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Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

Description: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the Department of Energy initiated a comprehensive effort in 1982 to develop the necessary performance and cost data and to assess the commercial viability of coal water fuels (CWFs) as applied to representative utility and industrial units. The effort comprised six tasks beginning with coal resource evaluation and culminating in the assessment of the technical and economic consequences of switching representative commercial units from oil to state-of-the-art CWF firing. Extensive bench, pilot and commercial-scale tests were performed to develop necessary CWF combustion and fireside performance data for the subsequent boiler performance analyses and retrofit cost estimates. This report (Volume 2) provides a review of the fuel selection and procurement activities. Included is a discussion on coal washability, transport of the slurry, and characterization. 20 figs., 26 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

Description: This project will demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology in a commercial application by the repowering of an existing City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Plant in Springfield, Illinois. The project duration will be 126 months, including a 63-month demonstration period. The estimated cost of the project is $270,700,000 of which $129,357,204 will be funded by DOE. The IGCC system will consist of CE's air-blown, entrained-flow, two-stage, pressurized coal gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup process; a combustion turbine modified to use low Btu coal gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment. An existing 25-MWe steam turbine and associated equipment will also be part of the IGCC system. The result of repowering will be an IGCC power plant with low environmental emissions and high net plant efficiency. The repowering will increase plant output by 40 MWe through addition of the combustion turbine, thus providing a total IGCC capacity of a nominal 65 MWe. 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Confined zone dispersion low-NO sub x flue gas desulfurization demonstration

Description: This report describes a project selected for funding under the US Clean Coal Technology Program. This project will demonstrate the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a utility coal-fired boiler retrofitted with the confined zone dispersion-flue gas desulfurization (CZD-FGD) process. In the CZD-FGD process, a finely atomized slurry of a highly reactive pressure hydrated dolomitic lime is sprayed into the flue gas stream between the boiler air heater(s) and the particulate collection equipment. The lime slurry is injected into the center of the duct and the type and position of the spray nozzles are designed to produce a cone of fine spray. As the cone of spray moves nozzles are designed to produce a cone of fine spray. As the cone of spray moves downstream and expands, the gas within the cone cools and the SO{sub 2} is rapidly absorbed by the liquid droplets. This fast drying time precludes wet particle build-up in the duct and allows carry-over of the dry reaction products and the unreacted lime in the flue gas, which will be removed by the particulate collection equipment. 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and utilization of new diagnostics for dense-phase pneumatic transport

Description: Dense-phase pneumatic transport is an attractive means of conveying solids. The main objective of this work is to develop probes for local measurements of solid velocity and holdup in dense gas-solid flows. In particular, we have designed capacitance probes to measure local, time-dependent particle concentrations, and a new optical fiber probe based on laser-induced-phosphorescence to measure particle velocities. A prototype of the optical fiber probe was tested during the previous quarter. In the present reporting period, we have constructed a final version of the optical fiber probe. Another widely used a method for measuring particle volume fraction inside a transport systems consists of measuring the light back-scattered from the suspension onto an optical fiber. We have simulated the performance of this optical probe using a Monte-Carlo technique. 2 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Arvah B. Hopkins circulating fluidized-bed repowering project: A project proposed by: The City of Tallahassee

Description: The project involves the repowering of a 250-megawatt electrical (MWe) natural gas- or oil-fired boiler with a coal-fired atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boiler to provide steam to an existing turbine generator. The boiler will be the largest of its type. After construction and shakedown, the City of Tallahassee (CoT) plant will be operated for 24 months with at least three different eastern coals. Final coal selection will be based on the Fuels Selection Study, which is part of Phase I-A of the project. Cost, financial, and technical data from the CoT CFB will be provided the utility industry for evaluation of a 250-MWe CFB as a commercially viable clean coal alternative. The objective of the Arvah B. Hopkins CFB Repowering Project is to demonstrate an efficient, economical, and environmentally superior method of generating electric power from coal. The work to be performed under the Cooperative Agreement includes the design, construction, and operation of the demonstration plant. 4 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: ENCOAL mild coal gasification project: A project proposed by ENCOAL Corporation

Description: This project involves the mild gasification of coal at moderate temperatures and near atmospheric pressure to produce two marketable products. Both products are new low-sulfur fuel forms. The high heating value, low-sulfur solid is called Process Derived Fuel (PDF). The low-sulfur, heavy-hydrocarbon liquid is called Coal Derived Liquid (CDL). The process chemically modifies the feed coal to create the two new fuel forms and also removes most of the moisture and some of the sulfur, depending on the sulfur form in the feed coal. The proposed demonstration plant would be put in service by the first quarter of 1992. The plant would be designed and operated as a small commercial facility and would be expected to produce sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to conduct full-scale test burns of the products in industrial and utility boilers. There will be no waste water or toxic solid wastes generated by the demonstration plant. Source water requirements will have a very minimal environmental impact at the site. The plant could ultimately have a very favorable impact on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions in the United States if the project is successful. ENCOAL has estimated that the new fuel forms, PDF and CDL, from one commercial plant using the LFC Technology would reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by about 160,000 tons per year when burned at utility customers plants. 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: June 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

Description: Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Evaluation of gas reburning and low-NO sub x burners on a wall-fired boiler

Description: This report briefly describes the Gas Reburning and Low-NO{sub x} Burners technology which is a low-cost technology that can be applied in both retrofit and new applications. This demonstration will be conducted on a utility boiler in Colorado at Cherokee Station {number sign}3; however, the technology is applicable to industrial boilers and other combustion systems. Although this technology is primarily a NO{sub x} reduction technology, some reductions in other emissions will take place. Since 15--20% of the coal is replaced with natural gas, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions are reduced commensurately. Also the lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of natural gas compared to coal reduces CO{sub 2} emissions. The formation of NO{sub x} is controlled by several factors: (1) the amount of nitrogen that is chemically bound in the fuel; (2) the flame temperature; (3) the residence time that combustion products remain at very high temperatures; and (4) the amount of excess oxygen available, especially at the hottest parts of the flame. Decreasing any of these parameters, tends to reduce NO{sub x} formation. 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project: A project proposed by: LIFAC North America, Inc

Description: This report describes a project proposed by LIFAC North America, Inc., (LIFAC NA). The host site will be a coal-fired powerplant of Richmond Power Light in Indiana. LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In the LIFAC process, limestone is injected into the upper part of the furnace where the temperatures are sufficiently high to calcine the calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) to lime (CaO), which reacts with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas to form calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), some of which oxidizes to form calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). The flue gas leaving the boiler then enters LIFAC's unique humidification chamber which increases the water content of the flue gas and activates the lime to enhance SO{sub 2} removal. Reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions are approximately 75--80%. Spent sorbent is then removed, along with the fly ash by an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse. 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: October 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1989 Annual environmental report for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Description: This report, provided annually, summarizes monitoring data collected to assess Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts on the environment. The report serves as a management tool for mitigating such impacts, thus serving the public interest by ensuring environmentally sound operation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Included is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1989. The active permits and the results of the environmental monitoring program (i.e., air, surface water, groundwater, and waste discharges) are discussed by site. The quality assurance program is presented which includes results from laboratory and field audits and studies performed internally and by regulatory agencies. In general, no significant adverse environmental impact resulted from SPR activities during 1989, except for a brine release from a pipeline perforation south of the Bryan Mound site adversely affecting a small area of marsh vegetation which is recovering at this time. 22 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Enhanced coal hydrogasification via oxidative pretreatment)

Description: Work continued on coal hydrogasification. To date, twenty-one gasification runs have been conducted. These runs have focused on (1) obtaining a representative set of partially converted samples with which to determine pore structure and surface area development, (2) determining suitable conditions for the kinetic studies and (3) illustrating rate enhancement following oxidation. Also, ultimate-proximate analyses of the three samples were conducted at a commercial analytical laboratory. The high oxygen content of demineralized char is as yet unexplained. 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

Description: The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting, (2) Construction and Startup, and (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Progress is discussed.
Date: October 20, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ancillary operation in coal preparation instrumentation: On-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis

Description: Progress in reported on ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation, and on-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis of coal. This quarter's activities consisted of the following; the assembly of the sample preparation and delivery (SPAD) system was completed and laboratory pretesting performed; the entire system was assembled and debugged at C.Q. Inc.; field tests were executed according to the Field Test Plan with certain modifications necessitated by actual field conditions and C.Q. test schedule; coal slurry samples collected at C.Q. Inc. were either sent to the Homer City Coal Lab or brought back to B W for ICP analysis; and Homer City Coal Lab analysis of field collected slurry samples was completed and results reported to B W.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

Description: This project's objective is to demonstrate the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process that removes nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the flue gas of boilers that burn US high-sulfur coal. The SCR technology involves the catalytic reduction of NH{sub 3} which is injected into the flue gas to react with NOx contained in the flue gas to produce molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and water vapor. This quarter, work was initiated on the pilot plant ductwork layout, flue gas distribution and flow control concepts and preliminary pilot plant reactor designs concepts. Conceptual designs were produced for flue gas flow distribution and control philosophy that includes a variable speed fan, dampers, full-flow venturi and reactor bypass ducting to ensure proper control and distribution among all the reactors. 23 figs., 16 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) system integration project

Description: The objectives of the tasks covered in this document are to design, construct, and shakedown a 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). These objectives were met with the construction and shakedown of the integrated test circuit. Although mild kiln conditions (340{degree}C and 2 hours residence time) and a low caustic to coal ratio (1 to 1) were used, the combination of continuous operation and rigorous exclusion of air from the system allowed the production of MCL coal, from high sulfur, high ash coal, which has virtually no carbonate and volatiles loss, which does not form excessively wet cakes in during washing, and which has low alkali retention by the product MCL coal. Equipment performance was generally consistent with design requirements.
Date: March 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

Description: Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.
Date: April 24, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

Description: In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.
Date: June 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY 91 Annual Research Plan

Description: In line with the Federal Oil Research Program to maximize the economic producibility of the domestic oil resource, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) presents this FY91 Annual Research Plan. NIPER is organized into two research departments -- Energy Production Research (EPR) and Fuels Research (FR). Projects in EPR deal with various aspects of enhanced oil recovery and include reservoir characterization, chemical flooding, gas injection, steam injection, microbial enhanced oil recovery, and the environmental concerns related to these processes. Projects in FR consider the impact of heavy oil and alternative fuels on the processing and end-use of fuels. Projects are briefly described.
Date: December 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrocarbon geoscience research strategy

Description: This document outlines a strategy for oil and gas related research focused on optimizing the economic producibility of the Nation's resources. The Hydrocarbon Geoscience Strategy was developed by the Hydrocarbon Geoscience Research Coordinating Committee of the Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy forms the basis for the development of DOE Fossil Energy's Oil Research Program Implementation Plan and Natural Gas Program Implementation Plan. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global approach for enhanced mass transfer effects: In-duct injection FGD processes

Description: This topical report describes the experimental results from a global investigation of in-duct SO{sub 2} capture by lime-slurry sprays. To large extent the experiments were guided by a parallel model-development effort. The data were used to test and refine various assumptions made by the model about internal vs. external mass transfer, temperature, humidity, SO{sub 2} concentration and slurry concentration. Also, the experiments performed a scoping function for the overall DOE duct injection program. By testing lime slurry sprays for SO{sub 2} capture over a range of conditions, this program has identified limits and variabilities of sorbent performance which may be encountered in future pilot -- and demonstration -- scale tests. A significant fraction of the experimental effort was applied to a continual evolution of the system design. This evolution of design was a response to the changing needs of the program. Aspects which were especially critical were the slurry atomizer design, the sampling system, and control of the complete reactor environment, including temperature, humidity, and gas composition. 18 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation on the continued production of the Naval Petroleum Reserves beyond April 5, 1991

Description: The authority to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPRs) is due to expire in April 1991, unless extended by Presidential finding. As provided in the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), the President may continue production of the NPRs for a period of up to three years following the submission to Congress, at least 180 days prior to the expiration of the current production period, of a report that determines that continued production of the NPRs is necessary and a finding by the President that continued production is in the national interest. This report assesses the need to continue production of the NPRs, including analyzing the benefits and costs of extending production or returning to the shut-in status that existed prior to 1976. This continued production study considers strategic, economic, and energy issues at the local, regional, and national levels. 15 figs., 13 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry

Description: The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

Description: The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.
Date: August 15, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department