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Materials and Fabrication Issues for Large Machined Germanium Immersion Gratings

Description: LLNL has successfully fabricated small (1.5 cm{sup 2} area) germanium immersion gratings. We studied the feasibility of producing a large germanium immersion grating by means of single point diamond flycutting. Our baseline design is a 63.4o blaze echelle with a 6 cm beam diameter. Birefringence and refractive index inhomogeneity due to stresses produced by the crystal growth process are of concern. Careful selection of the grating blank and possibly additional annealing to relieve stress will be required. The Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at LLNL is a good choice for the fabrication. It can handle parts up to 1.5 meter in diameter and 0.5 meter in length and is capable of a surface figure accuracy of better than 28 nm rms. We will describe the machine modifications and the machining process for a large grating. A next generation machine, the Precision Optical Grinder and Lathe (POGAL), currently under development has tighter specifications and could produce large gratings with higher precision.
Date: May 22, 2006
Creator: Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L & Hale, L C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manufacturing Ultra-Precision Meso-scale Products by Coining

Description: A method for replicating ultra-precision, meso-scale features onto a near-net-shape metallic blank has been demonstrated. The 'coining' technology can be used to imprint a wide range of features and/or profiles into two opposing surfaces. The instrumented system provides the ability to measure and control the product thickness and total thickness variation (TTV). The coining mechanism relies on kinematic principles to accurately and efficiently produce ultra-precision work pieces without the production of by products such as machining chips, or grinding swarf while preserving surface finish, material structure and overall form. Coining has been developed as a niche process for manufacturing difficult to machine, millimeter size components made from materials that may present hazardous conditions. In the case described in this paper a refractory metal part, tantalum (Ta) was produced with 4 {micro}m peak to valley 50 {micro}m special wavelength sine wave coined into the surface of 50 {micro}m blank. This technique shows promise for use on ductile materials that cannot be precision machined with conventional single crystal diamond tooling and/or has strict requirements on subsurface damage, surface impurities and grain structure. As a production process, it can be used to reduce manufacturing costs where large numbers of ultra-precision, repetitive designs are required and produce parts out of hazardous materials without generating added waste.
Date: February 18, 2010
Creator: Seugling, R M; Davis, P J; Rickens, K; Osmer, J & Brinksmeier, E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

Description: We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M & Bixler, J V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MRF Applications: On the Road to Making Large-Aperture Ultraviolet Laser Resistant Continuous Phase Plates for High-Power Lasers

Description: Over the past two years we have developed MRF tools and procedures to manufacture large-aperture (430 X 430 mm) continuous phase plates (CPPs) that are capable of operating in the infrared portion (1053 nm) of high-power laser systems. This is accomplished by polishing prescribed patterns of continuously varying topographical features onto finished plano optics using MRF imprinting techniques. We have been successful in making, testing, and using large-aperture CPPs whose topography possesses spatial periods as low as 4 mm and surface peak-to-valleys as high as 8.6 {micro}m. Combining this application of MRF technology with advanced MRF finishing techniques that focus on ultraviolet laser damage resistance makes it potentially feasible to manufacture large-aperture CPPs that can operate in the ultraviolet (351 nm) without sustaining laser-induced damage. In this paper, we will discuss the CPP manufacturing process and the results of 351-nm/3-nsec equivalent laser performance experiments conducted on large-aperture CPPs manufactured using advanced MRF protocols.
Date: October 26, 2006
Creator: Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Hachkowski, M R; Nelson, A & Xin, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-process EDM truing to generate complex contours on metal-bond, superabrasive grinding wheels for precision grinding structural ceramics

Description: The demand and use of precision grinding of structural ceramics continue to increase as the worldwide advanced ceramic industry surpasses $20 billion is sales. Included in this industry are engineering structural ceramics, electronic ceramics, bioceramics and others. These materials are used in applications such as engine components, casting and extrusion dies, bearings, medical implants, nozzles, thermal insulators, and more. Along with the variety of ceramic applications comes a broad range of precision requirements, which in turn leads to various required processes to accommodate a spectrum of specifications. A process for grinding ceramic components to micrometer tolerances was employed and further developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for two separate grinding projects.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Piscotty, M.A.; Davis, P.J.; Saito, T.T.; Blaedel, K.L. & Griffith, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

Description: High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J & Piscotty, M A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process diagnostics for precision grinding brittle materials in a production environment

Description: Precision grinding processes are steadily migrating from research laboratory environments into manufacturing production lines as precision machines and processes become increasingly more commonplace throughout industry. Low-roughness, low-damage precision grinding is gaining widespread commercial acceptance for a host of brittle materials including advanced structural ceramics. The development of these processes is often problematic and requires diagnostic information and analysis to harden the processes for manufacturing. This paper presents a series of practical precision grinding tests developed and practiced at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that yield important information to help move a new process idea into production.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J & Piscotty, M A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica

Description: Managing subsurface damage during the shaping process and removing subsurface damage during the polishing process is essential in the production of low damage density optical components, such as those required for use on high peak power lasers. Removal of subsurface damage, during the polishing process, requires polishing to a depth which is greater than the depth of the residual cracks present following the shaping process. To successfully manage, and ultimately remove subsurface damage, understanding the distribution and character of fractures in the subsurface region introduced during fabrication process is important. We have characterized the depth and morphology of subsurface fractures present following fixed abrasive and loose abrasive grinding processes. At shallow depths lateral cracks and an overlapping series of trailing indentation fractures were found to be present. At greater depths, subsurface damage consists of a series of trailing indentation fractures. The area density of trailing fractures changes as a function of depth, however the length and shape of individual cracks remain nearly constant for a given grinding process. We have developed and applied a model to interpret the depth and crack length distributions of subsurface surface damage in terms of key variables including abrasive size and load.
Date: November 21, 2005
Creator: Miller, P E; Suratwala, T I; Wong, L L; Feit, M D; Menapace, J A; Davis, P J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY07 LDRD Final Report A Fracture Mechanics and Tribology Approach to Understanding Subsurface Damage on Fused Silica during Grinding and Polishing

Description: The objective of this work is to develop a solid scientific understanding of the creation and characteristics of surface fractures formed during the grinding and polishing of brittle materials, specifically glass. In this study, we have experimentally characterized the morphology, number density, and depth distribution of various surface cracks as a function of various grinding and polishing processes (blanchard, fixed abrasive grinding, loose abrasive, pitch polishing and pad polishing). Also, the effects of load, abrasive particle (size, distribution, foreign particles, geometry, velocity), and lap material (pitch, pad) were examined. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of indentation fracture mechanics and tribological interactions (science of interacting surfaces) leading to several models to explain crack distribution behavior of ground surfaces and to explain the characteristics of scratches formed during polishing. This project has greatly advanced the scientific knowledge of microscopic mechanical damage occurring during grinding and polishing and has been of general interest. This knowledge-base has also enabled the design and optimization of surface finishing processes to create optical surfaces with far superior laser damage resistance. There are five major areas of scientific progress as a result of this LDRD. They are listed in Figure 1 and described briefly in this summary below. The details of this work are summarized through a number of published manuscripts which are included this LDRD Final Report. In the first area of grinding, we developed a technique to quantitatively and statistically measure the depth distribution of surface fractures (i.e., subsurface damage) in fused silica as function of various grinding processes using mixtures of various abrasive particles size distributions. The observed crack distributions were explained using a model that extended known, single brittle indentation models to an ensemble of loaded, sliding particles. The model illustrates the importance of the particle size distribution of the abrasive and ...
Date: February 5, 2008
Creator: Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Menapace, J A; Wong, L L; Steele, R A; Feit, M D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

Description: Advanced magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been applied to Ti:sapphire crystals to compensate for sub-millimeter lattice distortions that occur during the crystal growing process. Precise optical corrections are made by imprinting topographical structure onto the crystal surfaces to cancel out the effects of the lattice distortion in the transmitted wavefront. This novel technique significantly improves the optical quality for crystals of this type and sets the stage for increasing the availability of high-quality large-aperture sapphire and Ti:sapphire optics in critical applications.
Date: February 26, 2008
Creator: Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of Magnetorheological Finishing as a Diagnostic Tool for Investigating the Three-Dimensional Structure of Fractures in Fused Silica

Description: We have developed an experimental technique that combines magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and microscopy to examine fractures and/or artifacts in optical materials. The technique can be readily used to provide access to, and interrogation of, a selected segment of a fracture or object that extends beneath the surface. Depth slicing, or cross-sectioning at selected intervals, further allows the observation and measurement of the three-dimensional nature of the sites and the generation of volumetric representations that can be used to quantify shape and depth, and to understand how they were created, how they interact with surrounding material, and how they may be eliminated or mitigated.
Date: November 11, 2005
Creator: Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Wong, L L; Suratwala, T I & Miller, P E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing

Description: The distribution and characteristics of surface cracks (i.e., sub-surface damage or scratching) on fused silica formed during grinding/polishing resulting from the addition of rogue particles in the base slurry has been investigated. Fused silica samples (10 cm diameter x 1 cm thick) were: (1) ground by loose abrasive grinding (alumina particles 9-30 {micro}m) on a glass lap with the addition of larger alumina particles at various concentrations with mean sizes ranging from 15-30 {micro}m, or (2) polished (using 0.5 {micro}m cerium oxide slurry) on various laps (polyurethanes pads or pitch) with the addition of larger rogue particles (diamond (4-45 {micro}m), pitch, dust, or dried Ceria slurry agglomerates) at various concentrations. For the resulting ground samples, the crack distributions of the as-prepared surfaces were determined using a polished taper technique. The crack depth was observed to: (1) increase at small concentrations (>10{sup -4} fraction) of rogue particles; and (2) increase with rogue particle concentration to crack depths consistent with that observed when grinding with particles the size of the rogue particles alone. For the polished samples, which were subsequently etched in HF:NH{sub 4}F to expose the surface damage, the resulting scratch properties (type, number density, width, and length) were characterized. The number density of scratches increased exponentially with the size of the rogue diamond at a fixed rogue diamond concentration suggesting that larger particles are more likely to lead to scratching. The length of the scratch was found to increase with rogue particle size, increase with lap viscosity, and decrease with applied load. At high diamond concentrations, the type of scratch transitioned from brittle to ductile and the length of the scratches dramatically increased and extended to the edge of the optic. The observed trends can explained semi-quantitatively in terms of the time needed for a rogue particle to penetrate into ...
Date: May 2, 2007
Creator: Suratwala, T I; Steele, R; Feit, M D; Wong, L; Miller, P E; Menapace, J A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imprinting continuously varying topographical structure onto large-aperture optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing

Description: Over the past four years we have advanced Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) techniques and tools to imprint complex continuously varying topographical structures onto large-aperture (430 x 430 mm) optical surfaces. These optics, known as continuous phase plates (CPPs), are important for high-power laser applications requiring precise manipulation and control of beam-shape, energy distribution, and wavefront profile. MRF's unique deterministic-sub-aperture polishing characteristics make it possible to imprint complex topographical information onto optical surfaces at spatial scale-lengths approaching 1 mm and surface peak-to-valleys as high as 22 {micro}m. During this discussion, we will present the evolution of the MRF imprinting technology and the MRF tools designed to manufacture large-aperture 430 x 430 mm CPPs. Our results will show how the MRF removal function impacts and limits imprint fidelity and what must be done to arrive at a high-quality surface. We also present several examples of this imprinting technology for fabrication of phase correction plates and CPPs for use in high-power laser applications.
Date: March 7, 2007
Creator: Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Dixit, S; Campbell, J H; Golini, D; Hachkowski, M R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MRF Applications: Measurement of Process-dependent Subsurface Damage in Optical Materials using the MRF Wedge Technique

Description: Understanding the behavior of fractures and subsurface damage in the processes used during optic fabrication plays a key role in determining the final quality of the optical surface finish. During the early stages of surface preparation, brittle grinding processes induce fractures at or near an optical surface whose range can extend from depths of a few mm to hundreds of mm depending upon the process and tooling being employed. Controlling the occurrence, structure, and propagation of these sites during subsequent grinding and polishing operations is highly desirable if one wishes to obtain high-quality surfaces that are free of such artifacts. Over the past year, our team has made significant strides in developing a diagnostic technique that combines magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and scanning optical microscopy to measure and characterize subsurface damage in optical materials. The technique takes advantage of the unique nature of MRF to polish a prescribed large-area wedge into the optical surface without propagating existing damage or introducing new damage. The polished wedge is then analyzed to quantify subsurface damage as a function of depth from the original surface. Large-area measurement using scanning optical microscopy provides for improved accuracy and reliability over methods such as the COM ball-dimple technique. Examples of the technique's use will be presented that illustrate the behavior of subsurface damage in fused silica that arises during a variety of intermediate optical fabrication process steps.
Date: November 2, 2005
Creator: Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Wong, L L; Suratwala, T I & Miller, P E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An empirical survey on the influence of machining parameters on tool wear in diamond turning of large single crystal silicon optics

Description: The research described in this paper is a continuation of the collaborative efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Schafer Corporation and TRW to develop a process for single point diamond turning (SPDT) of large single crystal silicon (SCSi) optical substrates on the Large Optic Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM). The principal challenge to obtaining long track lengths in SCSi has been to identify a set of machining parameters which yield a process that provides both low and predictable tool wear. Identifying such a process for SCSi has proven to be a formidable task because multiple crystallographic orientations with a range of hardness values are encountered when machining conical and annular optical substrates. The LODTM cutting program can compensate for tool wear if it is predictable. However, if the tool wear is not predictable then the figured area of the optical substrate may have unacceptably high error that can not be removed by post-polishing. The emphasis of this survey was limited to elucidating the influence of cutting parameters on the tool wear. We present two preliminary models that can be used to predict tool wear over the parameter space investigated. During the past two and one-half years a series of three evolutionary investigations were performed. The first investigation, the Parameter Assessment Study (PAS), was designed to survey fundamental machining parameters and assess their influence on tool wear [1]. The results of the PAS were used as a point-of-departure for designing the second investigation, the Parameter Selection Study (PSS). The goal of the PSS was to explore the trends identified in the PAS in more detail, to determine if the experimental results obtained in the PAS could be repeated on a different diamond turning machine (DTM), and to select a more optimal set of machining parameters that could be used in subsequent ...
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Blaedel, K L; Carr, J W; Davis, P J; Goodman, W; Haack, J K; Krulewich, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A machining parameter study to select best conditions for SPDT of large single-crystal silicon optics

Description: The interdependence of process parameters on diamond turning of single-crystal silicon is poorly understood. An experimental design technique based on methods of statistical analysis permits the determination of a specific parameter's influence and its co-dependence on other factors. This design technique enables the creation of an experimental matrix, considering all input parameters (surface velocity; feed rate; depth of cut; tool radius; tool rake/skew angle; cutting fluid), while substantially decreasing the overall number of experiments. After an initial survey the significant parameters for a subsequent response surface methodology (RSM) study can be selected. From measurements of tool wear, surface finish and sub-surface damage (SSD) the optimum parameter settings for the diamond turning process can then be determined.
Date: March 18, 1999
Creator: Carr, J W; Davis, P J; Haack, J K; Krulewich, D A; McClellan, M R & Zimmermann, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-situ pore structure analysis during aging and drying of gels

Description: The use of NMR relaxation measurements for the in-situ study of pore structure evolution during gel aging and drying is illustrated. The change in the pore size distribution and surface area of other wet and dried gels is examined as a function of aging conditions including temporal aging, thermal aging, changing pH, and changing pore fluid. The effect of pore fluid pH on dissolution/reprecipitation in ordered packings of monodisperse silica spheres is also examined as a model system for particulate gels. As expected, the pore size distribution narrows with increasing time of treatment in high pH pore fluids. Interpretation of high pH results for the wet state is complicated by a microporous layer which forms on colloidal silica resulting in significantly large wet surface area as compared to the final dried material. Narrowing of the pore size distribution, which is of interest for maximizing drying rates, is maximized in the least time by using either high pH or repeated ethanol washes for the base-catalyzed gel (B2) used. 21 refs., 10 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Smith, D.M.; Davis, P.J. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics) & Brinker, C.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

Description: Ti:sapphire has become the premier lasing medium material for use in solid-state femtosecond high-peak power laser systems because of its wide wavelength tuning range. With a tuneable range from 680 to 1100 nm, peaking at 800 nm, Ti:sapphire lasing crystals can easily be tuned to the required pump wavelength and provide very high pump brightness due to their good beam quality and high output power of typically several watts. Femtosecond lasers are used for precision cutting and machining of materials ranging from steel to tooth enamel to delicate heart tissue and high explosives. These ultra-short pulses are too brief to transfer heat or shock to the material being cut, which means that cutting, drilling, and machining occur with virtually no damage to surrounding material. Furthermore, these lasers can cut with high precision, making hairline cuts of less than 100 microns in thick materials along a computer-generated path. Extension of laser output to higher energies is limited by the size of the amplification medium. Yields of high quality large diameter crystals have been constrained by lattice distortions that may appear in the boule limiting the usable area from which high quality optics can be harvested. Lattice distortions affect the transmitted wavefront of these optics which ultimately limits the high-end power output and efficiency of the laser system, particularly when operated in multi-pass mode. To make matters even more complicated, Ti:sapphire is extremely hard (Mohs hardness of 9 with diamond being 10) which makes it extremely difficult to accurately polish using conventional methods without subsurface damage or significant wavefront error. In this presentation, we demonstrate for the first time that Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) can be used to compensate for the lattice distortions in Ti:sapphire by perturbing the transmitted wavefront. The advanced MRF techniques developed allow for precise polishing of the optical inverse ...
Date: October 9, 2007
Creator: Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department