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Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

Description: During the reporting of July 1 to September 30, 1990, bench- and pilot-scale experiments were conducted to measure mass transfer and kinetic rates under simulated duct-injection conditions. This report describes the results of stirred-tank modelling experiments; experiments with moist solids in a short-time differential reactor in order to study and compare SO{sub 2} conversions; an investigation of the agglomeration of damp Ca(OH)-based solids; and evaluation of speciality sorbents.
Date: October 24, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

Description: While developing dry sorbent duct injection flue gas desulfurization processes may offer significant improvement in capital cost and process simplicity compared to wet scrubbing systems, the economics of this technology can be improved significantly by an improvement in sorbent utilization. While a general understanding of the mechanism by which the sorbents operate is known, a much more detailed knowledge of reaction rate-controlling phenomena, the role of inherent reactivity, and mass transfer effects and their interaction in needed. Objectives of this project are threefold: 1. Mass transfer investigation--determine the controlling physical and chemical processes that limit sorbent utilization. In particular, determine whether mass transfer is a controlling factor in in-duct flue gas desulfurization and establish the relative contributions of gas- and liquid-phase mass transfer and inherent sorbent reactivity. 2. Field test support--evaluate various sorbents, operating conditions and process schemes to support large-scale field testings at Meredosia and Beverly. 3. Mass transfer enhancement--examine various techniques that will enable sorbent utilization rates of at least 75 percent to be achieved. Sorbents investigated were Ca(OH){sub 2}, Mississippi hydrate and Mississippi slaked lime. Epsom Salt was investigated as an additive. Agglomeration of Ca(OH){sub 2} solids was also investigated. 3 refs., 92 figs., 23 tabs.
Date: August 22, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

Description: An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This is being accomplished by utilization the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. 31 figs., 22 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

Description: The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on specimens drawn from carefully controlled sections of each ...
Date: August 1, 2009
Creator: Carroll, mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental studies on group ignition of a cloud of coal particles

Description: While the combustion characteristics of a single coal particle are well known, most practical applications of coal combustion involve a large number of particles burning collectively as a group. A group combustion model has been developed which models the transient combustion of a spherical coal cloud. This model predicts ignition of a homogeneous mixture of volatiles and oxygen outside the cloud. The flame then moves to the cloud surface, where it anchors itself until all of the oxygen at the cloud surface is consumed. Two concentric flames are then formed, an outward propagating diffusion flame and an inward propagating premixed/diffusion flame which supplies heat to the particles for pyrolysis. Once the inner flame has consumed all the oxygen in the cloud, pyrolysis is complete and the outer flame consumes the released volatiles. As the volatiles are consumed, the flame approaches the cloud surface. Once all the volatiles have been consumed, the remaining char in the cloud burns at rate controlled by the rate of oxygen diffusion to the cloud. 5 refs., 14 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Annamalai, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of the mechanisms of calcination and sulfation in coal-water mixtures

Description: The purpose of this investigation is to study the mechanisms of sulfur capture when burning coal-water-limestone mixtures (CWLM) in fluidized beds. Special care is taken to make comparisons with to dry coal and sorbent under comparable experimental conditions. A series of experiments were performed in an eight-inch diameter bubbling fluidized bed combustor to address this problem. 33 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: September 21, 1990
Creator: Christofides, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal properties and chemical additives

Description: The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to evaluate the necessary boundary conditions in the preparation and utilization of Coal Water Slurries (CWS) and also develop a data base for the conceptual analysis of a prescription to predict slurry quality for a given coal candidate. This quarter, zeta potential and static stability measurements of three coal slurries have been made using poly naphthalene ammonium sulphonate, A-23, A-23S MCG-32A-LS and Igepal 990 as dispersants and at a pH of 10. A preliminary study of the static stability measurements were made in a column having two outlet ports separated by a distance of 1 ft. Samples were withdrawn periodically from these ports and the solid content profile was determined for an initial period of one week. Based on the results obtained from this preliminary study, larger samples were prepared and the stability measurements made in a 6 ft column having three outlet ports with a water jacket surrounding it. Zeta Potential measurements were made prior to the stability studies. 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle coal as a source of energy in small-user applications

Description: The use of fine particle micronized coal as a source of energy for home heating applications has been explored in previous years under this program in a 150,000 Btu/hr pulse combustor. Experimental studies have been conducted on the combustion characteristics of micronized coal and combustion efficiencies have been measured. Emission levels of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} have been measured. In this final year of the program, the combustion and emissions characteristics of micronized coal were further explored in terms of the influence of stoichiometric ratio and frequency effects. Also, a model has been proposed which has potential for incorporating the unsteady mixing occurring in pulse combustors. 31 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Rajan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalysis and co-catalysis of bond cleavages in coal and coal analogs

Description: Progress is reported on the cleavage of bonds in coal and coal analogs. This quarter, 9-Phenylthioanthracene (9-PTA) was chosen as an appropriate substrate to test the hypothesis that reductive cleavage of bonds to aromatic rings caused by heating in hydrogen donor solvents, such as tetralin, may be catalyzed by electron donating agents in the absence of hydrogen bonding or acidic reagents. Ca. 0.02 M solutions of 9-PTA in tetralin (purified by chromatography on neutral alumina) were heated in glass ampoules. It was observed that decomposition of 9-PTA occurs on heating at temperatures as low as 250{degree}C, even in the absence of additives or catalysts. Reductive cleavage (measured by yields of anthracene), however, was invariably a minor process. Two major products, obtained at retention times of ca. 6.5 and 9.0 min., respectively, were observed in all runs. However, these products were obtained in rather variable yields, with an increase in the yield of one product often being accompanied by a decrease in the yield of the other. The nature of the products is unknown. GC-MS analysis is awaited. Addition of 2,6-xylenol, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, or 1,4-dimethoxynaphthalene to the thermolysis mixtures appeared to offer, at best, only slight increases in reaction rates, and little change in product compositions.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Miller, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

Description: The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Somasundaran, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of stability/rheology relationship with coal properties and chemical additives

Description: A methodology has been developed in order to determine the influence of individual particle size fractions on coal water slurry rheology. This involves the determination of the packaging concentrations and rheology of the separate particle size fractions; {minus}400 mesh, {minus}400/325, {minus}325/270, {minus}270/200 mesh, {minus}200/140 mesh, {minus}140/100 mesh and {minus}100/80 mesh as a function of solids loading. The packaging concentrations of the separate particle size fractions and that of several blends of these sizes have been determined. The packaging concentrations were determined from particle size distribution measurements and a program based on truncated log-normal distribution which has been developed at the Adelphi Center for Energy Studies. 5 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanism of hydrodenitrogenation (Part 4) infrared spectroscopy of acidic molybdena catalysts

Description: Mo oxide catalysts supported over a complete series of silica-aluminas have been characterized in the oxidic and reduced states, by means of total acidity measurements and by infrared spectroscopy. Ammonia chemisorption was used to titrate the total acidity of the catalysts, and IR absorption of adsorbed pyridine to distinguish Bronsted from Lewis acid sites. The formation of new acidity upon deposition of molybdena on silica-alumina supports was then explained on the basis of a simple surface model. The new acidity is of both Lewis and Bronsted type, the preponderance of one over the other depending on support composition, as well as loading and state of oxidation of Mo. High-alumina supports and low Mo loading favor dispersed Mo species, in particular bidentate and monodentate di-oxo Mo species. The latter is responsible for the new Bronsted acidity. Coordinative unsaturation of polymolybdates is responsible for the new Lewis acidity, which is increased upon reduction of Mo. High-silica supports favor monodentate species (high Bronsted acidity) up to 4 wt % MoO{sub 3}. Beyond that, polymolybdates species and Lewis acidity predominate. 7 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Miranda, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Haze in the Grand Canyon: An evaluation of the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment

Description: The Grand Canyon is one of the most spectacular natural sights on earth. Approximately 4 million visitors travel to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) each year to enjoy its majestic geological formations and intensely colored views. However, visibility in GCNP can be impaired by small increases in concentrations of fine suspended particles that scatter and absorb light; the resulting visibility degradation is perceived as haze. Sulfate particles are a major factor in visibility impairment at Grand Canyon in summer and winter. Many wintertime hazes at GCNP are believed to result from the accumulation of emissions from local sources during conditions of air stagnation, which occur more frequently in winter than in summer. In January and February 1987, the National Park Service (NPS) carried out a large-scale experiment known as the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment (WHITEX) to investigate the causes of wintertime haze in the region of GCNP and Canyonlands National Park. The overall objective of WHITEX was to assess the feasibility of attributing visibility impairment in specific geographic regions to emissions from a single point source. The experiment called for the injection of a tracer, deuterated methane (CD{sub 4}), into one of the stacks of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a major coal-fired power plant located 25 km from the GCNP boundary and 110 km northeast of Grand Canyon Village. A network of field stations was established in the vicinity -- mostly to the northeast of GCNP and NGS -- to measure CD{sub 4} concentrations, atmospheric aerosol and optical properties, and other chemical and physical attributes. 19 refs., 3 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvements in Measuring Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability in Coal

Description: Total worldwide CBM in-place reserves estimates are between 3500 Tcf and 9500 Tcf. Unminable coal beds have been recommended as good CO2 sequestration sites as the world prepares to sequester large amounts of greenhouse gases. In the U.S., these coal seams have the capacity to adsorb and sequester roughly 50 years of CO2 emissions from all the U.S. coal-fired power plants at today’s output rates. The amount and type of gas ad-sorbed in coal has a strong impact on the permeability of the coal seam. An improved mixed gas adsorption iso-therm model based on the extended-Langmuir theory is discussed and is applied to mixed gas sorption-induced strain based on pure gas strain data and a parameter accounting for gas-gas interactions that is independent of the coal substrate. Advantages and disadvantages of using freestanding versus constrained samples for sorption-induced strain measurements are also discussed. A permeability equation used to model laboratory was found to be very accurate when sorption-induced strain was small, but less accurate with higher strain gases.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Robertson, Eric P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

Description: Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Robertson, Eric P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

Description: Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Robertson, Eric P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

Description: This work evaluates the suitability of iron aluminide coatings for use in high temperature fossil fuel combustion environments, such as boiler applications. The coatings are applied using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray techniques. Iron aluminide coatings, with the nominal composition of Fe3Al, were applied to various high temperature structural materials (316 Stainless Steel, 9Cr-1Mo steel and Inconel 600) that typically lack inherent resistance to environmental degradation found in fossil fuel combustion atmospheres. Coating/substrate combinations were subjected to thermal cycling to evaluate the effect of HVOF parameters, coating thickness, substrate material and substrate surface roughness on the resistance to coating delamination and cracking. It was found that substrate surface roughness had a profound influence on the performance of a given substrate/coating system and that surface preparation techniques will need to be tailored to the specific substrate material. Also, higher particle velocity during HVOF thermal spray deposition of the iron aluminide coatings tended to result in better-performing coating/substrate systems with less delamination at the coating/substrate interface. Some combinations of HVOF parameters, coating thickness and substrate materials were found to perform extremely well even at temperatures up to 900oC. However, in some cases, substantial reactions at the interface were observed.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Lillo, Thomas M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections

Description: It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR ...
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: ganda, francesco (090771)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

Description: Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently ...
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Robertson, Eric P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leakage resistance and current inferred from CDIF operating data

Description: Axial leakage current is difficult to measure directly. Spacial and temporal variations tend to cloud the interpretation of local measurements such as the current or voltage between any two neighboring electrodes. Also the measurement process itself tends to affect the result in an unpredictable manner. Therefore it is desireable to seek an indirect method that is based upon averages over a distance equivalent to one duct diameter or more, does not perturb the system, and is based upon data already collected. An indirect method is described here together with the results obtained when it is applied to nearly all CDIF runs. When correlated, the data suggest that leak current is primarily a function of Hall parameter and Faraday current while only weakly dependent upon axial field. Possible reasons for this discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Rosa, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale-up of circulating fluidized bed coal combustors

Description: This experimental project has been aimed at quantifying the effects of scale-up upon the hydrodynamics of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) coal combustors. We have have constructed a cold CFB facility with the ability to recirculate-rather than discard-fluidization gas mixtures of adjustable density and viscosity. Hydrodynamic analogy between the cold bed and a coal combustor is achieved by matching all relevant dimensionless parameters. Several choices of gas composition and particle properties make the cold flow analogous to that in combustors of diameters in the range 0.3 to 1m. Therefore, for the first time, scale-up effects are quantified directly using a single cold flow facility. During the previous reporting period, we carried out the first two phases of the scale -up experiments i.e., the fluidization of glass beads and plastic pellets using mixtures of helium and carbon dioxide. This quarter, we have completed the third phase of the scale-up experiments using iron flakes. By fluidizing two glass powders of identical characteristics but largely different surface friction coefficients, we have discovered that particle friction affects the flow. Effort has also been on modeling particle interaction in gas-solid flows using elements of rapid granular flow. Because detailed measurements of velocity fluctuations are not yet available in dense flows, we have first considered dilute, turbulent flows of relatively massive particles. Finally, we have/studied the heat transfer from a suspension of massive particles of low Biot number transported in a vertical pipe. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Louge, M.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

Description: This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the thirteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made on the testing of the system hardware and software. H{sub 2} chemisorption capacities and activity selectivity data were also measured for three iron catalysts promoted with 1% alumina. 47 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Date: October 11, 1990
Creator: Bartholomew, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Collaborative coal project between the USA and India)

Description: Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification. (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.
Date: October 5, 1990
Creator: Krishnan, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department