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Development and Attestation of Gamma-Ray Measurement Methodologies for use by Rostekhnadzor Inspectors in the Russian Federation

Description: Development and attestation of gamma-ray non-destructive assay measurement methodologies for use by inspectors of the Russian Federal Service for Environmental, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostekhnadzor, formerly Gosatomnadzor or GAN), as well as for use by Russian nuclear facilities, has been completed. Specifically, a methodology utilizing the gamma-ray multi group analysis (MGA) method for determining plutonium isotopic composition has been developed, while existing methodologies to determining uranium enrichment and isotopic composition have been revised to make them more appropriate to the material types and conditions present in nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation. This paper will discuss the development and revision of these methodologies, the metrological characteristics of the final methodologies, as well as the limitations and concerns specific to the utilization of these analysis methods in the Russian Federation.
Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Sanders, Jeff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RERTR Fuel Developmemt and Qualification Plan

Description: In late 2003 it became evident that U-Mo aluminum fuels under development exhibited significant fuel performance problems under the irradiation conditions required for conversion of most high-powered research reactors. Solutions to the fuel performance issue have been proposed and show promise in early testing. Based on these results, a Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program strategy has been mapped to allow generic fuel qualification to occur prior to the end of FY10 and reactor conversion to occur prior to the end of FY14. This strategy utilizes a diversity of technologies, test conditions, and test types. Scoping studies using miniature fuel plates will be completed in the time frame of 2006-2008. Irradiation of larger specimens will occur in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in the United States, the Belgian Reactor-2 (BR2) reactor in Belgium, and in the OSIRIS reactor in France in 2006-2009. These scoping irradiation tests provide a large amount of data on the performance of advanced fuel types under irradiation and allow the down selection of technology for larger scale testing during the final stages of fuel qualification. In conjunction with irradiation testing, fabrication processes must be developed and made available to commercial fabricators. The commercial fabrication infrastructure must also be upgraded to ensure a reliable low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel supply. Final qualification of fuels will occur in two phases. Phase I will obtain generic approval for use of dispersion fuels with density less than 8.5 g-U/cm3. In order to obtain this approval, a larger scale demonstration of fuel performance and fabrication technology will be necessary. Several Materials Test Reactor (MTR) plate-type fuel assemblies will be irradiated in both the High Flux Reactor (HFR) and the ATR (other options include the BR2 and Russian Research Reactor, Dmitrovgrad, Russia [MIR] reactors) in 2008-2009. Following postirradiation examination, a ...
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Wachs, Dan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposition of Unirradiated Sodium Bonded EBR-II Driver Fuel Elements and HEU Scrap: Work Performed for FY 2007

Description: Specific surplus high enriched uranium (HEU) materials at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) will be transferred to a designated off-site receiving facility. The DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO) will determine which materials, if any, will be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors. These surplus HEU materials include approximately 7200 kg unirradiated sodium-bonded EBR-II driver fuel elements, and nearly 800 kg of HEU casting scrap from the process which formed various sodium-bonded fuels (including the EBR-II driver elements). Before the driver fuel can be packaged for shipment, the fuel elements will require removal of the sodium bond. The HEU scrap will also require repackaging in preparation for off-site transport. Preliminary work on this task was authorized by BWXT Y-12 on Nov 6, 2006 and performed in three areas: • Facility Modifications • Safety Documentation • Project Management
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Moore, Karen A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

Description: This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: URS, Washington Division of
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

Description: Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Longhurst, Glen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates

Description: The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo ...
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Chang, G. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TMIST-2 Transport Test

Description: In anticipation of the TMIST-2 experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor, there was a need to determine if the tritium that is expected to be observed at the outlet of the experiment would be seen or if it may be lost on its way from the experiment in the core to the measurement station. To assist in resolving that issue, a bench-scale experiment was conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility using deuterium and a mass spectrometer in lieu of tritium with ion chambers, bubblers, and scintillation counting. The experiment replicated the concentration of the hydrogen isotope, the flow rates anticipated, and the residence times. It was found that there was initial uptake on tubing walls, presumably due to oxidation of the hydrogen isotopes to water and adsorption or isotopic exchange, but that saturates relatively quickly, and once saturated, the concentration of deuterium at the outlet of the tubing system was essentially the same as it was at the experiment inlet under the conditions modeled in the experiment.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Longhurst, Glen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MICROSCOPY CHARACTERIZATION OF U-MO BEARING MINI-PLATES FABRICATED BY HOT ISOSTATIC PRESSING (HIPPING) WITH A LONG THERMAL CYCLE

Description: The RERTR Program has formed the Production Development Team to coordinate fabrication efforts to produce the fuel elements for the qualifying irradiation tests. These fuel elements will be fabricated in production facilities. Fabrication development data will be shared with all participants on the development team. The INL has been developing a method of cladding using a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP). The operating parameters were varied to understand the impact of time, pressure and temperature on the reaction between the fuel and the cladding. This report details some of the data produced to date.
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Jue, Jan-Fong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANALOGIES BETWEEN NEUTRON AND GAMMA-RAY IMAGING.

Description: Although the physics describing the interactions of neutrons with matter is quite different from that appropriate for hard x-rays and gamma rays, there are a number of similarities that allow analogous instruments to be developed for both types of ionizing radiation. A pinhole camera, for example, requires that the radiation obeys some form of geometrical optics, that a material can be found to absorb some of the radiation, and that a suitable position-sensitive detector can be built to record the spatial distribution of the incident radiation. Such conditions are met for photons and neutrons, even though the materials used are quite different. Neutron analogues of the coded-aperture gamma camera and the Compton camera have been demonstrated. Even though the Compton effect applies only to photons, neutrons undergo proton-recoil scattering that can provide similar directional information. There is also an analogy in the existence of an energy spectrum for the radiation used to produce the images, and which may allow different types of sources to be distinguished from each other and from background.
Date: August 13, 2006
Creator: VANIER, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN OF A LARGE-AREA FAST NEUTRON DIRECTIONAL DETECTOR.

Description: A large-area fast-neutron double-scatter directional detector and spectrometer is being constructed using l-meter-long plastic scintillator paddles with photomultiplier tubes at both ends. The scintillators detect fast neutrons by proton recoil and also gamma rays by Compton scattering. The paddles are arranged in two parallel planes so that neutrons can be distinguished from muons and gamma rays by time of flight between the planes. The signal pulses are digitized with a time resolution of one gigasample per second. The location of an event along each paddle can be determined from the relative amplitudes or timing of the signals at the ends. The angle of deflection of a neutron in the first plane can be estimated from the energy deposited by the recoil proton, combined with the scattered neutron time-of-flight energy. Each scattering angle can be back-projected as a cone, and many intersecting cones define the incident neutron direction from a distant point source. Moreover, the total energy of each neutron can be obtained, allowing some regions of a fission source spectrum to be distinguished from background generated by cosmic rays. Monte Carlo calculations will be compared with measurements.
Date: October 29, 2006
Creator: VANIER, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TMAP7 User Manual

Description: The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by Brad Merrill and James Jones in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it was upgraded to TMAP4 and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its further upgrade to TMAP2000 and now to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. TMAP and TMAP4 had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT under solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions. That difficulty has been overcome. TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation and decay or combination of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in reactions with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not themselves diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy. The code includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the previously existing features for heat transfer, flows between enclosures, ...
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Longhurst, Glen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion Minimization for Research Reactor Fuel

Description: Existing university research reactors are being converted to use low-enriched uranium fue to eliminate the use of highly-enriched uranium. These conversions require increases in fuel loading that will result in the use of elements with more fuel plates, resulting in a net decrease in the water annulus between fuel plates. The proposed decrease in the water annulus raises questions about the requirements and stability of the surface hydroxide on the aluminum fuel cladding and the potential for runaway corrosion resulting in fuel over-temperature incidents. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as regulator for these university reactors, must ensure that proposed fuel modifications will not result in any increased risk or hazard to the reactor operators or the public. This document reviews the characteristics and behavior of aluminum hydroxides, analyzes the drivers for fuel plate corrosion, reviews relevant historical incidents, and provides recommendations on fuel design, surface treatment, and reactor operational practices to avoid corrosion issues.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Shaber, Eric & Hofman, Gerard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON NUCLEAR FACILITY DESIGN INFORMATION EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION FOR SAFEGUARDS

Description: Executive Summary The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements nuclear safeguards and verifies countries are compliant with their international nuclear safeguards agreements. One of the key provisions in the safeguards agreement is the requirement that the country provide nuclear facility design and operating information to the IAEA relevant to safeguarding the facility, and at a very early stage. , This provides the opportunity for the IAEA to verify the safeguards-relevant features of the facility and to periodically ensure that those features have not changed. The national authorities (State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material - SSAC) provide the design information for all facilities within a country to the IAEA. The design information is conveyed using the IAEA’s Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) and specifies: (1) Identification of the facility’s general character, purpose, capacity, and location; (2) Description of the facility’s layout and nuclear material form, location, and flow; (3) Description of the features relating to nuclear material accounting, containment, and surveillance; and (4) Description of existing and proposed procedures for nuclear material accounting and control, with identification of nuclear material balance areas. The DIQ is updated as required by written addendum. IAEA safeguards inspectors examine and verify this information in design information examination (DIE) and design information verification (DIV) activities to confirm that the facility has been constructed or is being operated as declared by the facility operator and national authorities, and to develop a suitable safeguards approach. Under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security identified the need for more effective and efficient verification of design information by the IAEA for improving international safeguards in the future. Consequently, the NNSA Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243) sponsored a team of U.S. Department of Energy National ...
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Metcalf, Richard & Bean, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS.

Description: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is likewise important to the U.S. government for U.S. citizens to take positions with the IAEA to contribute to its success. It is important for persons within and outside the U.S. nuclear and safeguards industries to become aware of the job opportunities available at the IAEA and to be informed of important vacancies as they arise. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is tasked by the U.S. government with recruiting candidates for positions within the Department of Safeguards at the IAEA and since 1998, has been actively seeking methods for improving outreach. In addition, ISPO has been working more closely with the IAEA Division of Personnel. ISPO staff members attend trade shows to distribute information about IAEA opportunities. The shows target the nuclear industry as well as shows that are unrelated to the nuclear industry. ISPO developed a web site that provides information for prospective candidates. They have worked with the IAEA to understand its recruitment processes, to make suggestions for improvements, and to understand employment benefits so they can be communicated to potential U.S. applicants. ISPO is also collaborating with a State Department working group that is focused on increasing U.S. representation within the United Nations as a whole. Most recently Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice issued a letter to all Federal Agency heads encouraging details and transfers of their employees to international organizations to the maximum extent feasible and with due regard to their manpower requirements. She urged all federal agencies to review their detail and transfer policies and practices to ensure that employment in international organizations is promoted in a positive and active manner. In addition, she wrote ...
Date: July 16, 2006
Creator: OCCHIOGROSSO, D. & PEPPER, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

Description: This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include information important to the evaluation methodology users and to the decisions of a proliferant State or ...
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: BARI, R. & AL., ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DIRECTIONAL DETECTION OF A NEUTRON SOURCE.

Description: Advantages afforded by the development of new directional neutron detectors and imagers are discussed. Thermal neutrons have mean free paths in air of about 20 meters, and can be effectively imaged using coded apertures. Fission spectrum neutrons have ranges greater than 100 meters, and carry enough energy to scatter at least twice in multilayer detectors which can yield both directional and spectral information. Such strategies allow better discrimination between a localized spontaneous fission source and the low, but fluctuating, level of background neutrons generated by cosmic rays. A coded aperture thermal neutron imager will be discussed as well as a proton-recoil double-scatter fast-neutron directional detector with time-of-flight energy discrimination.
Date: October 23, 2006
Creator: VANIER, P.E. & FORMAN, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPACT OF THE U.S. SUPPORT PROGRAM SAFEGUARDS INTERNSHIP PROGRAM.

Description: The U.S. Support Program began funding an internship program in the IAEA Department of Safeguards in 2002. Since that time, 39 U.S. citizens and permanent residents have been placed in one-year, paid internships with the IAEA. The management of the internship program was originally the responsibility of the International Safeguards Project Office but was transferred to the Office of Educational Programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2004. Feedback on the internship program from the U.S. government and the IAEA has been positive. The interns have completed basic yet essential work for the Department of Safeguards and freed IAEA staff members to perform more complex tasks. The cost of an intern is low relative to other forms of human resources support. After the conclusion of their assignments, many of the interns go on to work for the U.S. government, the national laboratories, or companies in international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will discuss the work done by the interns for the IAEA, factors influencing the success of the internship program, and the effects the program has had on the careers of interns, in preparing the next generation to work in the nuclear industry, participation in INMM activities, and recruitment for U.S. citizens for safeguards positions.
Date: July 16, 2006
Creator: PEPPER, S. & OSIECKI, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biosafety Practices and Emergency Response at the Idaho National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: Strict federal regulations govern the possession, use, and transfer of pathogens and toxins with potential to cause harm to the public, either through accidental or deliberate means. Laboratories registered through either the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), or both, must prepare biosafety, security, and incident response plans, conduct drills or exercises on an annual basis, and update plans accordingly. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), biosafety, laboratory, and emergency management staff have been working together for 2 years to satisfy federal and DOE/NNSA requirements. This has been done through the establishment of plans, training, tabletop and walk-through exercises and drills, and coordination with local and regional emergency response personnel. Responding to the release of infectious agents or toxins is challenging, but through familiarization with the nature of the hazardous biological substances or organisms, and integration with laboratory-wide emergency response procedures, credible scenarios are being used to evaluate our ability to protect workers, the public, and the environment from agents we must work with to provide for national biodefense.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Roberto, Frank F. & Matz, Dina M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

Description: The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Woolstenhulme, Eric C. & Hewit, Dana M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor

Description: The objectives of this meeting were to capture the observations, insights, issues, concerns, and ideas of those involved in the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center (TAMU NSC) TRIGA Reactor Conversion so that future efforts can be conducted with greater effectiveness, efficiency, and with fewer challenges. This workshop was held in conjunction with a similar workshop for the University of Florida Reactor Conversion. Some of the generic lessons from that workshop are included in this report for completeness.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Woolstenhulme, Eric C. & Meyer, Dana M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for the University of Florida

Description: The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at the University of Florida. This project was successfully completed through an integrated and collaborative effort involving the INL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), DOE (Headquarters and Field Office), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Universities, and contractors involved in analyses, fuel design and fabrication, and SNF shipping and disposition. With the work completed with these two universities, and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture lessons learned. The objectives of this meeting were to capture the observations, insights, issues, concerns, and ideas of those involved in the reactor conversions so that future efforts can be conducted with greater effectiveness, efficiency, and with fewer challenges.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Woolstenhulme, Eric C. & Meyer, Dana M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Weld Tests Conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory

Description: During the fiscal year of 2006, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed many tests and work relating to the Mobile Melt-Dilute (MMD) Project components. Tests performed on the Staubli quick disconnect fittings showed promising results, but more tests were needed validate the fittings. Changes were made to the shield plug design—reduced the closure groove weld depth between the top of the canister and the top plate of the shielding plug from 0.5-in to 0.375-in deep. Other changes include a cap to cover the fitting, lifting pintle and welding code citations on the prints. Tests conducted showed stainless steel tubing, with 0.25-in, 0.375-in, and 0.5-in diameters, all with 0.035-in wall thickness, could be pinch seal welded using commercially available resistance welding equipment. Subsequent testing showed that these welds could be real-time inspected with ultrasonic inspection methods.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Zirker, Larry; Lauerhass, Lance & Dowalo, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANNUAL TRANSPORTATION REPORT FY 2007, Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

Description: In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada” (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5. No shipments were disposed of at Area 3 in fiscal year 2007. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level radioactive waste transported to or from the NTS during fiscal year 2007.
Date: December 1, 2007
Creator: OFFICE, DOE NNSA NEVADA SITE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Nanocomposite Energy Applications

Description: The nanocomposite energy applications for plasma reactor produced nanoparticles are reviewed. Nanoparticles are commonly defined as particles less than 100 nm in diameter. Due to this small size, nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio. This increases the surface energy compared to the bulk material. The high surface-to-volume ratio and size effects (quantum effects) give nanoparticles distinctive chemical, electronic, optical, magnetic and mechanical properties from those of the bulk material. Nanoparticles synthesis can be grouped into 3 broad approaches. The first one is wet phase synthesis (sol-gel processing), the second is mechanical attrition, and the third is gas-phase synthesis (aerosol). The properties of the final product may differ significantly depending on the fabrication route. Currently, there are no economical large-scale production processes for nanoparticles. This hinders the widespread applications of nanomaterials in products. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is engaging in research and development of advanced modular hybrid plasma reactors for low cost production of nanoparticles that is predicted to accelerate application research and enable the formation of technology innovation alliances that will result in the commercial production of nanocomposites for alternative energy production devices such as fuel cells, photovoltaics and electrochemical double layer capacitors.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Kong, Peter C. & Kawczak, Alex W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department