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SEMATECH EUV resist benchmarking results

Description: Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is one of the leading candidates for next generation lithography technology for the 32 nm HP and beyond. The availability of EUV resists is one of the most significant challenges facing its commercialization. To accelerate EUV resist development, SEMATECH provides access to two exposure tools: (1) The EUV Resist Test Center (RTC) at SEMATECH at the University at Albany, SUNY, NY; and (2) the SEMATECH microexposure tools (ALS-MET) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).
Date: October 27, 2007
Creator: Ma, Andy; Park, Joo-On; Dean, Kim; Wurm, Stefan & Naulleau, Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithographic characterization of low-order aberrations in a 0.3-NAEUV microfield exposure tool

Description: Although tremendous progress has been made in the crucial area of fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection optics, the realization diffraction-limited high numerical aperture (NA) optics (above 0.2 NA) remains a concern. The highest NA EUV optics available to date are the 0.3-NA Microfield Exposure Tool (MET) optics used in an experimental exposure station at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [1] and commercial METs [2] at Intel and SEMATECH-North. Even though these optics have been interferometrically demonstrated to achieve diffraction-limited wavefront quality, the question remains as to whether or not such performance levels can be maintained after installation of the optics into the exposure tool. Printing-based quantitative aberration measurements provide a convenient mechanism for the characterization of the optic wavefront error in the actual lithography tool. We present the lithographic measurement of low-order aberrations in the Berkeley MET tool, including a quantitative measurement of astigmatism and spherical error and a qualitative measurement of coma. The lithographic results are directly compared to interferometry results obtained from the same optic. Measurements of the Berkeley MET indicate either an alignment drift or errors in the interferometry on the order of 0.5 to 1 nm.
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Cain, Jason; Dean, Kim & Goldberg, Kenneth A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced 0.3-NA EUV lithography capabilities at the ALS

Description: For volume nanoelectronics production using Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography [1] to become a reality around the year 2011, advanced EUV research tools are required today. Microfield exposure tools have played a vital role in the early development of EUV lithography [2-4] concentrating on numerical apertures (NA) of 0.2 and smaller. Expected to enter production at the 32-nm node with NAs of 0.25, EUV can no longer rely on these early research tools to provide relevant learning. To overcome this problem, a new generation of microfield exposure tools, operating at an NA of 0.3 have been developed [5-8]. Like their predecessors, these tools trade off field size and speed for greatly reduced complexity. One of these tools is implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility. This tool gets around the problem of the intrinsically high coherence of the synchrotron source [9,10] by using an active illuminator scheme [11]. Here we describe recent printing results obtained from the Berkeley EUV exposure tool. Limited by the availability of ultra-high resolution chemically amplified resists, present resolution limits are approximately 32 nm for equal lines and spaces and 27 nm for semi-isolated lines.
Date: July 7, 2005
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Erik; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Hoef, Brian et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent results from the Berkeley 0.3-NA microfield exposure tool

Description: Operating as a SEMATECH resist test center, the Berkeley 0.3-NA EUV microfield exposure tool continues to play a crucial role in the advancement of EUV resists and masks. Here we present recent resist-characterization results from the tool as well as tool-characterization data. In particular we present lithographic-based aberration measurements demonstrating the long-term stability of the tool. We also describe a recent upgrade to the tool which involved redesign of the programmable coherence illuminator to provide improved field uniformity as well as a programmable field size.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher N.; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Hoef, Brian et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of base and PAG on deprotection blur in EUV photoresists and some thoughts on shot noise

Description: A contact-hole deprotection blur metric has been used to monitor the deprotection blur of an experimental open platform resist (EH27) as the weight percent of base and photo acid generator (PAG) were varied. Patterning ability in 1:1 line-space patterns is shown to improve at smaller pitches as base/PAG are increased however no significant change in deprotection blur was observed. Isolated (or intrinsic) line-edge-roughness (LER) is shown to improve with increased base loading while remaining fixed through PAG loading. A discussion of improved patterning performance as related to shot noise and deprotection blur concludes with a speculation that the spatial distribution of PAG molecules has been playing some role, perhaps a dominant one, in determining the uniformity of photo generated acids in the resists that have been studied.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Jones, Juanita; Anderson, Christopher; Naulleau, Patrick; Niakoula, Demitra; Hassanein, Elsayed; Brainard, Robert et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of base and PAG on deprotection blur in EUV photoresists and some thoughts on shot noise

Description: A contact-hole deprotection blur metric has been used to monitor the deprotection blur of an experimental open platform resist (EH27) as the weight percent of base and photo acid generator (PAG) were varied. A 6x increase in base weight percent is shown to reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 52 nm to 39 nm without changing deprotection blur. Corresponding isolated line-edge-roughness is reduced from 6.9 nm to 4.1 nm. A 2x increase in PAG weight percent is shown to improve 1:1 line-space patterning from 47 nm to 40 nm without changing deprotection blur or isolated LER. A discussion of improved patterning performance as related to shot noise and deprotection blur concludes with a speculation that the spatial distribution of PAG molecules has been playing some role, perhaps a dominant one, in determining the uniformity of photo generated acids in the resists that have been studied.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Niakoula, Dimitra; Hassanein, Elsayed; Brainard, Robert; Gallatin, Gregg et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the synchrotron-based 0.3-NA EUV microexposuretool at the ALS

Description: Synchrotron-based EUV exposure tools continue to play a crucial roll in the development of EUV lithography. Utilizing a programmable-pupil-fill illuminator, the 0.3-NA microexposure tool at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility provides the highest resolution EUV projection printing capabilities available today. This makes it ideal for the characterization of advanced resist and mask processes. The Berkeley tool also serves as a good benchmarking platform for commercial implementations of 0.3-NA EUV microsteppers because its illuminator can be programmed to emulate the coherence conditions of the commercial tools. Here we present the latest resist and tool characterization results from the Berkeley EUV exposure station.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik; Dean,Kim; Denham, Paul; Cain, Jason P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projectionoptics

Description: The recent development of high numerical aperture (NA) EUV optics such as the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool (MET) optic has given rise to a new class of ultra-high resolution microexposure stations. Once such printing station has been developed and implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. This flexible printing station utilizes a programmable coherence illuminator providing real-time pupil-fill control for advanced EUV resist and mask development. The Berkeley exposure system programmable illuminator enables several unique capabilities. Using dipole illumination out to {sigma}=1, the Berkeley tool supports equal-line-space printing down to 12 nm, well beyond the capabilities of similar tools. Using small-sigma illumination combined with the central obscuration of the MET optic enables the system to print feature sizes that are twice as small as those coded on the mask. In this configuration, the effective 10x-demagnification for equal lines and spaces reduces the mask fabrication burden for ultra-high-resolution printing. The illuminator facilitates coherence studies such as the impact of coherence on line-edge roughness (LER) and flare. Finally the illuminator enables novel print-based aberration monitoring techniques as described elsewhere in these proceedings. Here we describe the capabilities of the new MET printing station and present system characterization results. Moreover, we present the latest printing results obtained in experimental resists. Limited by the availability of high-resolution photoresists, equal line-space printing down to 25 nm has been demonstrated as well as isolated line printing down to 29 nm with an LER of approaching 3 nm.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik; Cain,Jason P.; Denham, Paul; Hoef, Brian et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Film quantum yields of EUV& ultra-high PAG photoresists

Description: Base titration methods are used to determine C-parameters for three industrial EUV photoresist platforms (EUV-2D, MET-2D, XP5496) and twenty academic EUV photoresist platforms. X-ray reflectometry is used to measure the density of these resists, and leads to the determination of absorbance and film quantum yields (FQY). Ultrahigh levels ofPAG show divergent mechanisms for production of photo acids beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter. The FQY of sulfonium PAGs level off, whereas resists prepared with iodonium PAG show FQY s that increase beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter, reaching record highs of 8-13 acids generatedlEUV photons absorbed.
Date: January 10, 2008
Creator: Hassanein, Elsayed; Higgins, Craig; Naulleau, Patrick; Matyi, Richard; Gallatin, Greg; Denbeaux, Gregory et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Latest results from the SEMATECH Berkeley extreme ultraviolet microfield exposure tool

Description: Microfield exposure tools (METs) continue to play a dominant role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists. One of these tools is the 0.3 numerical aperture SEMATECH Berkeley MET operating as a resist and mask test center. Here they present an update on the tool summarizing some of the latest test and characterization results. they provide an update on the long-term aberration stability of the tool and present line-space imaging in chemically amplified photoresist down to the 20-nm half-pitch level. Although resist development has shown substantial progress in the area of resolution, line-edge-roughness (LER) remains a significant concern. Here we present a summary of recent LER performance results and consider the effect of mask contributors to the LER observed from the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield tool.
Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher N.; Chiu, Jerrin; Dean, Kim; Denham, Paul; George, Simi et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department