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Evaluating Tree Seedling Survival and Growth in a Bottomland Old-field Site: Implications for Ecological Restoration

Description: In order to assess the enhancement of seedling survival and growth during drought conditions, five-hundred bare-root seedlings each of Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckl.) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) were planted each with four soil amendments at a Wildlife Management Area in Lewisville, Texas. The treatments were a mycorrhizal inoculant, mulch fabric, and two superabsorbent gels (TerraSorb® and DRiWATER®). Survival and growth measurements were assessed periodically for two years. Research was conducted on vegetation, soil, and site history for baseline data. Both superabsorbent gels gave significant results for Shumard oak survival, and one increased green ash diameter. For overall growth, significant results were found among DRiWATER®, mycorrhizae, and mulch treatments.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Boe, Brian Jeffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries

Integrating life cycle analysis and the ecological footprint calculator to foster sustainable behaviors

Description: Many tools have been developed to assess global, national or regional sustainable development policies. However, as governments develop sustainable policies, individuals must also feel empowered to affect their personal impact on the planet. This thesis integrates three sustainability concepts that lend themselves to individual sustainability: The natural step, life cycle assessment, and the ecological footprint. TNS serves to provide the meaning and substance toward sustainable development. LCA helps provide the framework for assessing sustainability. The EF calculator determines the driving components and measures the qualitative decisions made through TNS and LCA. From the analysis of the household footprint calculator a simplified footprint calculator was developed to assist individuals and communities in setting benchmarks and goals as they move away from over-consumption and towards a sustainable lifestyle.
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Date: December 2002
Creator: Anderle, Kathryn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Establishment and Competitive Ability of Nelumbo Lutea in Relation to Myriophyllum Spicatum

Description: Limitations from reduced light and increasing water depth on Nelumbo lutea seedlings were determined in tank experiments. Survival was high in all tested light levels. Total biomass increased significantly with increasing light. Biomass allocation shifted significantly to root production between 3 and 6 weeks in the 10 and 24% levels. Survival decreased with increasing planting depth, and biomass of survivors reduced significantly between 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m depths. Nelumbo lutea and Myriophyllum spicatum populations were monitored for one season in a 0.7 ha pond to track changes in species dominance. Myriophyllum spicatum dominated early, and N. lutea dominated from July through October, suppressing M. spicatum at all depths. Competitive interactions between N. lutea and M. spicatum were investigated for two seasons in a container experiment situated within a pond. Where established, N. lutea dominated in the presence of M. spicatum. However, N. lutea could not be established in depths greater than 1 meter.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Snow, Joe R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessing the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of MTBE and BTEX Compounds in Lake Lewisville, Texas February 1999 - February 2000

Description: The spatial and temporal distribution of Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes) compounds were assessed in a multipurpose reservoir, Lake Lewisville, Texas between February 1999 and February 2000. Concentrations of MTBE ranged from 0.0 - 16.7 mg/L. Levels of MTBE in the lake were related to watercraft. BTEX concentrations were never detected above 2.0 mg/L during the sampling period. Finished drinking water from Denton and the Upper Trinity Regional Water District (UTRWD) Treatment Plants were also tested for MTBE and BTEX. MTBE and BTEX were not detected in UTRWD water samples. Denton's finished water samples never exceeded 2.2 mg/L for MTBE and BTEX was not detected except for one replicate of 1.1 mg/L toluene.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Lee, Anne W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Use of Automated Sampler to Characterize Urban Stormwater Runoff in Pecan Creek

Description: The purpose of this study was to use the Global Water Stormwater Sampler SS201 to characterize the urban runoff in Pecan Creek. Location of the samplers was influenced by land use and ease of installation. Determination of the constituents for analysis was modeled after those used in the NPDES permit for seven cities within the Dallas/Ft.Worth metroplex. Some metals, notably cadmium and arsenic, exceeded the U.S. EPA's MCL's. Statistical analysis revealed first flush samples to be significantly more concentrated than composite samples. Minimum discharge loadings were found to be significantly lower than maximum discharge loadings. Additionally there were significant differences of specific constituents between station locations and storm events.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Appel, Patrick L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ecological Enhancement of Timber Growth: Applying Compost to Loblolly Pine Plantations

Description: This study explored the application of compost onto a small loblolly pine tree forest in northeast Texas. Its purpose was to determine if the application of various amounts of compost would provide for accelerated rates of growth for the trees. Soil parameters were also monitored. A total of 270 trees were planted and studied in a northeast Texas forest ecosystem. Compost rates of 5, 25, and 50 tons per acre with either soil or compost backfill were utilized and compared to a control without compost. Nonparametric and parametric ANOVA and Chi-Square tests were utilized. The results indicated that greater application rates retained greater moisture and higher pH levels in the soil. Compost applications also yielded a greater survival rate as well as larger tree height and diameter when compared to the control. The 25 ton/acre application backfilled in native soil achieved the greatest average in height and diameter when compared to the averages for the control plot. Greater growth differences for the 25S application can be attributed to additional nutrients coupled with a stable pH consistent with native soil acidity.
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Date: December 1999
Creator: Stuckey, Harold Troy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis and Development of Post Secondary Curriculum on Sustainability

Description: This thesis examines existing curricula at colleges and universities about sustainability and uses results to develop an introductory post secondary course curriculum. The proposed course is organized around three major elements - - science, philosophy, and economics - - all integral to understanding sustainability. Materials needed to teach the proposed 3-semester hour course including syllabus, teaching modules, transparencies, handouts, and exams were developed. Suggestions on how to teach a one-semester hour course on sustainability and a workshop on sustainability are also presented. The following research and curriculum development was a project established and funded by the Texas Energy Office, Renewable Resources and Sustainability Program.
Date: May 2000
Creator: White, Miki Machell
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterizing the Municipal Solid Waste Stream in Denton, Texas

Description: Forty-two commercially collected dumpsters from Denton’s Municipal Solid Waste Stream were emptied, sorted and weighed to characterize the material types and make preliminary recycling policy recommendations. The general composition of Denton’s solid waste stream was not significantly different from the composition of the nation’s solid waste stream. Fifty-eight percent of the observed waste stream was recyclable. Paper made up the largest portion of recyclable materials and the "grocery" source category had more paper than any of the other five categories. Based on these findings, an incrementally aggressive approach is recommended to reduce certain types of wastes observed in the waste stream. This would include a Pay-As-You-Throw Program followed by an Intermediate Processing Center that can be converted to a Materials Recovery Facility.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Brady, Patricia D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Data Fusion Framework for Floodplain Analysis using GIS and Remotely Sensed Data

Description: Throughout history floods have been part of the human experience. They are recurring phenomena that form a necessary and enduring feature of all river basin and lowland coastal systems. In an average year, they benefit millions of people who depend on them. In the more developed countries, major floods can be the largest cause of economic losses from natural disasters, and are also a major cause of disaster-related deaths in the less developed countries. Flood disaster mitigation research was conducted to determine how remotely sensed data can effectively be used to produce accurate flood plain maps (FPMs), and to identify/quantify the sources of error associated with such data. Differences were analyzed between flood maps produced by an automated remote sensing analysis tailored to the available satellite remote sensing datasets (rFPM), the 100-year flooded areas "predicted" by the Flood Insurance Rate Maps, and FPMs based on DEM and hydrological data (aFPM). Landuse/landcover was also examined to determine its influence on rFPM errors. These errors were identified and the results were integrated in a GIS to minimize landuse / landcover effects. Two substantial flood events were analyzed. These events were selected because of their similar characteristics (i.e., the existence of FIRM or Q3 data; flood data which included flood peaks, rating curves, and flood profiles; and DEM and remote sensing imagery.) Automatic feature extraction was determined to be an important component for successful flood analysis. A process network, in conjunction with domain specific information, was used to map raw remotely sensed data onto a representation that is more compatible with a GIS data model. From a practical point of view, rFPM provides a way to automatically match existing data models to the type of remote sensing data available for each event under investigation. Overall, results showed how remote sensing could contribute to ...
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Necsoiu, Dorel Marius
Partner: UNT Libraries

Organochlorine Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Fish From the Trinity River, Texas

Description: The Trinity River passes through the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex receiving point and non-point source contaminant loadings. Lepomis spp. were collected at twelve sampling locations in the Trinity River in August 1987 and September 1988 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals. Results from the study were compared to existing U.S. FDA action and tolerance levels, LC50s, and historical data. Various longitudinal trends and some concentration patterns were observed. Continual study of pesticide and metal body burdens in fish allow testing for trends, and thereby, lead to a better understanding of the distribution of contaminants in the Trinity River.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Martinez, Maria L., 1960-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Hexadecanol on the Microbiota of Lake Hefner

Description: It seemed desirable to investigate more fully the effect of hexadecanol on the microbial population of a reservoir. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine the effect of hexadecanol on the micro-biota of Lake Hefner, to ascertain which organisms were stimulated by hexadecanol both in the laboratory and the reservoir, and to investigate the degradation of hexadecanol by microorganisms selected from Lake Hefner.
Date: May 1968
Creator: Dickson, Kenneth L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Nine Diet and Water Combinations on the Culture Health of Ceriodaphnia Dubia

Description: Culture health of Ceriodaphnia dubia was evaluated for organisms cultured using all combinations of three foods and three waters. Criteria used to assess health of cultures included adult and neonate weights, time required to produce first broods, neonate production, adult survival, and resistance to hexavalent chromium. Diet/water combinations which produced the most neonates were not found to produce adults which were more resistant to chromium than those which produced fewer neonates. Of those evaluated, a diet of Selenastrum capricornutum and a yeast-trout chow-cereal leaf mixture was best for culturing and testing Ceriodaphnia. The best synthetic water tested was a mixture of nine parts reconstituted hard water and one part bottled mineral water.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Patterson, Paul W. (Paul William)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sediment Characteristics and Bioavailability of Sorbed Neutral Organic Compounds

Description: Several sediment characteristics were analyzed to determine their suitability for use as potential normalization factors for the bioavailability of neutral organic compounds sorbed to sediments. Percent organic carbon, cation exchange capacity and particle surface area were measured sediment characteristics that varied sufficiently to encompass the range in observed sediment toxicity. Laboratory sediment toxicity test data using fluoranthene suggest that there is no biologically significant correlation between sediment toxicity and sediment characteristics (organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, particle size distribution, particle surface area). Fluoranthene amended sediments with similar organic carbon contents do not yield similar toxicities due to sorbed fluoranthene and thus do not support the organic carbon normalization approach for evaluating sediment quality or for sediment criteria development.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Suedel, Burton C. (Burton Craig)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pyrethroid Insecticide Effects on Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus) and the Impacts of Bluegill Predation on Invertebrates in Microcosms

Description: Concurrent outdoor aquatic 1950 L microcosm and 0.04 ha mesocosm experiments with bluegill sunfish evaluated the ecological impact of cyfluthrin. Cyfluthrin effects were not observed on mesocosm bluegill; a slight decrease in growth was observed in the microcosm bluegill. Otolith weight to length relationships between bluegill size-classes from microcosms, local streams, and a fish hatchery revealed no differences. Our results indicated bluegill predation impacts were slight on benthic invertebrates. Extensive predation on emerging insects was observed. Microcosm bluegill impacts on zooplankton populations followed expected predation effects, resulting in larger populations of smaller taxa. Bluegill functioned as "keystone" predators for microcosm taxa and improved taxa richness for benthic colonizing invertebrates and zooplankton.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Morris, Rodney Gregg
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting the Site-Specific Bioavailability of Zinc Using the Indicator Species Procedure: A Case Study

Description: National Water Quality Criteria intended to protect aquatic life and their uses from the adverse effects of pollutants may not be appropriate due to site-specific factors that alter chemical bioavailability. The Indicator Species Procedure may be used to derive site-specific criteria in order to account for differences in site-specific bioavailability. This procedure was implemented using zinc for three chemically different site (river) waters. The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioavailability of zinc in each site water and correlate results to water quality parameters and/or zinc speciation. Results demonstrated that national criteria for zinc accurately predicted the experimentally derived site-specific values within a factor of two when adjusted for water hardness. Particulate forms of zinc were shown to be biologically unavailable under conditions tested.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Parkerton, Thomas F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Desorption/Diffusion of Benzene After Simulated Ground Water Remediation

Description: A study was undertaken to examine the desorption/ iffusion of benzene after simulated ground water remediation in aquifer material of differing carbon content using column experiments and comparing the results to batch experiments and adsorption empirical relationships. It was hypothesized that the organic carbon of the aquifer material will affect desorption/diffusion. Results from the column experiment indicated no significant difference in the increase benzene concentrations after remediation between aquifer materials of differing carbon content, however, a significant increase in benzene concentration was observed for all aquifer material. Fair agreement of retardation factors was observed between empirical relationships and batch and column experiments. However, the desorption phase of the batch experiment showed hysteresis and seemed to differ from the column experiment.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Bennett, Kathryn C. (Kathryn Condreay)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Atmospheric Visibility Assessment for Urban Areas Using Photographic Slides and Optical Densitometry

Description: The factors involved in calculating Standard Visual Range (SVR) are discussed, and a comparison is made between the visibility reported by airport observers and the photographic slide/ optical densitometer method of calculating SVR. Using slides of Houston, Texas, from the fall and winter of 1988-89, it was found that the altitude at which the contrast measurements are made significantly affects the SVR. Also an index for predicting high and low humidity was developed using the blue/red ratio of the log exposure of the sky, and sun/shade target condition.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Jacob, Mary Katherine
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Stress Protein Response of Pimephales promelas to Copper

Description: Organisms synthesize stress proteins in response to a variety of stressors. The 68/70-kDa proteins (synonymous to the 72/73-kDa proteins) have shown to be the most promising stress proteins, and have been proposed as a biomarker of general organismal stress. The 68/70-kDa proteins were used in an antigen/antibody based approach to determine the duration of the stress protein response of Pimephales promelas following an acute exposure to copper sulphate.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Covington, Sean M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Burn and Sow: The Ethical Implications of Ecological Restoration

Description: Ecological restoration is quickly becoming a major approach to how humans interact with the natural world. Some view restoration as another land management technique on par with conservation and preservation. Others view it as a way to make reparations for our misdeeds and to reincorporate humans into the natural world. Ideas regarding restoration from key academics and restorationists are evaluated here. Their views have set the stage for the contemporary paradigm. Values that may be attributed to restoration and received from it are evaluated. I discuss my own reservations regarding potential problems with the product and practice of restoration. What is at stake regarding the involvement of people in restoration is examined, focusing on the different impacts volunteers and paid workers have on the value of the practice and outcome of the product.
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Date: August 2005
Creator: Mauritz, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ephippia Production, Activation, and Use of Ex-Ephippio Neonates of Ceriodaphnia Dubia as Toxicity Test Organisms

Description: Ceriodaphnia dubia is widely used as a test organism in monitoring water quality. At the present time, cultures must be continuously maintained in the laboratory. In an attempt to avoid continuous culture and maintenance, the hatching of ephippial eggs of C. dubia would provide test organisms when needed. In order to determine the parameters required for maximum hatching, approximately ninety-four thousand ephippia were exposed to a variety of conditions ranging from light and temperature regimes to drying and freezing. A low hatching yield occurred which is believed to be caused by diminished ephippia viability and/or fertility. To evaluate factors influencing the viability and fertility rate, stains of embryos were examined as were male to female ratios and mating experiments.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Poage, Duane W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Survey of Landowner Attitudes Toward the Construction of Lake Ray Roberts

Description: Documentation of social impacts resulting from the construction of Lake Ray Roberts is to be incorporated into a two year post-impoundment study. Research objectives are to: 1) locate current residences of landowners and previous landowners who were displaced; 2) determine social impacts resulting from construction of Lake Ray Roberts; 3) document degree of satisfaction with current living conditions; 4) document landowners' degree of satisfaction associated with COE negotiations; 5) document landowners' observations. Landowners were identified by telephone and sent a mail-back questionnaire. Respondents were generally happy with current residences and communities. While courtesy and sufficient information were provided by the COE, respondents would have preferred for property settlements to be more consistent and timely.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Norris, Paula Sue
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Evaluation of the Short-Term Embryo-Larval and Seven-Day Larval Test Methods for Estimating Chronic Toxicity of Zinc to the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

Description: Chronic toxicity of zinc to Pimephales promelas was estimated by conducting replicate static and static-renewal short-term embryo-larval tests and static-renewal seven-day larval tests. The two test methods were highly reproducible. Daily renewal of test solutions had little effect on the toxicity of zinc, however, the stage of development at which exposure was initiated affected the sensitivity of the toxic endpoints measured. The most sensitive and reproducible endpoint in the embryo-larval tests was survival of viable (non-deformed) larvae and in the seven-day larval test was growth of the larvae, which was slightly more sensitive than the embryo-larval test endpoint. The estimated MATC of 0.18 and 0.15 mg/L mean total and mean soluble zinc, respectively, compared well with published results. Because of its advantages and similar sensitivity, the short-term embryo-larval test was recommended for estimating chronic toxicity.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Stewart, Susan Michels
Partner: UNT Libraries