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Felony Offenses Related to Personality Traits

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is whether relationships may exist between personality and type of offense in a felon population. The Eysenck Personality Inventory, which measures extraversion-introversion (E), neuroticism-stability (N), and includes a lie scale (L), was used to determine subject's personality traits. Offenses were divided into crimes against persons, crimes against property, and crimes against the morals of the state. Subjects consisted of 751 adult male felons. The product-moment correlation was computed for each offense-variable EPI pair. A negative association between E and crimes against persons, together with a positive association between L and crimes against persons, were found to be statistically significant at the 0.05 level, although quite low. It was concluded that results obtained should be guardedly interpreted in view of the minimal amount of variability accounted for, though of possible value in suggesting future research.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Ancell, Richard Guy
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Extraversion, Religiosity, and Spirituality on Health Behaviors

Description: Religion and spirituality are thought to be of great importance for the meaning and quality of life for many individuals, and research suggests that there may be important health benefits associated with religion and spirituality. Religion and spirituality should be related to health behaviors for a number of reasons. Health behaviors are important contributors to an individual's overall health, illness and mortality. Major negative health behaviors related to health outcomes are smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, risky driving, and high risk sexual behaviors. Health behaviors may also be linked to personality traits. The key trait examined for this study was extraversion. It includes adjectives such as being active, assertive, energetic, outgoing, and talkative. In this thesis, I take several hypotheses and explore the influence of extraversion, religiosity, and spirituality on health behaviors.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Jenkins, Elizabeth P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Between Nightmare Frequency and Hypnotic Susceptibility: Valid Correlation or Context-Mediated Artifact?

Description: The possibility that a positive correlation between nightmare frequency and hypnotic susceptibility reported by Belicki and Belicki (1986) was an artifact of administering a sleep questionnaire in the context of a hypnosis experiment was tested in the present study. Measures of vividness and absorption were also administered. Forty subjects, twenty of whom were told that the measures were related to hypnotic responding, completed the questionnaires immediately prior to hypnosis. Twenty other subjects, who completed the questionnaires in contexts unrelated to hypnosis, were later hypnotized. The hypothesis that context of administration of the questionnaires influenced the relationship between the measures and hypnotic susceptibility was not supported. Replication using a larger sample was recommended.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Callahan, Theresa A. (Theresa Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Test Order Effects on Children's Rorschachs

Description: Thirty-three children from a community sample, ages 5 to 13, were administered the Rorschach Inkblot Test, along with projective Draw-an-Animal and Draw-a-Person tasks and other psychological measures. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three test order conditions: Draw-an-Animal followed by the Rorschach, Draw-a-Person followed by the Rorschach, and Rorschach before any other projective test. The number of Human and Animal contents in the test records was examined. Analysis showed no significant differences among the three groups for production of the content variables, suggesting that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is relatively robust with respect to test order effects.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Coyle, Edward L. (Edward Louis), 1965-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Lateralization of Task on the Use of the Dual Task Paradigm as a Measure of General Intelligence

Description: Stankov's work on attention and intelligence suggests that the dual task paradigm, requiring the division of attention, is a better measure of general intellectual ability than the single task paradigm which does not make this demand. Sixty right handed undergraduates remembered digit and visual-spatial sequences alone and in two dual task conditions involving lateralized key tapping as the primary task. R gher intercorrelations were found under dual task conditions in which the tasks competed for the same hemisphere's resources. Better memory performance resulted when both tasks were lateralized to the same hemisphere. Hierarchical models combining general attention resources with ,lateralized hemispheric resources best account for these resutsi
Date: December 1985
Creator: Urbanczyk, Sally Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessing the Object Relations of Sexually Abused Females

Description: The TAT stories of 38 sexually abused females between the ages of 5 and 18 years and a clinical group of 26 females with no recorded history of abuse were analyzed using the Object Relations and Social Cognitions TAT Scoring System (Westen et al., 1985). Subjects in the sexual abuse group showed significantly lower mean scores on a scale measuring affect-tone of relationship paradigms and on a scale measuring complexity of representations of people. In addition, pathological responses were given significantly more often by sexual abuse victims on the complexity of representations of people scale. Thus, sexually abused children showed more primitive and simple characterizations of people and more negative, punitive affect in their representations. Moreover, these results were independent of age, race, and intelligence. Group differences are discussed in terms of object relations development.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Freedenfeld, Robert N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Underlying Structure of the Ecological Q-Sort: A Self-Concept Instrument for Use with Elderly Persons

Description: Self-concept has been defined as being both contextual and multidimensional, varying with different situations and states of being. In this light, the Ecological Q-Sort was developed to measure the varying nature of self-concept in older persons. The purpose of this study is to determine what contextual selves are represented within the framework of the Ecological Q-Sort. The cards of the test were rated and Ward's Hierarchical Clustering technique was utilized to categorize the cards along two dimensional rating factors. Statistical analysis revealed that social, productive, physical, play, active, assertive, and nurturing selves are represented .by the instrument. Those selves are measured by the Loneliness/Sociability, Productive/Relaxation, Vitality/Instability, Initiative/Inefficacy, Confidence/ Uncertainty, and Nurturing/Loss categories.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Morgan, Melanie Dawn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stereotypes and Hiring Preferences Among Business Students as a Function of Psychologist's Attire

Description: To study what stereotypes exist regarding psychologists by the general public and determine whether and how this affects hiring preferences, 114 undergraduate business and non-business students at a large southwestern university were asked to participate. The Gough Adjective Check List was administered to determine what stereotypes are held by persons regarding psychologists. A study of visual perception/stereotype and hiring preference as a function of attire was also conducted. Three dress styles were used as stimuli. It was hypothesized that the groups would differ in their stereotypes of psychologists both cognitively and visually. There were no significant differences between the groups as a function of college major. However, a main effect for dress style was found. Possible explanations of findings are discussed.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Shaffer, Renita Philley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validating the Rorschach Defense Scale by Examining Defensive Functioning in College Students

Description: This study attempted to provide validation for Lerner and Lerner's Rorschach Defense Scale by investigating the relationship between primitive defenses as measured by the Rorschach Defense Scale, level of object relations as measured by the Developmental Analysis of the Concept of the Object Scale, and characteristic defensive operations as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. One hundred and twenty undergraduates completed the Rorschach and MMPI, and the RDS and DACOS were applied to their Rorschach responses. The results show a significant positive correlation between use of primitive defenses and level of object relations development -and a significant negative correlation between the defense Projective Identification and MMPI scale 6 (Paranoia) elevation. Overall, these results did not support the validity of the RDS.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Esparza, Jana Scoville
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting Attendance and Work Performance from Pre-Entry Attitudes and Self-Reported Behaviors

Description: Absenteeism, lateness, and work performance on the job were investigated. Pre-entry attitudes and self-reported behaviors in the three areas were assessed via RELY, a self-report instrument developed by Kurt Helm (1980). Subjects (N=282) were entry-level stock, bag and clerical personnel for a large grocery store chain. They were 91% Caucasian and 62% male. Results showed significant correlation between three empirically derived scales and criteria: total days absent, total occurrences of lateness, and supervisory performance ratings. However, these findings were considerably weaker under cross-validation. The findings indicate absence-proneness as a tenable concept. Further investigation may find a considerable amount of the variance in attendance to be the result of pre-entry attitudes.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Leeman, Gordon E. (Gordon Ellis)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Management Development Training: an Evaluation of a Program for First Line Staff Supervisors

Description: A pre- and postexperimental design with a control group was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a management development program. Subjects were 48 first line staff supervisors employed by a major manufacturing company. The training group subjects (n = 24) attended the company's 1-week training program. Subjects in the control group (n= 24) were similar with respect to plant location, job assignment, etc. A 42-item employee-opinion questionnaire was constructed to measure supervisory style and work.-group climate. The subjects' subordinates (n = 313) completed the questionnaire before and after training. Eleven items identified by content analysis as most relevant to the training content comprised the measure of training effectiveness. An analysis of covariance was performed using the pretest as the covariate. Results indicated no significant training effects.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Mechler, Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

EMG Biofeedback Training: Effect on Behavior of Children with Activity-Level Problems

Description: The relationships between muscle-tension level, motoric-activity level, and academic performance in the laboratory setting are investigated. Three participants were reinforced for reducing and increasing their tension levels, alternately, while engaged in a simulated academic task, and the effects of each on the rate of activity and academic performance were measured. Measures were also obtained on the rate of activity and occurrence of problem behavior in the subject's homes. Significant treatment differences were found which support a direct relationship between tension and activity level so that a decrease in EMG level was associated with a decrease in motoric activity, and an increase in EMG level was associated with an increase in motoric activity. The efficacy of using EMG biofeedback to train relaxation in children with activity-level problems to control their symptoms is supported, especially where such a technique can be used in a specific task-oriented situation.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Henry, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Anxiety on the Performance of Collegiate Golfers in Competitive and Non-Competitive Situations

Description: The purposes of the study were to provide additional information concerning the relationship of Competition Trait Anxiety, State Anxiety, and Performance in collegiate golfers under non-competitive and competitive field settings. Subjects were thirty college males. Data were analyzed by a three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) low-Competition-Trait-Anxious golfers performed better and exhibited lower levels of state anxiety than high-and moderate-Competitive-Trait-Anxious golfers in competitive and non-competitive settings; (2) collegiate golfers exhibit higher levels of state anxiety in competitive versus practice settings; and (3) there was a significant relationship between SCAT and pre-competitive state anxiety.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Genuchi, Marvin C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Life Stress and Industrial Accidents

Description: Traditional personality research on accident behavior has produced conflicting opinions as to the traits that describe the "accident-prone" personality type. Other research has shown that psychosocial life stress, while partially determining the temporal onset of a variety of illnesses, may also be a factor contributing to increased accident liability. This study examined the role of temporary and stress-producing life changes in groups of accident-free and accident-involved industrial employees. The accident sample was found to have significantly higher stress over baseline during the period of accident involvement, but generally lower pre-accident levels than the non-accident sample. A cause-effect analysis of the data from within the accident-involved sample proved inconclusive. Several implications for future research and managerial actions to alleviate stress were also discussed.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Huddleston, Charles T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Operant Conditioning of the Tongue Flicker Response of Snakes

Description: Sixteen Nerodia rhombifera were used in each of two experiments investigating operant conditioning of the tongue flicker response. A yoked pair design was utilized throughout phases of baseline, continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement, and extinction. During partial reinforcement, one-half of the experimental animals were reinforced FR-4 and the other half were reinforced continuously. Control subjects were treated as were their experimental partners, with the exception of noncontingent reinforcement. Statistical comparisons between means for groups during the CRF phase, partial reinforcement phase, and extinction phase were nonsignificant. However, because some snakes in the experimental groups appeared to show increases in response rate during CRF and FR conditions, the possibility exists that modification of task parameters will produce positive results in future research.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Ward, Rocky
Partner: UNT Libraries

Double Binding Communication: Emotionally Disruptive Effects on College Students

Description: This study investigated the emotionally disruptive effects of double binding communication, as compared with overtly punitive, and warm, accepting interactions. Forty-two college undergraduates scoring above the mean on the Neuroticism Subscale of Eysenck's Personality Questionaire were each directed to play the part of a small child in a spontaneous role-played family interaction. A pre-post mood test (Multiple Adjective Affect Check List), sensitive to changes in depression, hostility, and anxiety was administered. It was found that subjects in the double-bind and punitive conditions evidenced significant mood disturbance while subjects in the control group did not (all ps < .05). Implications for Double Bind Theory were discussed.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Loos, Victor Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries

Educable Mentally Retarded: Classification of Students and Texas State Guidelines

Description: In Texas, placement of educable mentally retarded (EMR) students has required three factors-- intellectual assessment, educational appraisal, and adaptive behavior. This study examined 28 reclassified EMR students to determine which assessment factor is least stable in defining EMR and to determine significance of change in assessment scores. Data were secured from school records. Type of intellectual assessment test used varied greatly and was found to be the most inconsistent placement factor. However, educational appraisal scores contributed to over half the reclassifications. Adaptive behavior did not contribute to any reclassification. Due to limited sampling and variety of assessment tests, significance of change in scores was not determined. Generally, on retest,performance IQ scores were elevated while verbal IQ scores remained the same.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Bonner, Angela Denise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sex-Guilt and the Effects of a Subliminal Sex-Related Stimulus on the Libidinal Content of Fictional Narratives

Description: Fictional narratives of 68 female undergraduates classified as either high or low on sex-guilt were rated for libidinal content following subliminal exposure to either a sex-related or a neutral stimulus. Separate dependent measures were obtained for libidinal derivatives bearing either a transparently "close" or a symbolically "distant" relationship to the sex-related stimulus. Subjects in the sex-related stimulus condition expressed significantly fewer close libidinal derivatives than subjects in the neutral condition. High sex-guilt subjects' distant derivative production revealed a near-significant trend toward repression in the neutral condition, but the greatest amount of expression in the sex-related condition. Type of defenses employed are discussed as a function of subliminally perceived stimulus threat.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Thode, Rick D. (Rick Davis)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Accelerated EMG Biofeedback Relaxation Training and Tension Headache: The Effects of Home Practice and Headache Presence During Training

Description: This study investigated the value of headache presence during elecromyographic (EMG) feedback relaxation training and the contribution made by home relaxation practice in the elimination of tension headache. Eighteen participants, mainly coeds in their twenties, recorded headache and medication data for two baseline weeks, and were assigned to one of three training groups. Group A received EMG feedback training with headache presence during the session and home relaxation practice. Group B received EMG feedback without headache Presence and home practice. Group C received only home relaxation practice. Statistically significant treatment differences were not found, but declining trends of headache activity and medication use tend to support the efficacy of EMG training with headache presence.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Christianson, James D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Anxiety Levels of Partially Sighted and Totally Blind Adults

Description: Anxiety levels of partially sighted were compared with totally blind people. Using the Anxiety Scale for the Blind, the primary hypothesis tested was that the partially sighted would manifest more anxiety than would the totally blind. The study was designed to ascertain whether the primary hypothesis would hold within the structure of this study, and to obtain information useful in future anxiety studies of the visually handicapped. A residential center for the blind furnished subjects, facilities, and biographical data. The primary hypothesis lacked statistical significance at the .05 level as did comparisons of anxiety levels by age, sex, economic need, and age at onset. The use of a different instrument may be indicated for future studies.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Zeagler, Arnold M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Negative affect, introversion and physiological markers of cardiovascular disease.

Description: Cardiovascular risk factors have expanded to include personality and other psychological characteristics. Negative affect (NA) has a longstanding history in cardiovascular health, but the path by which NA leads to cardiovascular disease (CVD) is yet to be defined. The following study examined the relationship of high NA and low extroversion (EX) with physiological cardiovascular markers in a sample of non-medical, professional adults. Our results indicated that individuals high in NA and low in EX displayed a significantly lower platelet count and a significantly higher mean platelet volume. Individuals high in NA displayed a significantly lower cholesterol risk ratio, while individuals high in EX displayed significantly higher platelet counts. Personality was not significantly related to blood pressure, high or low density lipoproteins. Understanding the relationships among psychological variables and physiological markers will help clinical researchers design interventions that reduce the likelihood of CVD.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Martin, Luci A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Women's erotic rape fantasies.

Description: This study evaluated the rape fantasies of a female undergraduate sample (N = 355) using a sexual fantasy checklist, a sexual fantasy log, a rape fantasy scenario presentation, and measures of personality. Results indicated that 62% of women have had a rape fantasy. For these women, the median rape fantasy frequency was about four times per year, with 14% of participants reporting that they had rape fantasies at least once a week. Further, rape fantasies exist on a continuum between erotic and aversive, with 9% completely aversive, 45% completely erotic, and 46% both erotic and aversive. Women who are more erotophilic, open to fantasy, and higher in self-esteem tended to have more frequent and erotic rape fantasies than other women. The major theories that have been proposed to explain why women have rape fantasies were tested. Results indicated that sexual blame avoidance and ovulation theories were not supported. Openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, and sympathetic activation theories received partial support.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Bivona, Jenny M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Androgyny and Sex-Role Measurement: A Personal Construct Approach

Description: Recent research into sex roles has been heavily influenced by androgyny theory, and by the development of the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI; Bern, 1974). Psychological androgyny is the combination, in one individual, of both culturally defined masculine and feminine personality traits. The Sex-Rep, a new instrument for assessing sex role which is aimed at rectifying certain problems associated with the BSRI, was then described. The Sex-Rep, the BSRI (Bern, 19 34), the Texas Social Behavior Inventory (TSBI; Spence & Stapp, 1974), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck, 1967), and a self-concept thermometer, were given to 100 male and 108 female undergraduates. Results indicated that the BSRI and the Sex-Rep are both valid sex-role instruments, insofar as they both discriminate between males and females. They tend to measure nonredundant components of sex role as indicated by a lack of overlap between their sex-role classifications. The present study did not find any support for the balance model of androgyny which suggests that high masculinity and high femininity interact by balancing each other to produce a healthier, more behaviorally flexible individual. BSRI masculinity (M) was strongly related to adjustment in both sexes, but BSRI femininity (F) had little impact. This relationship between BSRI M and adjustment was described as probably resulting from measurement artifact since (&) only socially desirable traits are included on the BSRI, (b) removing self-esteem effects from the BSRI M scale enhanced its ability to discriminate between the sexes, (c) Sex-Rep masculinity was not related to adjustment for women, and its linkage to adjustment for men was less strong than BSRI M, (d) women rated their feminine constructs as more desirable than their masculine constructs, and (e) there were no actual self-esteem differences between males and females. Thus, findings from the BSRI regarding the relationship between sex role and adjustment ...
Date: December 1984
Creator: Baldwin, Amy Caroline
Partner: UNT Libraries