.; Fountain, A. W. III; Vickers, T. J.; Mann, C. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department