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Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources

Description: The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report

Description: Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)
Date: February 6, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory/bench-scale testing and evaluation of the A. P. T. Dry-Plate Scrubber. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

Description: The A.P.T. Dry Plate Scrubber (DPS) uses a shallow, dense mobile bed of solid collector granules which move across a perforated plate. The gas stream containing fine particles and vapors is moved upward through the perforations to form high velocity gas jets. The fine particles are removed by inertial deposition onto the collector granules or by direct interception. Electrostatic forces also can be used to improve the collection efficiency and increase the adhesive forces between the particles and collectors. The DPS column consists of a series of collection stages (perforated plates) with the collectors either passing sequentially over each stage or being fed separately to each stage. The stages can be designed so as to promote the collection of large particles on the lower stages and the collection of fine particles and alkali vapors on the upper stages. The DPS is especially well suited for cleaning high temperature and pressure gases such as the effluent from a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) process. The objective of this project is to conduct a bench scale experimental evaluation of the DPS at high temperature and pressure to determine its potential for controlling particulate and alkali vapor emissions from PFBC processes.
Date: March 30, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD air heater development technology. Technical progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

Description: Technology development for the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described. Work is being done under three tasks as described in the following. (1) materials selection, evaluation, and development: The objective of this task is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The scope of the work will include compilation of materials data, materials selection for testing and design studies, materials property determination, liaison with refractory manufacturers and other organizations to encourage development of materials and fabrication technology, establishment of preliminary HTAH material specifications, analyses of test materials, and development of criteria for thermal stress limits for crack-tolerant refractory materials. (2) operability, performance, and materials testing: The objectives of this task are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. (3) full-scale design concepts: The objectives of this task are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. Progress is described. (WHK)
Date: July 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD air heater development technology. Technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

Description: The technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described. Progress is reported on the three tasks. The first task is materials selection, evaluation, and development. The objective of this task is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. Task two is operability, performance, and materials testing. The objectives of this task are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of the full-scale design task are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)
Date: November 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-horsepower range. Phase I final report

Description: A program plan and schedule for the implementation of the proposed conceptual designs through the remaining four phases of the overall large Stirling engine development program was prepared. The objective of Phase II is to prepare more detailed designs of the conceptual designs prepared in Phase I. At the conclusion of Phase II, a state-of-the-art design will be selected from the candidate designs developed in Phase I for development. The objective of Phase III is to prepare manufacturing drawings of the candidate engine design. Also, detailed manufacturing drawings of both 373 kW (500 hp) and 746 kW (1000 hp) power pack skid systems will be completed. The power pack skid systems will include the generator, supporting skid, controls, and other supporting auxiliary subsystems. The Stirling cycle engine system (combustion system, Stirling engine, and heat transport system) will be mounted in the power pack skid system. The objective of Phase IV is to procure parts for prototype engines and two power pack skid systems and to assemble Engines No. 1 and 2. The objective of Phase V is to perform extensive laboratory and demonstration testing of the Stirling engines and power pack skid systems, to determine the system performance and cost and commercialization strategy. Scheduled over a 6 yr period the cost of phases II through V is estimated at $22,063,000. (LCL)
Date: October 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-hp range. Phase I final report

Description: The first phase of the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 373 kW (500 hp) to 2237 kW (3000 hp) range was completed. The tasks in Phase I include conceptual designs of large Stirling cycle stationary engines and program plan for implementing Phases II through V. Four different heater head designs and five different machine designs were prepared in sufficient detail to select a design recommended for development in the near future. A second order analysis was developed for examining the various loss mechanisms in the Stirling engine and for predicting the thermodynamic performance of these engines. The predicted engine thermal brake efficiency excluding combustion efficiency is approximately 42% which exceeds the design objective of 40%. The combustion system designs were prepared for both a clean fuel combustion system and a two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system. The calculated combustion efficiency of the former is 90% and of the latter is 80%. Heat transport systems, i.e., a heat exchanger for the clean fuel combustion system and a sodium heat pipe system for coal and other nonclean fuel combustion systems were selected. The cost analysis showed that for clean fuels combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is $478,242 or $214/kW ($159/hp) which is approximately 1.86 times the cost of a comparable size diesel engine. For solid coal combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is approximately $2,246,242 which corresponds to a cost to power capacity ratio of $1004/kW ($749/hp). The two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system represents 81% of the total cost; the engine represents 14% depending on the future price differential between coal and conventional clean fuels, a short payback period of the proposed Stirling cycle engine/FBC system may justify the initial cost. (LCL)
Date: October 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range

Description: Initial work in a project on the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary integrated energy systems is reported. Information is included on a market assessment, design methodology, evaluation of engine thermodynamic performance, and preliminary system design. It is concluded that Stirling engines employing clean fossil fuels cannot compete with diesel engines. However, combustion technology exists for the successful burning of coal-derived fuels in a large stationary stirling engine. High thermal efficiency is predicted for such an engine and further development work is recommended. (LCL)
Date: February 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

Description: Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prototype solar Heating and Hot Water System (A Collection of Quarterly Reports)

Description: This report contains three quarterly reports that cover the progress made in the development of a solar heating and hot water system. These quarterly reports discuss the development work and improvements to components and subsystems. The system uses the pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. The system is installed at Columbia, South Carolina. Cost information has been removed.
Date: October 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Energy Physics. Ultimate Structure of Matter and Energy.

Description: Some of the principle discoveries and insights and their development up to today are sketched. It is shown how one layer after another was discovered by penetrating farther into the structure of matter. covered are the mounting energy scale, discoveries at thigh energy frontier, the families of quarks and leptons, the four forces of nature, some achievements of the past few years, particle accelerators and experimental apparatus. A glossary of terms is included.
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsystem Design Package for the On-site Monitor at Solar Heating and Cooling Sites

Description: This design package, consisting of the Performance Specification, Performance Requirements Cross Reference, and the Acceptance Test Procedure, reflects the material submitted by IBM on their effort to develop, design and build on-site monitors under NASA/ MSFC Contract NAS8-32036. The on-site monitor is a portable device which can be easily connected to a Site Data Acquisition Subsystem to allow readouts of real time sensor data in voltage or engineering units at instrumented solar heating and cooling sites.
Date: November 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air-Liquid Solar Collector for Solar Heating, Combined Heating and Cooling, and Hot Water Subsystems

Description: This report contains a collection of quarterly reports prepared by Owens Illinois in the development of an air-liquid solar collector for solar heating. combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water subsystems. These reports have been reformatted, pages renumbered, and cost information removed.
Date: March 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department