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Comparison of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} deposition techniques for use in particle removal experiments

Description: As device critical dimensions decrease in size it becomes increasingly important to remove particles from the wafer surface so they do not impact device yield. A typical method to evaluate various cleaning techniques is to deposit silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) particles on the wafer surface and then process the wafers through the desired cleaning processes. The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors specifies the standard challenge for percent particle removal from silicon wafers to be based on > 1,000 nitride particles added to the wafers. However, it does not specify the deposition technique to be used for the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles. Two common methods used to deposit Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} on silicon test wafers are the aerosol deposition technique or the wet dip deposition technique. A comparison between these two Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} deposition methods to determine if these methods create an equivalent particle removal challenge has not been reported in the literature to date. In this paper the authors compare these two deposition techniques. They found advantages and disadvantages for both deposition methods. The preferred method for particle deposition is dependent on the specific application.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Clews, P.J.; Petersen, L.C.; Matlock, C.A. & Christenson, K.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide rinsing study

Description: Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off water surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual acid left on the water surface was measured. Particle growth resulting from incomplete rinse is correlated with the amount of sulfur on the wafer surface measured by Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS). The amount of sulfur on the wafer structure after the rinse step is strongly affected by the wafer film type and contact angle prior to the SPM clean.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Clews, P.J.; Nelson, G.C. & Matlock, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minimizing sulfur contamination and rinse water volume required following a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide clean by performing a chemically basic rinse

Description: Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off wafer surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual contamination on the wafer surface was measured. The addition of small amounts of a chemical base such as ammonium hydroxide to the rinse water has been found to be effective in reducing the surface concentration of sulfur and also mitigates the particle growth that occurs on SPM cleaned wafers. The volume of room temperature water required to rinse these wafers is also significantly reduced.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Clews, P.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A. & Adkins, C.L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Influence of Coating Structure on Micromachine Stiction

Description: We have clearly shown that the film morphology dictates the anti-stiction properties of FDTS coatings. Release stiction is not observed when ideal monolayer films are present but can be extensive when thicker aggregate structures are present. This finding is significant because it indicates that agglomerate formation during processing is a major source of irreproducible behavior when FDTS coatings are used to release micromachined parts. The results could also help explain why coatings that are aged at high. humidity start to stick to each other. (AFM results show that humid environments promote the formation of aggregates from monolayer films.) The reason why aggregate structures promote stiction is currently unknown. However, it appears that aggregates interfere with the ability of FDTS to form dense, well-ordered coatings under microstructures, leading to surfaces that are sufficiently hydrophilic to allow for release stiction via an attractive Laplace force during drying.
Date: October 3, 2000
Creator: Kushmerick, J. G.; Hankins, M. G.; De Boer, M. P.; Clews, P. J.; Carpick, R. W. & Bunker, B. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adhesion of polysilicon microbeams in controlled humidity ambients

Description: The authors characterize in-situ the adhesion of surface micromachined polysilicon beams subject to controlled humidity ambients. Beams were freed by supercritical CO{sub 2} drying. Consistent adhesion results were obtained using a post-treatment in an oxygen plasma which rendered the microbeams uniformly hydrophilic. Individual beam deformations were measured by optical interferometry after equilibration at a given relative humidity (RH). Validation of each adhesion measurement was accomplished by comparing the deformations with elasticity theory. The data indicates that adhesion increases exponentially with RH from 30% to 95%, with values from 1 mJ/m{sup 2} to 50 mJ/m{sup 2}. Using the Kelvin equation, the authors show that the data should be independent of RH if a smooth interface is considered. By modeling a rough interface consistent with atomic force microscopy (AFM) data, the exponential trend is satisfactorily explained.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Boer, M.P. de; Clews, P.J.; Smith, B.K. & Michalske, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of light point defect removal by SC-1 chemistries

Description: Recent research has shown that dilute SC-1 chemistries, when combined with high frequency sonication (megasonics) can be highly effective for particle removal. The mechanism by which the SC-1 chemistry facilitates particle removal remains unclear. Experiments were performed under extremely dilute conditions in order to help elucidate a cleaning mechanism. Results indicate that hydrogen peroxide, under extremely dilute conditions, is not necessary for effective particle removal. The increase in haze commonly attributed to increased surface roughness is not observed when sufficiently dilute ammonium hydroxide (e.g., 1:2700) is used. The role of hydrogen peroxide, when more concentrated chemistries are used, may be simply to mitigate surface etching and roughening, rather than to play an active role in particle removal.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Resnick, P.J.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Matlock, C.A.; Kelly, M.J.; Clews, P.J. & Korbe, N.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department