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Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

Description: The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Davis, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hierarchical analysis of molecular spectra

Description: A novel representation of molecular spectra in terms of hierarchical trees has proven to be an important aid for the study of many significant problems in gas-phase chemical dynamics. Trees are generated from molecular spectra by monitoring the changes that occur in a spectrum as resolution is changed in a continuous manner. A tree defines a genealogy among all lines of a spectrum. This allows for a detailed understanding of the assignment of features of a spectrum that may be difficult to obtain any other way as well as an understanding of intramolecular energy transfer time scales, mechanisms, and pathways. The methodology has been applied to several problems: transition state spectroscopy, intramolecular energy transfer in highly excited molecules, high-resolution overtone spectroscopy, and the nature of the classical-quantum correspondence when there is classical chaos (``quantum chaos``).
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Davis, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement uncertainties and minimum detectable concentrations for the in situ NaI gamma spectroscopy systems used at the Fernald site.

Description: This report determines the uncertainties associated with measurements made by using the mobile gamma-ray spectrometers deployed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fernald Closure Project to characterize soil contaminated with {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 232}Th. It also examines minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for these instruments. The spectrometers use sodium iodide (NaI) detectors and are mounted on a variety of platforms that allow access to all areas of the site, including deep excavations. They are utilized for surveying large areas to obtain distribution patterns for radionuclides in soil, determining whether activity concentrations exceed action levels for hot spots, and determining if the concentration of total uranium exceeds the allowable level for Fernald's on-site disposal facility. Soil cleanup levels at Fernald are 82 parts per million (ppm) for total uranium (27.3 pCi/g for {sup 238}U), 1.7 pCi/g for {sup 226}Ra, and 1.5 pCi/g for {sup 232}Th. The waste acceptance criterion (WAC) for total uranium for the disposal facility is 1030 ppm. Uncertainties associated with counting, efficiency calibration, the calibration pad and sources used, the vertical distribution of contaminants in soil, the use of moisture corrections, and the use of corrections to account for the loss of radon from soil are examined. (Loss of radon is an important process because measurement of {sup 226}Ra relies on emissions from progeny of {sup 226}Ra and because {sup 222}Rn is an intermediate, highly mobile decay product.) The importance of each source of uncertainty depends on the radionuclide of interest and level of contamination. The combined relative uncertainty (relative standard deviation) in measurements of dry-weight concentrations near three times the cleanup levels (the action levels for hot spots) is about 30% for 4-second measurements of {sup 238}U, 40% for {sup 226}Ra, and 20% for {sup 232}Th. (Measurement uncertainties for {sup 226}Ra are elevated because of ...
Date: July 20, 2004
Creator: Davis, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tokamak first-wall coating program development

Description: The development of a research program to study coatings for control of impurities originating from the first wall of a Tokamak reactor is extensively discussed. The first wall environment and sputtering, temperature, surface chemical, and bulk radiation damage effects are reviewed. Candidate materials and application techniques are discussed. The philosophy and flow chart of a recommended coating development plan are presented and discussed. Projected impacts of the proposed plan include benefits to other aspects of confinement experiments. A list of 45 references is appended. (RME)
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Davis, M.J.; Langley, R.A. & Prevender, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing potential impacts associated with contamination events in water distribution systems : a sensitivity analysis.

Description: An understanding of the nature of the adverse effects that could be associated with contamination events in water distribution systems is necessary for carrying out vulnerability analyses and designing contamination warning systems. This study examines the adverse effects of contamination events using models for 12 actual water systems that serve populations ranging from about 104 to over 106 persons. The measure of adverse effects that we use is the number of people who are exposed to a contaminant above some dose level due to ingestion of contaminated tap water. For this study the number of such people defines the impact associated with an event. We consider a wide range of dose levels in order to accommodate a wide range of potential contaminants. For a particular contaminant, dose level can be related to a health effects level. For example, a dose level could correspond to the median lethal dose, i.e., the dose that would be fatal to 50% of the exposed population. Highly toxic contaminants may be associated with a particular response at a very low dose level, whereas contaminants with low toxicity may only be associated with the same response at a much higher dose level. This report focuses on the sensitivity of impacts to five factors that either define the nature of a contamination event or involve assumptions that are used in assessing exposure to the contaminant: (1) duration of contaminant injection, (2) time of contaminant injection, (3) quantity or mass of contaminant injected, (4) population distribution in the water distribution system, and (5) the ingestion pattern of the potentially exposed population. For each of these factors, the sensitivities of impacts to injection location and contaminant toxicity are also examined. For all the factors considered, sensitivity tends to increase with dose level (i.e., decreasing toxicity) of the contaminant, with ...
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Davis, M. J.; Janke, R. & Taxon, T. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating D and D costs for structures at DOE facilities: Some considerations

Description: A number of issues are examined related to estimating decontamination and decommissioning costs for structures at US Department of Energy facilities. The ability to develop detailed estimates for such facilities is generally well established and the general range of costs for such activity is well understood. However, current ability to quickly develop credible planning estimates is more limited. A need exists for a continuing synthesis of experience to allow for an improved ability to develop both detailed and planning estimates.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Davis, M.J.; Folga, S.; Swanston, R. & Janke, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Case study: Evaluation of a scenario for the reuse of structures in the production area at Fernald

Description: The potential for the reuse of uncontaminated structures at federal facilities that are being remediated should be evaluated. Although various factors often limit the viability of such reuse, it may be economically attractive to reuse selected structures. Consideration of a hypothetical reuse scenario for the US Department of Energy`s Fernald, Ohio facility shows that the reuse of selected buildings that were not significantly contaminated by production activities at the site may be considerably less expensive than the construction of new ones. The cost of removal of existing buildings is a major factor influencing the relative advantages of these two options. For Fernald, no need for the facility`s buildings has been identified; however, the reuse of structures may be a viable option at other facilities.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Davis, M.J.; Folga, S.; Janke, R.J. & Kozlowski, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard review plan on antitrust reviews. Final report

Description: This standard review plan describes the procedures used by NRC staff to implement the antitrust review and enforcement provisions in Sections 105 and 186 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), and replaces NUREG-0970. These procedures are principally derived from the Commission`s Rules and Regulations in 10 CFR Sections 2.101, 2.102, Part 2-Appendix A, Section X, 50.33a, 50.80, 50.90, and 52.77. These procedures set forth the steps and criteria the staff uses in antitrust reviews of construction permit applications, operating license applications, combined construction permit/operating license applications, combined construction permit/operating license applications, and applications for approval of the transfer of construction permits, operating licenses, and combined licenses. In addition, the procedures describe how the staff enforces compliance with antitrust conditions appended to licenses.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Lambe, W.M. & Davis, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On-site disposal of decontaminated and dismantled (D and D) materials: A management approach

Description: The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a federal facility located near Cincinnati, Ohio that is being remediated. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) of the FEMP consists of 232 buildings and other structures that formerly housed various uranium and thorium metallurgical and chemical processes. The buildings are constructed primarily of steel and concrete, with transite siding. The structures are being decontaminated and dismantled using an interim remedial action approach. The disposition of the debris and other waste materials generated by the interim action is being addressed by the final remedial action for the operable unit. The preferred alternative is disposal of most of the material in an engineered disposal cell located on the FEMP property. This is complicated by the fact that the FEMP is located in an environmentally sensitive area and by the complex nature of the materials. The principal aquifer located beneath the site, the Great Miami Aquifer, is designated as a sole-source aquifer under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Disposal of any wastes at the FEMP must be protective of the aquifer. Dismantlement of OU3 structures will result in a very heterogeneous waste stream, both in terms of types of materials and levels of contamination. Wastes to be managed also include contaminated production equipment and drummed materials associated with former production activities, as well as structural materials. All of these factors complicate the management of OU3 materials. This paper discusses the approach proposed by the FEMP for the management of materials resulting from the interim remedial action. The components of the management approach being used to address disposal of the heterogeneous wastes from OU3 in an environmentally sensitive manner are discussed, followed by some conclusions.
Date: July 19, 1995
Creator: Hall, J.S.; Clark, T.R.; Davis, M.J. & Picel, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy randomisation. How much of rotational phase space is explored? How long does it take?

Description: In applying modern theories (RRKM) of unimolecular reaction, it is necessary to decide the volume of phase space in which the energy is assumed to be randomized. The question of whether the K rotational quantum number is conserved impacts on that choice. The conceptual sequence from experimental spectra, through analysis, and interpretation in terms of K relaxation is described for ethanol and 1-butyne in the 3 micron region. The interpretation of molecular eigenstate spectra involves identification of the bright state from the coherent excitation of part of the spectrum, evaluation of the rate of energy transfer out of the bright state, deducing the mechanism of the coupling of the bright state to the bath states, and modeling the spectra in order to determine the average coupling parameters for anharmonic coupling and Coriolis interactions.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Perry, D. S.; Bethardy, G. A.; Davis, M. J. & Go, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXPEDITING THE PATH TO CLOSURE THE CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL, SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES, NEW MEXICO

Description: The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is undergoing closure subject to the requirements of Subtitle C of RCRA. This paper identifies regulatory mechanisms that have and continue to expedite and simplify the closure of the CWL. These include (1) the Environmental Restoration (ER) Programmatic effort to achieve progress quickly with respect to the standard regulatory processes, which resulted in the performance of voluntary corrective measures at the CWL years in advance of the standard process schedule, (2) the management and disposal of CWL remediation wastes and materials according to the risks posed, and (3) the combination of multiple regulatory requirements into a single submittal.
Date: February 27, 2003
Creator: Young, S.G.; Schofield, D.P.; Davis, M.J.; Methvin, R. & Mitchell, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land use and energy

Description: This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department