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DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.
Date: July 13, 2005
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Chen, Chong; Dadyburjor, Dady; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G.; Stiller, Alfred H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.
Date: April 13, 2005
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Chen, Chong; Dadyburjor, Dady; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G.; Stiller, Alfred H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.
Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Bergen, R. Michael; Carpenter, Stephen P.; Dadyburjor, Dady; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Dadyburjor, Dady B.; Heavner, Mark E.; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu; Maybury, J. Joshua; Stiller, Alfred H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.
Date: March 27, 2006
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Carpenter, Stephen P.; Dadyburjor, Dady; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu; Nallani-Chakravartula, Madhavi et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

Description: In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.
Date: September 30, 2006
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Dadyburjor, Dady B.; Hackett, Gregory W.; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu; Stiller, Alfred H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others. Key milestones included producing hydrogenated coal in the Hydrotreating Facility for the first time. The facility is now operational, although digital controls have not yet been completely wired. In addition, ultrasound is being used to investigate enhanced dissolution of coal. Experiments have been carried out.
Date: February 23, 2006
Creator: Dadyburjor, Dady; Chen, Chong; Kennel, Elliot B.; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G.; Stiller, Alfred H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.
Date: December 31, 2009
Creator: Kennel, Elliot; Chen, Chong; Dadyburjor, Dady; Heavner, Mark; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.
Date: April 13, 2005
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Biedler, Philip L.; Chen, Chong; Dadyburjor, Dady; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feed-stocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others.
Date: December 12, 2005
Creator: Dadyburjor, Dady; Chen, Chong; Kennel, Elliot B.; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G.; Stiller, Alfred H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.
Date: June 8, 2005
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Carpenter, Stephen P.; Dadyburjor, Dady; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

Description: High melting temperature synthetic pitches (Synpitches) were created using coal derivatives produced from a solvent extraction technique. Solvent extraction is used to separate hydrocarbons from mineral matter as well as other insolubles. Mild hydrogenation can be used to chemically modify resultant material to produce a true pitch. There are three main techniques which can be used to tailor the softening point of the Synpitch. First, the softening point can be controlled by varying the conditions of hydrogenation, chiefly the temperature, pressure and residence time in a hydrogen overpressure. Second, by selectively distilling light hydrocarbons, the softening point of the remaining pitch can be raised. Third, the Synpitch can be blended with another mutually soluble pitch or hydrocarbon liquid. Through such techniques, spinnable isotropic Synpitches have been created from coal feedstocks. Characteristics of Synpitches include high cross-linking reactivity and high molecular weight, resulting in carbon fibers with excellent mechanical properties. To date, mechanical properties have been achieved which are comparable to the state of the art achievable with conventional coal tar pitch or petroleum pitch.
Date: December 12, 2005
Creator: Dadyburjor, Dady; Chen, Chong; Kennel, Elliot B.; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G.; Stiller, Alfred H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.
Date: August 11, 2005
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Carpenter, Stephen P.; Dadyburjor, Dady; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.
Date: June 23, 2005
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Biedler, Philip L.; Chen, Chong; Dadyburjor, Dady; Magean, Liviu; Stansberry, Peter G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.
Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Kennel, Elliot B.; Berg, Quentin C.; Carpenter, Stephen P.; Dadyburjor, Dady; Hissam, Jason C.; Katakdaunde, Manoj et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

Description: This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new ...
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Dadyburjor, Dady; Biedler, Philip R.; Chen, Chong; Clendenin, L. Mitchell; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Kennel, Elliot B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department