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Customer system efficiency improvement assessment: Supply curves for transmission and distribution conservation options

Description: This report documents the results of Task 6 in the Customer System Efficiency Improvement (CSEI) Assessment Project. A principal objective of this project is to assess the potential for energy conservation in the transmission and distribution (TandD) systems of electric utilities in the BPA service area. The scope of this assessment covers BPA customers in the Pacific Northwest region and all non-federal TandD systems, including those that currently place no load on the BPA system. Supply curves were developed to describe the conservation resource potentially available from TandD-system efficiency improvements. These supply curves relate the levelized cost of upgrading existing equipment to the estimated amount of energy saved. Stated in this form, the resource represented by TandD loss reductions can be compared with other conservation options and regional electrical generation resources to determine the most cost-effective method of supplying power to the Pacific Northwest. The development of the supply curves required data acquisition and methodology development that are also described in this report. 11 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1987
Creator: Tepel, R.C.; Callaway, J.W. & De Steese, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System Demand-Side Management: Regional results

Description: To improve the Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville's) ability to analyze the value and impacts of demand-side programs, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed and implemented the System Demand-Side Management (SDSM) model, a microcomputer-based model of the Pacific Northwest Public Power system. This document outlines the development and application of the SDSM model, which is an hourly model. Hourly analysis makes it possible to examine the change in marginal revenues and marginal costs that accrue from the movement of energy consumption from daytime to nighttime. It also allows a more insightful analysis of programs such as water heater control in the context of hydroelectric-based generation system. 7 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Englin, J.E.; Sands, R.D.; De Steese, J.G. & Marsh, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation voltage reduction potential in the Pacific Northwest

Description: This paper summarizes a study performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) indicating that the region-wide implementation of conservation voltage reduction (CVR) would provide a significant level of electric energy conservation in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. This resource was estimated by developing supply curves showing the magnitude of energy savings as a function of CVR implementation cost. Energy savings were estimated for residential, commercial, agricultural irrigation, and industrial consumer classes. Using the convention of expressing energy conservation in average megawatts (AMW), the CVR conservation resource in the Pacific Northwest was estimated to be between 170 and 268 AMW at a cost of 5 cents/kWh. Estimates were also made for the contribution of major load sectors to the total CVR resource. Approximately 55% of the total was estimated to be available in the residential sector. Contributions by the other sectors considered were as follows: commercial, 29%; industrial, 14%; and agricultural irrigation, 3%. A large portion (142 to 230 AMW) of the conservation resource would be available at less than 1 cent/kWh. a median estimate of the regional CVR resource at 1 cent/kWh (179 AMW) exceeds the conservation potential (150 AMW) expected from possible implementation of major efficiency improvements on Pacific Northwest transmission and distribution systems. This paper also shows that CVR can be more effective than conventional demand-side management measures in reducing system peak load. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: De Steese, J.G.; Englin, J.E. & Sands, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Peak load management: Potential options

Description: This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W. & Kellogg, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Load management alternatives to transmission and distribution construction: Toledo-Wren case study

Description: This paper describes the development of a method to predict the feasibility of using load management as an alternative to construction of transmission and distribution capacity. A forecasting model was developed and applied to a particular case. Several problems were identified in the test case, necessitating modification of the model. The authors conclude that the modified version of the model allows accurate assessment of the effects of load management and conservation measures on transmission capacity. 13 figs. (JDH)
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Lyke, A.J.; Tawil, J.J.; De Steese, J.G. & Tepel, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation voltage reduction: Estimating methodology for a large regional application

Description: Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is an established and cost-effective practice that has motivated many utilities to investigate its application on individual systems. This paper describes a supply-curve methodology that can determine the conservation value of CVR applied to many distribution systems in a region. In the area served by Bonneville Power Administration involving approximately 150 utilities, the systematic implementations of CVR could conserve between 170 and 268 Average Megawatts at a cost of 5 cents/kWh. This was shown to be a larger resource than might be achievable by applying more conventional efficiency improvements to transmission and distribution (T D) systems in the region.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: De Steese, J.G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Kennedy, B.W. (Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)) & Merrick, S.B. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benefit/cost comparisons of SMES in system-specific application scenarios

Description: The inherently high storage efficiency, instantaneous dispatch capability and multi-function uses of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) are attributes that give it the potential for widespread application in the electric utility industry. Opportunities appear to exist where SMES at a given location could provide multiple benefits either simultaneously or sequentially as system conditions dictate. These benefits, including diurnal storage and system stability and dynamic control enhancement, increase the application potential of SMES to a larger number of opportunities than might be justified by the value of its diurnal storage capability alone. However, the benefits an individual utility may realize from SMES applications are strongly influenced by the characteristics of the utility system, the location of the SMES unit and the timing of its installation in the system. Such benefits are typically not evaluated adequately in generic studies. This paper summarizes results of case studies performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The derivation of SMES benefits and costs are described and benefit/cost (B/C) ratios are compared in system-specific scenarios of interest to BPA. Results of using the DYNASTORE production cost model show the sensitivity of B/C ratios to SMES capacity and power and to the forecast system load. Intermediate-size SMES applications which primarily provide system stability and dynamic control enhancement are reviewed. The potential for SMES to levelize the output of a wind energy complex is also assessed. Most of the cases show SMES to provide a positive net benefit with the additional, sometimes surprising indication, that B/C ratios and net present worth of intermediate-size units can exceed those of larger systems.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: De Steese, J.G.; Dagle, J.E.; Kreid, D.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Haner, J.M. & Myers, W.E. (Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department