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An Evaluation of Therapeutic Recreation Services Provided for Psychiatric Clients in the State of Texas

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is the delineation of current practices in therapeutic recreation in psychiatric treatment centers in Texas, The programs of the forty-two hospitals responding to the survey questionnaire were evaluated in terms of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society's "Standards for Therapeutic Recreation in Psychiatric Facilities." It was determined that, while the use of recreation in psychiatric rehabilitation is widespread, many programs are not administratively independent., A close association between recreation and occupational therapy was found. Extensive recreation facilities and activities were reported. Use of community resources was widespread, but follow-up and leisure counseling services were rare. Most personnel had no recreation training. The evaluation showed limited compliance with the standards.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Steinfeld, Janis L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Programs and Metaprograms for the Control of Diabetic Symptomatology: A Comparative Treatment Study

Description: Stress has long been reported to play a prominent role in the onset and course of diabetes mellitus. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the impact of stress on this disease, the physiological mechanisms and pathways the stress response might utilize, and psychotherapeutic tacts taken to date to ameliorate this response. A stress management package was then assembled, comprised of relaxation training, hypnosis, stress inoculation training, and imagery induction.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Stevens, Larry Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Role of Running in Female Separation-Individuation

Description: The present research investigated the relationship between separation-individuation issues and the motoric activity of running in adult female development. Literature on sex roles and sociocultural factors was presented. Previous research on physical activity and mental health was reviewed. Psychodynamic formulations provided the framework for exploring and understanding a woman's involvement in running. Measuring instruments tapped concepts related to independence and separateness.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Horne, Amy Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Permeability of Selves and Compliance with Therapeutic Homework

Description: A model of the person as a "community of selves" was used to investigate how adopting the perspective of different selves influenced anticipated compliance with therapy homework designed to decrease academic procrastination. A model of resistance to change derived from personal construct theory was used to predict which selves subjects would tend to see as more likely to take on the role of carrying out the homework. Focusing on different selves was found to influence anticipated compliance, and the model of resistance to change was partially successful in predicting which selves would be seen as more likely to carry out the homework. Implications for therapy and research are discussed within the framework of a model of first and second order change.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Scott, Gregory Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Note-Taking on Self-Disclosure Among Prisoners

Description: The effects of note-taking on self-disclosure during a clinical interview among prisoners were investigated. Participants consisted of 60 male and female inmates incarcerated in a minimum security prison. Subjects within each gender were randomly assigned to either high note-taking, low note-taking or no note-taking conditions. Subjects were asked to discuss intimate information during an interview while varying levels of notes were taken. Self-disclosure was assessed using items from the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank. A 3 x 2 ANOVA was conducted. No significant main effects were found. However, a significant interaction was found. Further analysis revealed that females in the high note-taking condition disclosed less than females in the no note-taking condition. Some theoretical and clinical implications are suggested.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Lowrey, Kimberly D. (Kimberly Dawn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sleep Patterns and Chronic Pain

Description: Sleep, emotions and pain are intimately connected, physiologically, by their location and utilization of the same brain centers and neurotransmitters. Sleep disturbances have been clinically observed in chronic pain populations; yet, no treatment program has formally addressed this aspect of patient care. It is hypothesized that a pain population (PN) will differ significantly from a non-injured workforce (WF) when reviewing quantitative and qualitative sleep data. This study strongly supports that sleep disturbances and socioeconomic decrements exist in chronic pain patients. Forty-seven variables were surveyed and 13 were found to show significant differences between the groups and seven were found to discriminate between the PN and WF groups at less than the .0001 level. A discriminant analysis was performed to determine the smallest model which could efficiently classify cases, according to successive root variables. The major discriminators are pain levels, medication, amount of sleep obtained and number of awakenings.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Kellen, Rebecca Margaret
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comprehensive Neuropsychological Screening Device for Adults: Reliability of Parallel Forms

Description: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of parallel-forms of the Comprehensive Neuropsychological Screening Device (CNS). Forty-five subjects ranging in age from 16 to 69 were administered Form A and Form B of the CNS at two week intervals. Results indicated that the CNS has adequate test-retest reliability. The results suggest the applicability of using the CNS as a screening device for brain dysfunction.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Ganci, Maria
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children of Battered Women: Personality Patterns and Identification

Description: Mental health professionals have observed that children who witness interparental violence frequently display either an affrontive, demanding personality style, or a passive, compliant style. The prevalence of these personality types and their relation to identification, stress, and other variables was evaluated in a sample of 40 children (age range = 6 - 12 years old) who have witnessed parental spouse abuse. Children completed the Children's Personality Questionnaire and the Parental Identification Questionnaire. Mothers completed the Life Experiences Survey. Independent ratings of the children's personality were made. The results validated the existence of these two personality styles among both male and female witnesses, and supplied evidence for their relation to paternal identification, familial instability, and parental ineffectualness. The implications of these findings for assessment and intervention are discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Adler, Jeffrey Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship Between College Student Perceived Separation and Emotional Status

Description: This study explored whether depression was related to the way college students interact with their parents. A second purpose was to explore whether the emotional states of depression, anxiety, and hostility were associated with different types of adolescent dependence (Functional, Attitudinal, Conflictual, and Emotional) on each parent. A total of 108 undergraduate students from intact families completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, hostility and psychological separation. A non-significant relationship was found between the way students relate to their parents and level of depression. However, subjects reporting angry or guilty feelings toward parents had significantly greater depression and hostility scores. Subjects reporting attitudes, values and beliefs that are not distinct from their parents also displayed significantly greater hostility scores. Furthermore, anxiety in the sample was significantly related to subjects' reports of dependence on approval, closeness and emotional support from parents.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Interrante, Ilana A. (Ilana Albanese)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mistrust Level and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help

Description: This study explored the relationship between cultural mistrust level and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. It was hypothesized that Blacks with high levels of cultural mistrust, when compared to those with low levels, would show less favorable attitudes toward seeking formal help for psychological problems. Black students were administered the Cultural Mistrust Inventory, Help-Seeking Attitude Scale, Reid-Gundlach Social Service Satisfaction Scale, and Opinions About Mental Illness Scale. Using a 2 (gender) X 2 (mistrust level) MANCOVA, a main effect for the factor of mistrust level was found along with a mistrust level by gender interaction. Students with higher levels of cultural mistrust were found to hold less favorable attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help when compared to students with lower levels of cultural mistrust.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Nickerson, Kim J. (Kim Jung)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perspective Taking and Self Disclosure

Description: The effects of taking a third person role on self disclosure, self sympatheticness and several nonverbal parameters of task involvement were examined in a psychotherapy analogue study. Subjects were classified as high or low in ego strength using previously established norms for college students. In the third person role subjects were instructed to describe themselves from the perspective of an "intimate and sympathetic best friend." An encouragement to talk format was used to facilitate self description from the first person. Support was not found for the hypotheses that altering the perspective used in self description would increase self disclosure and that high ego strength subjects would be better able to use a perspective taking intervention. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Recommendations for future research are made.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Allen, Bruce W. (Bruce Wayne), 1958-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Anger and Hostility Measures: Effects of Social Desirability

Description: Individuals responding in a socially desirable (SD) fashion, rather than in a manner that reflects their true behavior, has been a problem for self-report questionnaires since their inception. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the probability an item is endorsed on a self-report measure of anger is directly proportional to the rated SD of that item. Eighty-two subjects completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), the Profile of Moods State (POMS), and the State- Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). A probability of endorsement was computed for each of the measures' items. Twenty additional subjects rated the measures' items for SD. Each item's SD rating was paired with the probability the item was endorsed to produce a correlation coefficient for each measure. Results strongly support the stated hypothesis. Directions for future research are discussed.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Coffey, Scott F. (Scott Franklin)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Attributional Style of Adult Children of Alcoholics

Description: 115 undergraduate students were surveyed to see if attributional style would be different for individuals with alcoholic parents, depressed parents, or neither factor. Subjects were sorted into the three groups based on their responses to a family history questionnaire. Each subject filled out two attributional style questionnaires, the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Attributional Style Assessment Test (ASAT-II). The three groups did not differ on attributional style for interpersonal, noninter- personal, or general situations. Within the adult children of alcoholics group, subjects reported that their successes in interpersonal situations were due to their strategy and effort, rather than ability, more so than for noninterpersonal successes.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Coxsey, Stephen Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mental Status, Intellectual, and Mood States Associated with Environmental Illness Patients

Description: The purpose of the present study was to begin development of a psychological profile for environmentally ill patients. Existing psychiatric labels are unable to encompass these patients. Test scores were drawn from a pool of 89 patients whose environmental exposures were verified by the presence of toxins in the blood serum. A Mental Status Exam, a Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised screen, and the Profile of Mood States were administered. Results indicate a primary pattern which is significantly different from test norms consisting of fatigue, reduced mental functioning, and a lack of psychotic or personality disorder indicators. The reported symptoms of environmentally ill patients were objectively verified by current psychological test instruments. The need for a new diagnostic category for people who have been poisoned by environmental toxins is discussed.
Date: April 1991
Creator: Fincher, Cynthia Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Verbal Dominance Behaviors using Constructivist Theory

Description: This study assessed how Constructivist theory accounts for verbal dominance. Conversations of rotating dyads were tape recorded, then coded for measures of dominance. Subjects completed a trait dominance scale and a constructivist personality test. Interpersonal rankings of dominance were found to be more consistent with observed behavior than trait dominance scores. Extreme trait dominance scores were associated with a constructivist measure indicating maladjustment. Dyads identified as more resistant to change were found to use fewer verbal control strategies; male/male dyads were characterized by direct, functional interactions. Dyads that were highly comfortable with one another utilized fewer verbal control methods. Lastly, interactions in which participants reported unfamiliar self-experiencing utilized higher levels of verbal control. Implications for group processing, assessment of dominance and sex differences are discussed.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Curlin, Caroline
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Esteem, Sex Roles, and Fundamentalist Religious Belief

Description: Recent sex role research suggested that androgynous subjects demonstrated better adjustment than sex-typed subjects. Fundamentalist religious belief, however, has strongly supported sex role differentiation. This study hypothesized that the effect of appropriate sex role typing or androgyny on self-esteem would depend on religious belief. Although this hypothesis was not supported, a main effect on sex roles for females was obtained; androgynous females had a higher self-esteem level than feminine females. In addition, males in this study had a higher self-esteem level than females.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Zervopoulos, John Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Depressive Subtypes and Dysfunctional Attitudes: a Personal Construct View

Description: The influence of cognitive organization, dysfunctional attitudes, and depressive "subtype" on the perceptions of negative life events is explored. BDI scores are used to delineate symptomatic and non-symptomatic groups. Construct content (sociotropic versus autonomous, as first defined by Beck) is used to identify predominant schema-type. Subjects completed a Problematic Situations Questionnaire with Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. Results indicate that depressed individuals display more dysfunctional attitudes and negative affect in all types of negative situations; further the endorsement of dysfunctional attitudes is significantly more likely to occur in the context of schema-congruent situations. Findings are discussed a) in terms of the utility of personal constructs in the assessment of schema-type and b) in accordance with a person-event interactional model of depression.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Longhorn, Alison J. (Alison Jane)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Premorbid Level of Functioning and Perspective Taking During Self-Narratives

Description: Two interviews were conducted with 20 participants from a Mental Health and Mental Retardation (MHMR) crisis house. Subjects were classified as good or poor premorbid level of functioning using a case history form and information from their social history charts. The study employed a self-narrative method to direct self disclosure. In the first interview, participants were asked to describe themselves. In the second interview they were asked to identify what they would change about their histories and to describe how this would make a difference in how their lives turned out. Support was not found for the hypothesis that those with the higher premorbid functioning would be better able to shift perspectives and use more positive self constructs. Methodological, theoretical and future research areas are discussed.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Isler, William C. (William Charles)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Human Learned Helplessness: Uncontrollable Negative Feedback or Total Amount of Negative Feedback?

Description: To determine if learned helplessness results from lack of control over negative events or simply the number of negative events experienced, 60 university students were assigned to one of five treatments: controllable low negative, uncontrollable low negative, controllable high negative, uncontrollable high negative, and no treatment. Backward digit and letter span tasks served as test tasks. The generally nonsignificant results were discussed as possibly due to a procedural error. Further research on this question is needed.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Martin, Daniel Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assertive Training with Retarded Women

Description: Assertive training was investigated to determine its usefulness in teaching mildly retarded women to become more assertive. The 10 subjects (ages 18-35, WAIS VIQ 50-75) were randomly assigned to either the assertive training or the control group. Experimental subjects received 5 weeks of daily assertive training sessions which employed modeling, behavior rehearsal, and focused instructions in a group setting. Specific components of assertive behavior were taught in the following order: (a) assertive refusals, (b) assertive requests, (c) posture, (d) eye contact, and (e) loudness, Results of a behavioral role-playing task administered to both groups before and after treatment revealed that assertaive training subjects made significantly greater improvement than controls in their assertive content, Additionally, these subjects manifested significantly more improvement than control subjects on a global assertiveness measure.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Gentile, Cynthia Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Passive and Active Avoidance Learning in Depressives

Description: In order to aid in the understanding of the personality components that contribute to the symptoms of depression, the learning process of persons labeled as depressed was examined. Twenty female subjects who were either receiving or being evaluated for psychotherapy participated in this study. Based on MMPI and DACL scores, 10 depressed and 10 nondepressed subjects were placed in avoidance learning situations. An active avoidance situation required making the correct button press to avoid a sounding buzzer; the absence of the button-pressing response constituted a passive avoidance situation, There was no significant difference between the two groups in learning across avoidance conditions, Depressives were found 'to be less persistent in responding than were nondepressives. Results were explained as supporting a learned helplessness model of depression.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Weeks, Randall E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting Attrition of Baptist Foreign Missionaries Using the MMPI

Description: Relationships between MMPI subscale scores and premature resignations among Southern Baptist foreign missionaries appointed in 1964 were investigated in an effort to develop a predictive model for attrition. Unsuccessful attempts were made at cross-validating the results of a previous related study, and two separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken. The first sorted subjects into three groups, defined by subjects' length of service before resignation. The second classified them according to the reason stated for their termination, if applicable. Both procedures failed to establish a statistically reliable classification system for relating MMPI scores with premature resignations. Although consistent success has been achieved with the MMPI as a screening instrument for psychopathology, it is suggested that the instrument is not adequately sensitive as a screening device for groups lying predominantly within the normal range of variability.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Cobbs, David Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Structural Aspects of Loevinger's Model of Ego Development

Description: The study reviews the structural and psychometric underpinnings of Loevinger's theory of ego development. It is noted that the current literature investigating the validity of Loevinger's model has not adequately addressed the structural assumptions of the theory. "Process" variables are hypothesized to vary depending on the process of structural change. Two such variables, cognitive complexity and the organization of cognitive constructs, were measured in 73 college students, staff, and faculty members in three North Texas institutions. Level of ego development, measured by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test, was assessed in each subject and the pattern of cognitive complexity and construct organization was evaluated across ego levels. Results offer only limited support for the stage model's structural assumptions. Discussion highlights several inadequacies in Loevinger's instrument and offers a direction for possible revision. Implications of the results are examined in terms of current theoretical issues.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Harrison, James Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries

Highway Abuse and Violence: Motorists' Experiences as Victims

Description: Only circumscribed aspects of highway aggression have been investigated. The upsurge of abuse and violence transpiring between motorists necessitated a more definitive depiction of the actual events, participants, and relevant contextual features. A questionnaire administered to 120 motorists, aged 18 to 68, solicited a recountal of incidents occurring within 12 months and a description of their most recent encounter. Based on severity of experience, subjects were relegated to distal threat, direct threat, and nonvictim groups. Although most events involved unreported distal threats lasting less than three minutes, men and non-college graduates were more often directly threatened, while non-victims were predominantly women and college graduates. Perpetrators were primarily unknown Caucasian males who generally aggressed in populated areas during afternoon hours.
Date: May 1984
Creator: McAlhany, Deborah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries