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Oxidation in a temperature gradient

Description: The effects of a temperature gradient and heat flux on point defect diffusion in protective oxide scales were examined. Irreversible thermodynamics were used to expand Fick's first law of diffusion to include a heat flux term--a Soret effect. Oxidation kinetics were developed for the oxidation of cobalt and for nickel doped with chromium. Research in progress is described to verify the effects of a heat flux by oxidizing pure cobalt in a temperature gradient above 800 C, and comparing the kinetics to isothermal oxidation. The tests are being carried out in the new high temperature gaseous corrosion and corrosion/erosion facility at the Albany Research Center.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr. & Russell, James H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot Corrosion at Air-Ports in Kraft Recovery Boilers

Description: Hot corrosion can occur on the cold-side of airports in Kraft recovery boilers. The primary corrosion mechanism involves the migration of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide vapors through leaks in the furnace wall at the airports and their subsequent condensation. It has been reported that stainless steel is attacked much faster than carbon steel in composite tubes, and that carbon steel tubing, when used with a low-chromium refractory, does not exhibit this type of corrosion. For hot corrosion fluxing of metal oxides, either acidic or basic fluxing takes place, with a solubility minimum at the basicity of transition between the two reactions. For stainless steel, if the basicity of the fused salt is between the iron and chromium oxide solubility minima, then a synergistic effect can occur that leads to rapid corrosion. The products of one reaction are the reactants of the other, which eliminates the need for rate-controlling diffusion. This effect can explain why stainless steel is attacked more readily than carbon steel.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr. & Russell, James H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State-of-the-art review of electrochemical noise sensors

Description: There are a number of different techniques capable of being used to measure corrosion within equipment. The most simple, the use of metal coupons, usually causes the process to be shut down, is manpower intensive, and has a time delay in getting the required corrosion information. Electrical Resistance (ER) techniques are often used but their response is very sensitive to temperature and they cannot differentiate between general and localized corrosion. Electrochemical techniques, such as linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical noise (EN), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), harmonic distortion analysis (HDA), and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), have the capability of solving most of those drawbacks. Electrochemical probes can be mounted permanently in most equipment, give regular measurements of the intensity of corrosion, and some can detect localized corrosion. Of all of the electrochemical techniques, EN has the most potential for being used successfully to measure general and localized corrosion rates of equipment. The EN technique was studied in the late 1970s and early 80s as a means of detecting localized (stochastic) corrosion phenomena, such as occurs with pitting, crevice and cavitation attack. EN measurements are based on fluctuations in electrochemical potential and corrosion current that occur during corrosion. Electrochemical potential is related to the driving force (thermodynamics) of the reaction, while corrosion current is related to the rate of reaction (kinetics) of the reaction. The idea is that random electrochemical events on the surface of a corroding metal will generate noise in the overall potential and current signals. Each type of corrosion (for example general corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking) will have a characteristic “fingerprint” or “signature” in the signal noise. This “fingerprint” can be used to predict the type and severity of corrosion that is occurring. By comparison, conventional electrochemical techniques such as LPR, EIS, HDA and ...
Date: September 1, 2001
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr. & Eden, D. (Intercorr International)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

Description: Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, S. D. & Bullard, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Staining Observed on Structures in the Georgetown, South Carolina Area

Description: Beginning around 1970, the Georgetown, SC, community complained about black dust and red stains collecting on houses, cars, boats, and other structures. The community, through the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), seeks to identify the source or cause of the staining and ways to reduce or eliminate it in the future.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr. & Govier, R. Dale
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes

Description: Corrosion occurs in the high temperature sections of energy production plants due to a number of factors: ash deposition, coal composition, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others. Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes have been shown to operate in high temperature gaseous environments that are similar to those found in fossil fuel combustors. ECR probes are rarely used in energy production plants at the present time, but if they were more fully understood, corrosion could become a process variable at the control of plant operators. Research is being conducted to understand the nature of these probes. Factors being considered are values selected for the Stern-Geary constant, the effect of internal corrosion, and the presence of conductive corrosion scales and ash deposits. The nature of ECR probes will be explored in a number of different atmospheres and with different electrolytes (ash and corrosion product). Corrosion rates measured using an electrochemical multi-technique capabilities instrument will be compared to those measured using the linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique. In future experiments, electrochemical corrosion rates will be compared to penetration corrosion rates determined using optical profilometry measurements.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R. & Ziomek-Moroz, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

Description: Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M. & Holcomb, Gordon R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation

Description: Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J. & Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual-Environment Effects on the Oxidation of Metallic Interconnects

Description: Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e., H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e., air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual-environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single-environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air-air, H2-air, and H2-Ar environments are reported in support of the model.
Date: 2006-08~
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr. & Bullard, Sohpie J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges

Description: Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D. & McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra supercritical steamside oxidation

Description: Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vision 21 goals. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Vision 21 goals include steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems. Emphasis is placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

Description: Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret & Alman, David E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring power plant fireside corrosion using corrosion probes

Description: The ability to monitor the corrosion degradation of key components in fossil fuel power plants is of utmost importance for Futuregen and ultra-supercritical power plants. Fireside corrosion occurs in the high temperature sections of energy production facilities due to a number of factors: ash deposition, coal composition, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others. Problems occur when equipment designed for either oxidizing or reducing conditions is exposed to alternating oxidizing and reducing conditions. This can happen especially near the burners. The use of low NOx burners is becoming more commonplace and can produce reducing environments that accelerate corrosion. One method of addressing corrosion of these surfaces is the use of corrosion probes to monitor when process changes cause corrosive conditions. In such a case, corrosion rate could become a process control variable that directs the operation of a coal combustion or coal gasification system. Alternatively, corrosion probes could be used to provide an indication of total metal damage and thus a tool to schedule planned maintenance outages.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R. & Ziomek-Moroz, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

Description: Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D. & Ziomek-Moroz, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

Description: Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M. & Alman, David E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Russell, James H. & Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion behavior of stainless steel in solid oxide fuel cell simulated gaseous environment

Description: Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) from {approx}1000 C to {approx} 750 C may permit the replacement of currently used ceramic interconnects by metallic interconnects in planar SOFCs (PSOFC). The use of metallic interconnects will result in a substantial cost reduction of PSOFCs. The interconnects operate in severe gaseous environments, in which one side of the interconnect can be exposed to hydrogen and the other side to air or oxygen at temperatures up to 800 C. Similar environmental conditions can exist in devices used for separating hydrogen from CO after reforming methane and steam. Type 304 stainless steel was selected for this base line study aimed at understanding corrosion processes in dual gas environments. This paper discusses the oxidation resistance of 304 stainless steel exposed to a dual environment gas at 800 C. The dual environment consisted of air on one side of the specimen and 1% hydrogen in nitrogen on the other side. The surface characterization techniques used in this study were optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as various x-ray techniques.
Date: January 2003
Creator: Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Matthes, Steven A.; Bullard, Sophie J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Humectants To Augment Current From Metallized Zinc Cathodic Protection Systems on Concrete

Description: Cathodic protection (CP) systems using thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are employed to mitigate the corrosion process in reinforced concrete structures. However, the performance of the anodes is improved by moisture at the anode-concrete interface. Research was conducted to investigate the effect of hydrophilic chemical additives, humectants, on the electrical performance and service life of zinc anodes. Lithium bromide and lithium nitrate were identified as feasible humectants with lithium bromide performing better under galvanic CP and lithium nitrate performing better under impressed current CP. Both humectants improved the electrical operating characteristics of the anode and increased the service life by up to three years.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Russell, James H.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Collins, W. Keith et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of Zinc Anodes for Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

Description: Operation of thermal spray zinc (Zn) anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete structures was investigated in laboratory and field studies conducted by the Albany Research Center (ARC) in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation. The purposes of the research presented in this report were: evaluate the need for preheating concrete to improve the adhesion of the anode; estimate the service life of thermal spray Zn CP anodes; determine the optimum thickness for Zn CP anodes; characterize the anode-concrete interfacial chemistry; and correlate field and laboratory results. Laboratory studies involved accelerated electrochemical aging of thermal sprayed Zn anodes on concrete slabs, some of which were periodically wetted while others were unwetted. Concrete used in the slabs contained either 1.2 or 3 kg NaCl /m3 (2 or 5 lbs NaCl /yd3) as part of the concrete mix design. The Zn anodes were applied to the slabs using the twin wire arc-spray technique. Half of the slabs were preheated to 120-160 C (250-320 F) to improve the initial Zn anode bond strength and the other half were not. Accelerated aging was done at a current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3 mA/ft2), 15 times that used on Oregon DOT Coastal bridges, i.e, . 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) Cores from the Cape Creek Bridge (OR), the Richmond San Rafael Bridge (CA), and the East Camino Underpass (CA) were used to study the anode-concrete interfacial chemistry, to relate the chemistry to electrochemical age at the time of sampling, and to compare the chemistry of the field anodes to the chemistry of anodes from the laboratory studies. Cores from a CALTRANS study of a silane sealant used prior to the application of the Zn anodes and cores with galvanized rebar from the Longbird Bridge (Bermuda) were also studied. Aged laboratory and field anodes were ...
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Collins, W. Keith et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical Noise Sensors for Detection of Localized and General Corrosion of Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines. Final Report for the Period July 2001-October 2002

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Russell, James H.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D. & Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cathodic Protection of the Yaquina Bay Bridge

Description: The Yaquina Bay Bridge in Newport, Oregon, was designed by Conde B. McCullough and built in 1936. The 3,223-foot (982 m) structure is a combination of concrete arch approach spans and a steel through arch over the shipping channel. Cathodic protection is used to prevent corrosion damage to the concrete arches. The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) installed a carbon anode coating (DAC-85) on two of the north approach spans in 1985. This anode was operated at a current density of 6.6 mA/m2(0.6 mA/ft2). No failure of the conductive anode was observed in 1990, five years after application, or in 2000, 15 years after application. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 20 mils (0.5 mm) thick were applied to half the south approach spans beginning in 1990. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 15 mils (0.4 mm) thick were applied to the remaining spans in 1996. These anodes were operated at a current density of 2.2 mA/m2(0.2 mA/ft2). In 1999, four zones on the approach spans were included in a two-year field trial of humectants to improve zinc anode performance. The humectants LiNO3 and LiBr were applied to two zones; the two adjacent zones were left untreated as controls. The humectants substantially reduced circuit resistance compared to the controls.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Laylor, H.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermittent Cathodic Protection for Steel Reinforced Concrete Bridges

Description: Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems on Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to prevent chloride-induced corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed zinc performs well as an ICCP anode but the service life of the zinc anode is directly related to the average current density used to operate the systems. After a ICCP system is turned off, the rebar in the concrete remains passive and protected for a period of time. Intermittent operation of CP systems is possible when continuous corrosion rate monitoring is used to identify conditions when the CP system needs to be turned on to reestablish protection conditions for the rebar. This approach applies CP protection only when needed and reflects the fact that external protection may not be needed for a range of environmental conditions. In doing so, intermittent CP would lower the average current necessary to protect rebar, increase the anode service life, and reduce the lifetime costs for protecting reinforced concrete bridges.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale formation on Ni-based alloys in simulated solid oxide fuel cell interconnect environments

Description: Recent publications suggest that the environment on the fuel side of the bi-polar stainless steel SOFC interconnects changes the oxidation behavior and morphology of the scale formed on the air side. The U.S. Department of Energy Albany Research Center (ARC), has examined the role of such exposure conditions on advanced nickel base alloys. Alloy formulations developed at ARC and commercial alloys were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrical property of oxide scales formed on selected alloys was determined in terms of areaspecific resistance (ASR). The corrosion behavior of ARC nickel-based alloys exposed to a dual environment of air/ H2 were compared to those of Crofer 22APU and Haynes 230.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Singh, P. (PNNL) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department