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Assessing out-of-band flare effects at the wafer level for EUV lithography

Description: To accurately estimate the flare contribution from the out-of-band (OOB), the integration of a DUV source into the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3-NA Micro-field Exposure tool is proposed, enabling precisely controlled exposures along with the EUV patterning of resists in vacuum. First measurements evaluating the impact of bandwidth selected exposures with a table-top set-up and subsequent EUV patterning show significant impact on line-edge roughness and process performance. We outline a simulation-based method for computing the effective flare from resist sensitive wavelengths as a function of mask pattern types and sizes. This simulation method is benchmarked against measured OOB flare measurements and the results obtained are in agreement.
Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Denham, Paul & Rekawa, Senajith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and implementation of a vacuum compatible laser-basedsub-nm resolution absolute distance measurement gauge

Description: We describe the design and implementation of a vacuum compatible laser-based absolute distance measurement gauge with sub-nm resolution. The present system is compatible with operation in the 10{sup -8} Torr range and with some minor modifications could be used in the 10{sup -9} Torr range. The system is based on glancing incidence reflection and dual segmented diode detection. The system has been implemented as a focus sensor for extreme ultraviolet interferometry and microlithography experiments at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility and 1{sigma} operational measurement noise floor of 0.26 nm has been demonstrated.
Date: February 16, 2004
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Denham, Paul E. & Rekawa, Senajith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced 0.3-NA EUV lithography capabilities at the ALS

Description: For volume nanoelectronics production using Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography [1] to become a reality around the year 2011, advanced EUV research tools are required today. Microfield exposure tools have played a vital role in the early development of EUV lithography [2-4] concentrating on numerical apertures (NA) of 0.2 and smaller. Expected to enter production at the 32-nm node with NAs of 0.25, EUV can no longer rely on these early research tools to provide relevant learning. To overcome this problem, a new generation of microfield exposure tools, operating at an NA of 0.3 have been developed [5-8]. Like their predecessors, these tools trade off field size and speed for greatly reduced complexity. One of these tools is implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility. This tool gets around the problem of the intrinsically high coherence of the synchrotron source [9,10] by using an active illuminator scheme [11]. Here we describe recent printing results obtained from the Berkeley EUV exposure tool. Limited by the availability of ultra-high resolution chemically amplified resists, present resolution limits are approximately 32 nm for equal lines and spaces and 27 nm for semi-isolated lines.
Date: July 7, 2005
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Erik; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Hoef, Brian et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent results from the Berkeley 0.3-NA microfield exposure tool

Description: Operating as a SEMATECH resist test center, the Berkeley 0.3-NA EUV microfield exposure tool continues to play a crucial role in the advancement of EUV resists and masks. Here we present recent resist-characterization results from the tool as well as tool-characterization data. In particular we present lithographic-based aberration measurements demonstrating the long-term stability of the tool. We also describe a recent upgrade to the tool which involved redesign of the programmable coherence illuminator to provide improved field uniformity as well as a programmable field size.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher N.; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Hoef, Brian et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adding static printing capabilities to the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

Description: While interferometry is routinely used for the characterization and alignment of lithographic optics, the ultimate performance metric for these optics is printing in photoresist. Direct comparison of imaging and wavefront performance is also useful for verifying and improving the predictive power of wavefront metrology under actual printing conditions. To address these issues, static, small-field printing capabilities are being added to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) implemented at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This Sub-field Exposure Station (SES) will enable the earliest possible imaging characterization of the upcoming Engineering Test Stand (ETS) Set-2 projection optics. Relevant printing studies with the ETS projection optics require illumination partial coherence with {sigma} of approximately 0.7. This {sigma} value is very different from the coherent illumination requirements of the EUV PS/PDI and the coherence properties naturally provided by synchrotron undulator beamline illumination. Adding printing capabilities to the PS/PDI experimental system thus necessitates the development of an alternative illumination system capable of destroying the inherent coherence of the beamline. The SES is being implemented with two independent illuminators: the first is based on a novel EUV diffuser currently under development and the second is based on a scanning mirror design. Here we describe the design and implementation of the new SES, including a discussion of the illuminators and the fabrication of the EUV diffuser.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik H.; Batson, Phillip; Denham, Paul; Jackson, Keith et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

At-wavelength interferometry of high-NA diffraction-limited EUV optics

Description: Recent advances in all-reflective diffraction-limited optical systems designed for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography have pushed numerical aperture (NA) values from 0.1 to 0.3, providing Rayleigh resolutions of 27-nm. Worldwide, several high-NA EUV optics are being deployed to serve in the development of advanced lithographic techniques required for EUV lithography, including the creation and testing of new, high-resolution photoresists. One such system is installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. Sub{angstrom}-accuracy optical testing and alignment techniques, developed for use with the previous generations of EUV lithographic optical systems, are being extended for use at high NA. Considerations for interferometer design and use are discussed.
Date: August 1, 2003
Creator: Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick; Rekawa, Senajith; Denham, Paul; Liddle, J. Alexander; Anderson, Erik et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the synchrotron-based 0.3-NA EUV microexposuretool at the ALS

Description: Synchrotron-based EUV exposure tools continue to play a crucial roll in the development of EUV lithography. Utilizing a programmable-pupil-fill illuminator, the 0.3-NA microexposure tool at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility provides the highest resolution EUV projection printing capabilities available today. This makes it ideal for the characterization of advanced resist and mask processes. The Berkeley tool also serves as a good benchmarking platform for commercial implementations of 0.3-NA EUV microsteppers because its illuminator can be programmed to emulate the coherence conditions of the commercial tools. Here we present the latest resist and tool characterization results from the Berkeley EUV exposure station.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik; Dean,Kim; Denham, Paul; Cain, Jason P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projectionoptics

Description: The recent development of high numerical aperture (NA) EUV optics such as the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool (MET) optic has given rise to a new class of ultra-high resolution microexposure stations. Once such printing station has been developed and implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. This flexible printing station utilizes a programmable coherence illuminator providing real-time pupil-fill control for advanced EUV resist and mask development. The Berkeley exposure system programmable illuminator enables several unique capabilities. Using dipole illumination out to {sigma}=1, the Berkeley tool supports equal-line-space printing down to 12 nm, well beyond the capabilities of similar tools. Using small-sigma illumination combined with the central obscuration of the MET optic enables the system to print feature sizes that are twice as small as those coded on the mask. In this configuration, the effective 10x-demagnification for equal lines and spaces reduces the mask fabrication burden for ultra-high-resolution printing. The illuminator facilitates coherence studies such as the impact of coherence on line-edge roughness (LER) and flare. Finally the illuminator enables novel print-based aberration monitoring techniques as described elsewhere in these proceedings. Here we describe the capabilities of the new MET printing station and present system characterization results. Moreover, we present the latest printing results obtained in experimental resists. Limited by the availability of high-resolution photoresists, equal line-space printing down to 25 nm has been demonstrated as well as isolated line printing down to 29 nm with an LER of approaching 3 nm.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik; Cain,Jason P.; Denham, Paul; Hoef, Brian et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical challenges for EUV resist materials

Description: Although Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is now well into the commercialization phase, critical challenges remain in the development of EUV resist materials. The major issue for the 22-nm half-pitch node remains simultaneously meeting resolution, line-edge roughness (LER), and sensitivity requirements. Although several materials have met the resolution requirements, LER and sensitivity remain a challenge. As we move beyond the 22-nm node, however, even resolution remains a significant challenge. Chemically amplified resists have yet to demonstrate the required resolution at any speed or LER for 16-nm half pitch and below. Going to non-chemically amplified resists, however, 16-nm resolution has been achieved with a LER of 2 nm but a sensitivity of only 70 mJ/cm{sup 2}.
Date: February 28, 2011
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Anderson, Christopher N.; Baclea-an, Lorie-Mae; Denham, Paul; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The SEMATECH Berkeley MET: extending EUV learning to 16-nm half pitch

Description: Several high-performing resists identified in the past two years have been exposed at the 0.3-numerical-aperture (NA) SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (BMET) with an engineered dipole illumination optimized for 18-nm half pitch. Five chemically amplified platforms were found to support 20-nm dense patterning at a film thickness of approximately 45 nm. At 19-nm half pitch, however, scattered bridging kept all of these resists from cleanly resolving larger areas of dense features. At 18-nm half pitch, none of the resists were are able to cleanly resolve a single line within a bulk pattern. With this same illumination a directly imageable metal oxide hardmask showed excellent performance from 22-nm half pitch to 17-nm half pitch, and good performance at 16-nm half pitch, closely following the predicted aerial image contrast. This indicates that observed limitations of the chemically amplified resists are indeed coming from the resist and not from a shortcoming of the exposure tool. The imageable hardmask was also exposed using a Pseudo Phase-Shift-Mask technique and achieved clean printing of 15-nm half pitch lines and modulation all the way down to the theoretical 12.5-nm resolution limit of the 0.3-NA SEMATECH BMET.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Anderson, Christopher N.; Baclea-an, Lorie Mae; Denham, Paul E.; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Jones, Michael et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pushing EUV lithography development beyond 22-nm half pitch

Description: Microfield exposure tools (METs) have and continue to play a dominant role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists and masks. One of these tools is the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) MET. Here we investigate the possibilities and limitations of using the 0.3-NA MET for sub-22-nm half-pitch development. We consider mask resolution limitations and present a method unique to the centrally obscured MET allowing these mask limitations to be overcome. We also explore projection optics resolution limits and describe various illumination schemes allowing resolution enhancement. At 0.3-NA, the 0.5 k1 factor resolution limit is 22.5 nm meaning that conventional illumination is of limited utility for sub-22-nm development. In general resolution enhancing illumination encompasses increased coherence. We study the effect of this increased coherence on line-edge roughness, which along with resolution is another crucial factor in sub-22-nm resist development.
Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher N.; Baclea-an, Lorie-Mae; Denham, Paul; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparations for EUV interferometry of the 0.3 NA MET optic

Description: An at-wavelength interferometer is being created for the measurement and alignment of the 0.3 numerical aperture Micro Exposure Tool projection optic at EUV wavelengths. The prototype MET system promises to provide early learning from EUV lithographic imaging down to 20-nm feature size. The threefold increase to 0.3 NA in the image-side numerical aperture presents several challenges for the extension of ultra-high-accuracy interferometry, including pinhole fabrication and the calibration and removal of systematic error sources.
Date: October 30, 2003
Creator: Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Denham, Paul E.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Jackson, Keith H.; Liddle, J. Alexander et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

At-wavelength characterization of the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand Set-2 optic

Description: At-wavelength interferometric characterization of a new 4x-reduction lithographic-quality extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical system is described. This state-of-the-art projection optic was fabricated for installation in the EUV lithography Engineering Test Stand (ETS) and is referred to as the ETS Set-2 optic. EUV characterization of the Set-2 optic is performed using the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. This is the same interferometer previously used for the at-wavelength characterization and alignment of the ETS Set-1 optic. In addition to the PS/PDI-based full-field wavefront characterization, we also present wavefront measurements performed with lateral shearing interferometry, the chromatic dependence of the wavefront error, and the system-level pupil-dependent spectral-bandpass characteristics of the optic; the latter two properties are only measurable using at-wavelength interferometry.
Date: June 10, 2001
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik H.; Batson, Phillip; Denham, Paul E.; Jackson, Keith H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool: learning a the 22-nm node and beyond

Description: Microfield exposure tools (METs) continue to playa dominant role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists. One of these tools is the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3-NA MET operating as a SEMATECH resist and mask test center. Here we present an update summarizing the latest resist test and characterization results. The relatively small numerical aperture and limited illumination settings expected from 1st generation EUV production tools make resist resolution a critical issue even at the 32-nm node. In this presentation, sub 22 nm half pitch imaging results of EUV resists are reported. We also present contact hole printing at the 30-nm level. Although resist development has progressed relatively well in the areas of resolution and sensitivity, line-edge-roughness (LER) remains a significant concern. Here we present a summary of recent LER performance results and consider the effect of system-level contributors to the LER observed from the SEMA TECH Berkeley microfield tool.
Date: February 16, 2009
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher; Baclea-an, Lorie-Mae; Denham, Paul; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Latest results from the SEMATECH Berkeley extreme ultraviolet microfield exposure tool

Description: Microfield exposure tools (METs) continue to play a dominant role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists. One of these tools is the 0.3 numerical aperture SEMATECH Berkeley MET operating as a resist and mask test center. Here they present an update on the tool summarizing some of the latest test and characterization results. they provide an update on the long-term aberration stability of the tool and present line-space imaging in chemically amplified photoresist down to the 20-nm half-pitch level. Although resist development has shown substantial progress in the area of resolution, line-edge-roughness (LER) remains a significant concern. Here we present a summary of recent LER performance results and consider the effect of mask contributors to the LER observed from the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield tool.
Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher N.; Chiu, Jerrin; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; George, Simi et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limitedshort-wavelength optical systems

Description: Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-{angstrom} and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date.
Date: August 3, 2005
Creator: Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department