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Regional location in western China

Description: Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Cogbill, A.H. & Steck, L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of propagation path corrections to improve seismic event location in western China

Description: In an effort to improve ability to locate events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed propagation path corrections to seismic travel times, and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, they have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times. They have constructed such corrections by using travel time observations available from the USGS Earthquake Data Reports, as well as data reported by the ISC. They have also constructed corrections for six stations that are a part of the International monitoring System. For each station having sufficient data, they produce a map of the travel-time residuals from all located events. Large-amplitude residuals are removed by median filtering, and the resulting data are gridded. For a given source location, the correction at a particular station is then interpolated from the correction grid associated with the station. They have constrained the magnitude of the corrections to be {le} 3 s. They have evaluated the utility of the calculated corrections by applying the corrections to the regional relocation of 10 well-located Chinese nuclear tests, as well as a single, well-located aftershock in nearby Kyrgyzstan. The use of corrections having magnitudes > 2 s is troubling when using traditional location codes, as the corrections amount to a nonlinear perturbation correction, and when large may destabilize the location algorithm. Partly for this reason, the authors have begun using grid search methods to relocate regional events. Such methods are easy to implement and fully nonlinear. Moreover, the misfit function used to locate the event can very easily be changed; they have used L{sub 1}- and L{sub 2}-norm misfit functions, for example. Instances in which multiple local minima occur in a location problem are easily recognized by simply contouring or otherwise ...
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Cogbill, A.H. & Steck, L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling Temporal-Spatial Earthquake and Volcano Clustering at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: The proposed national high-level nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain is close to Quaternary faults and cinder cones. The frequency of these events is low, with indications of spatial and temporal clustering, making probabilistic assessments difficult. In an effort to identify the most likely intrusion sites, we based a 3D finite element model on the expectation that faulting and basalt intrusions are primarily sensitive to the magnitude and orientation of the least principal stress in extensional terranes. We found that in the absence of fault slip, variation in overburden pressure caused a stress state that preferentially favored intrusions at Crater Flat. However, when we allowed central Yucca Mountain faults to slip in the model, we found that magmatic clustering was not favored at Crater Flat or in the central Yucca Mountain block. Instead, we calculated that the stress field was most encouraging to intrusions near fault terminations, consistent with the location of the most recent volcanism at Yucca Mountain, the Lathrop Wells cone. We found this linked fault and magmatic system to be mutually reinforcing in the model in that dike inflation favored renewed fault slip.
Date: May 31, 2006
Creator: Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A. & Cogbill, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of propagation path corrections to improve regional seismic event location in western China

Description: In an effort to improve the ability to locate seismic events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed empirical propagation path corrections (PPCs) and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, the authors have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times for shallow events using travel-time observations available from the USGS EDRs, the ISC catalogs, their own travel-tim picks from regional data, and data from other catalogs. They relocate events with the algorithm of Bratt and Bache (1988) from a region encompassing China. For individual stations having sufficient data, they produce a map of the regional travel-time residuals from all well-located teleseismic events. From these maps, interpolated PPC surfaces have been constructed using both surface fitting under tension and modified Bayesian kriging. The latter method offers the advantage of providing well-behaved interpolants, but requires that the authors have adequate error estimates associated with the travel-time residuals. To improve error estimates for kriging and event location, they separate measurement error from modeling error. The modeling error is defined as the travel-time variance of a particular model as a function of distance, while the measurement error is defined as the picking error associated with each phase. They estimate measurement errors for arrivals from the EDRs based on roundoff or truncation, and use signal-to-noise for the travel-time picks from the waveform data set.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Steck, L. K.; Cogbill, A. H. & Velasco, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Five Pleistocene basaltic volcanoes in Crater Flat (southern Nevada) demonstrate the complexity of eruption processes associated with small-volume basalts and the effects of initial emplacement characteristics on post-eruptive geomorphic evolution of the volcanic surfaces. The volcanoes record eruptive processes in their pyroclastic facies ranging from ''classical'' Strombolian mechanisms to, potentially, violent Strombolian mechanisms. Cone growth was accompanied, and sometimes disrupted, by effusion of lavas from the bases of cones. Pyroclastic cones were built upon a gently southward-sloping surface and were prone to failure of their down-slope (southern) flanks. Early lavas flowed primarily southward and, at Red and Black Cone volcanoes, carried abundant rafts of cone material on the tops of the flows. These resulting early lava fields eventually built platforms such that later flows erupted from the eastern (at Red Cone) and northern (at Black Cone) bases of the cones. Three major surface features--scoria cones, lava fields with abundant rafts of pyroclastic material, and lava fields with little or no pyroclastic material--experienced different post-eruptive surficial processes. Contrary to previous interpretations, we argue that the Pleistocene Crater Flat volcanoes are monogenetic, each having formed in a single eruptive episode lasting months to a few years, and with all eruptive products having emanated from the area of the volcanoes main cones rather than from scattered vents. Geochemical variations within the volcanoes must be interpreted within a monogenetic framework, which implies preservation of magma source heterogeneities through ascent and eruption of the magmas.
Date: April 4, 2006
Creator: Valentine, G.A.; Perry, F.V.; Krier, D.; Keating, G.N.; Kelley, R.E. & Cogbill, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection of underground structures and tunnels

Description: This is the final report of a one year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There is a continuing need in the United States defense and drug interdiction for effective over, convert, and standoff means of detecting underground tunnels, structures, and objects. This project sought to begin an assessment of electromagnetic and gravitational gradient detection approaches to the detection of underground structures and tunnels.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Mack, J.M.; Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H.; Cogbill, A.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional characterization of Western China

Description: Geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized into a knowledge base for Western China as part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort. We have begun our analysis using data from the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) we have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Surface wave group velocities will be measured and inverted for regional structure. Preliminary noise spectra for WMQ have been obtained from the IRIS DMC. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and SSB are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. We have identified the locations of nearly 500 mines in China for inclusion in the knowledge base. Future work will involve expanding the data collection and analysis efforts to a larger region using data from additional CDSN, IRIS and portable stations.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Randall, G.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Warren, R.G. & Cogbill, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department