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A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM

Description: Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM

Description: Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM

Description: Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION

Description: This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 ...
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Copeland, Robert J.; Gershanovich, Yevgenia & Windecker, Brian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A NOVEL CO2 SEPARATION SYSTEM

Description: Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current CO{sub 2} separation systems is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Copeland, Robert J.; Alptekin, Gokhan; Cesario, Mike; Gebhard, Steven & Gershanovich, Yevgenia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long Life ZnO-TiO2 and Novel Sorbents

Description: Combined cycles (combinations of a gas turbine and a steam bottoming cycle) are the most efficient power generation technology, while coal is the lowest cost fuel. Therefore, the combination of Coal Gasifiers and Combined Cycles is predicted to be the lowest cost source of baseload electric power in the next decade. In a GCC, the sulfur and particulates are removed from the gasifier gases before they enter the turbine combuster. While H{sub 2}S (and COS/CS{sub 2}) can be removed effectively by cooling hot gases down to near room temperature and scrubbing them with an aqueous amine solution, removing the H{sub 2}S without cooling the gases (i.e., hot gas cleanup) is more advantageous. The leading hot gas sulfur absorbent uses a regenerable zinc oxide (ZnO) based sorbent, zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} and/or ZnTiO{sub 3}), to remove the H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds from the hot coal gases. The zinc absorbs H{sub 2}S, forming zinc sulfide (ZnS); ZnS is then regenerated with oxygen (air), releasing the sulfur as a concentrated stream of SO{sub 2}. The SO{sub 2} can be converted into sulfuric acid, sulfur, or reacted with calcium carbonate to form calcium sulfate (gypsum). The sorbent may be operated in a fluidized bed reactor, transport reactor, or moving bed reactor. Both the fluidized-bed and the transport reactor use two separate reactors; one absorbs H{sub 2}S COS and CS{sub 2} and converts the ZnO to ZnS; the second bed regenerates the sorbent with air converting the ZnS back to ZnO and producing SO{sub 2} (Figure 1); the sorbent moves between the two reactors to carry sulfur out of the absorber and return regenerated sorbent. Fluidized bed and transport reactors circulate very small particles at high gas velocity. The high gas-solid contact area of very small particles rapidly transfers both heat and ...
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Copeland, Robert J.; Cesario, Mike; Feinberg, Dan; MacQueen, Brent; Sibold, Jack; Windecker, Brian et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department