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Savannah River Laboratory environmental transport and effects research. Annual report, 1974

Description: The principal objective of environmental transport research at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to develop, apply, adapt, use, test, and verify models that predict the directions and magnitude of ecosystem processes. Since an ecosystem is understood to be a complex ecological unit composed of physical, chemical, and biotic components interacting in the cycling and transport of matter and the flow of energy, the understanding of ecosystem processes demands integrated study by scientists of differing disciplines. Data are included from studies on factors that affect the atmospheric transport and dispersion of radionuclides and chemical effluents; surface and groundwater transport of various pollutants following release to the soil surface or a flowing stream; the uptake and retention of tritium oxide by pine trees; calculations of the radiation dose commitment for human populations from $sup 14$C released by the nuclear industry; the effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms, including plankton productivity, the population dynamics of freshwater snails, and the growth and respiration rates of the sand-burrowing mayfly (Dolania americana). Data are included from a survey of seismic activity in South Carolina. (CH)
Date: June 1, 1975
Creator: Crawford, T. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose-to-Man Program progress report, FY 1973

Description: The Dose-to-Man Program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was conceived in FY-1972 and operations began in FY-1973. The major objectives of the program are to develop (or adapt), test, and apply comprehensive mathematical models to calculate the radiation dose-to-man from one or more point sources released to the atmosphere or surface waters. These models will be applied to SRP operations; however, the methods are expected to be generally applicable over a large portion of the southeastern United States. A discussion is included of a new meteorological data acquisition program now in operation using a 1200-ft TVtower located near the plant site and seven 200-ft towers to be located onsite in FY-1974. Previously collected meteorological data from the TV-tower were analyzed to show spatial and temporal variation in eddy diffusivity, mesoscale kinetic energy spectra, and dispersion climatology based upon wind-sequencing information. A discussion of a framework for calculation of doseto-man, and a comparison of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pasquill methods for determining dispersion coefficients are also included. A currert sulfur dioxide survey is discussed which will help verify the calculation techniques for predicting dispersion from heated plumes. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Crawford, T. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Savannah River Laboratory environmental transport and effects research. Annual report, 1978

Description: Research in the environmental sciences by the Savannah River Laboratory during 1978 is described in 43 articles. These articles are in the fields of terrestrial ecology, geologic studies, aquatic transport, aquatic ecology, atmospheric transport, emergency response, computer methods development, ocean program, and fuel cycle program. Thirty-seven of the articles were abstracted individually for ERA/EDB; those in scope were also included in INIS.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Crawford, T.V. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

Description: The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.
Date: March 3, 2003
Creator: Crawford, T.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

Description: This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent.
Date: September 22, 1995
Creator: Crawford, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive optics instrument for long-range imaging. Final report

Description: The science and history of imaging through a turbulent atmosphere is reviewed in detail. Traditional methods for reducing the effects of turbulence are presented. A simplified method for turbulence reduction called the Sheared Coherent Interferometric Photography (SCIP) method is presented. Implementation of SCIP is discussed along with experimental results. Limitations in the use of this method are discussed along with recommendations for future improvements.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Crawford, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Phase 1 High Level Waste Feed Tanks Selection

Description: A recent revision of the US. Department of Energy privatization contract for the immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) at Hanford necessitates the investigation of alternative waste feed sources to meet contractual feed requirements. This analysis identifies wastes to be considered as HLW feeds and develops and conducts alternative analyses to comply with established criteria. A total of 12,426 cases involving 72 waste streams are evaluated and ranked in three cost-based alternative models. Additional programmatic criteria are assessed against leading alternative options to yield an optimum blended waste feed stream.
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: CRAWFORD, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

Description: A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W. & Joyce, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Explosive Radio Telemetry System

Description: This paper overviews the High Explosive Radio Telemetry (HERT) system, under co-development by Los Alamos National Laboratories and Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. This telemetry system is designed to measure the initial performance of an explosive package under flight environment conditions, transmitting data from up to 64 sensors. It features high speed, accurate time resolution (10 ns) and has the ability to complete transmission of data before the system is destroyed by the explosion. In order to affect the resources and performance of a flight delivery vehicle as little as possible, the system is designed such that physical size, power requirements, and antenna demands are as small as possible.
Date: November 4, 1998
Creator: Bracht, R. R.; Crawford, T. R.; Johnson, R. L. & Mclaughlin, B. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

Description: In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Doran, J. C.; Barnes, F. J.; Coulter, R. L. & Crawford, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A field study of the effects of inhomogeneities of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes

Description: In recent years, the problem of characterizing turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture over inhomogeneous surfaces has received increasing attention. This issue is relevant to the performance of general circulation models (GCMs), in which a single grid element can encompass a variety of surface and topographical features. Although considerable progress has been made in describing the energy balance at a surface partially covered by vegetation, less is known about how to treat adjacent regions of sharply contrasting surface characteristics. One difficulty is the scarcity of suitable data sets with which to study the problem, particularly on scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Doran, J. C.; Barnes, F. J.; Coulter, R. L. & Crawford, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

Description: In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Doran, J. C.; Barnes, F. J.; Coulter, R. L. & Crawford, T. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision document for transuranic tank waste disposal

Description: During the Tank Waste Remediation System systems requirements review, an issue was raised regarding the disposal of potentially transuranic tank waste. This report documents the decision analysis process to resolve this issue. A decision was made to blend the Hanford Site transuranic tank waste with high-level waste for disposal in an offsite repository. In the interim, the transuranic tank waste will remain stored consistent with the existing safety authorization basis and waste compatibility requirements. The transuranic tank waste will not be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. The decision is justified based on several decision criteria including cost,volume of waste produced, operability, safety, and technical maturity. There is no cost incentive to segregate transuranic tank waste for disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The additional operating and capital costs required to immobilize segregated transuranic tank waste outweigh the savings gained in disposal cost.
Date: July 24, 1996
Creator: Crawford, T.W. & McConville, C.M., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical feasibility of transuranic tank waste processing in high-level waste vitrification facility

Description: The objective of this study is to determine the technical feasibility of processing transuranic tank waste in a high-level waste vitrification facility. This is achieved by performing an impact assessment of a reference case high-level waste facility modified to separately process transuranic waste. Data are presented for Hanford Site transuranic wastes and are compared against established waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program. Schedule and cost impacts are evaluated for the proposed transuranic campaign.
Date: July 26, 1996
Creator: Crawford, T.W. & Manuel, A.F., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

Description: Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparisons of sensible and latent heat fluxes using surface and aircraft data over adjacent wet and dry surfaces

Description: In June 1991, a field study of surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over heterogeneous surfaces was carried out near Boardman, Oregon (Doran et al., 1992). The object of the study was to develop improved methods of extrapolating from local measurements of fluxes to area-averaged values suitable for use in general circulation models (GCMs) applied to climate studies. A grid element in a GCM is likely to encompass regions whose fluxes vary significantly from one surface type to another. The problem of integrating these fluxes into a single, representative value for the whole element is not simple, and describing such a flux in terms of flux-gradient relationships, as is often done, presents additional difficulties.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Doran, J. C.; Hubbe, J. M.; Shaw, W. J.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Crawford, T. L.; Dobosy, R. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparisons of sensible and latent heat fluxes using surface and aircraft data over adjacent wet and dry surfaces

Description: In June 1991, a field study of surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over heterogeneous surfaces was carried out near Boardman, Oregon (Doran et al., 1992). The object of the study was to develop improved methods of extrapolating from local measurements of fluxes to area-averaged values suitable for use in general circulation models (GCMs) applied to climate studies. A grid element in a GCM is likely to encompass regions whose fluxes vary significantly from one surface type to another. The problem of integrating these fluxes into a single, representative value for the whole element is not simple, and describing such a flux in terms of flux-gradient relationships, as is often done, presents additional difficulties.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.; Shaw, W.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Baldocchi, D.D.; Crawford, T.L.; Dobosy, R.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

Description: In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Doran, J.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Barnes, F.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Coulter, R.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)) & Crawford, T.L. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

Description: In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Doran, J.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Barnes, F.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Coulter, R.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)) & Crawford, T.L. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department