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SIMULTANEOUS RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN AN ABSORBING, EMITTING, AND SCATTERING MEDIUM IN SLUG FLOW BETWEEN PARALLEL PLATES

Description: The problem of coupled radiation and convection to a medium in slug flow between infinite, parallel plates was formulated in terms of discrete fluxes. Steady state, uniform heat input, and gray boundaries were assumed. The effects of absorption, emission, scattering, and flow were taken into account. For the general case where all these effects are present, it was necessary to approximate the fourth order temperature term by a truncated Taylor series. This approximation was not necessary for the special case where conductivity of the medium is negligible. Approximate, analytical solutions in closed-form for profiles of temperature, radiant fluxes, and heat fluxes were obtained for both the special case and the general case. Sample results are presented, showing the effects of convection, absolute temperature, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and wall emissivities. The two cases of equal wall temperatures and unequal wall temperatures were both examined. It was found that for a fluid with the thermal conductivity of air, radiation can account for 60 to 95% of total heat transfer in the temperature range of 900 to 2800 deg R. It was also found that for some situations, the scattering phenomenon can have a much greater effect on heat transfer than the absorption and emission phenomena. (auth)
Date: March 18, 1963
Creator: Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model for superheated debris-bed quench for severe-accident containment calculations. [PWR; BWR]. CONF-831047--85

Description: Core meltdown accidents are being analyzed to develop an understanding of the risk associated with such postulated accidents and to evaluate the impact of possible mitigating engineering safety equipment. An integral feature of these analyses is the determination of containment building pressurization as a result of loadings imposed by the energy stored in the molten core debris. A major source of containment pressurization would result from the ex-vessel thermal interaction between molten core debris and water available beneath the reactor vessel. It has been suggested that the thermal interaction would occur in two stages: (1) the melt fall period during which the melt mixes with water, breaks up and transfers energy to the coolant, and (2) the debris bed or molten pool quench period during which the core debris rests on the concrete beneath the vessel and is cooled by an overlying pool of water. This paper is directed towards development of models to predict the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of superheated beds of solidified core debris which are cooled by water supplied by an overlying pool of water.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Ginsberg, T. & Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-dimensional model for transient boilup of volume-heated pools for LMFBR transition phase analysis

Description: An analytical model is presented which describes the transient dispersion characteristics of fuel-steel boiling pool systems under decay heating conditions, with boundary heat losses. The spatial distribution of steel vapor (void fraction) and molten fluid is computed, together with the pressure--temperature histories of boiling pool systems. Local heat losses and sensible heating are included in the model for the vapor generation rate in the material balance equations. Model calculations are presented. Results indicate that while only a fraction of the decay heat source is useful for steel vaporization and dispersal, the potential nevertheless exists for dispersal of UO/sub 2/-steel pools to the limits of the available volume under decay heating conditions. Mild pressurization rates of 0.1 atm/s are computed for transition phase, closed-pool accident conditions.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Ginsberg, T. & Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat transfer to tubes in freeboard space of fluidized-bed combustors. Progress report, August 1, 1981-January 31, 1982

Description: The heat transfer experiments and data reduction were completed. A schematic of the test setup is shown. The static bed height was held constant at 36 cm, except for the experiments for the effects of static bed height. The heat transfer tube was placed to the heights of 1.25, 19, 58, 147 and 224 cm above the bed. The 1.25 cm tube elevation was the one when the lower side of the tube just touched the top of the static bed. Immersed tube heat transfer coefficients were also measured (for glass beads of d = 300, 850 ..mu..m) to compare with the heat transfer coefficients in freeboard region. Glass beads with 300, 850 ..mu..m mean diameters and sand with 285, 465 ..mu..m mean diameters were used as fluidizing particles. High gas velocities were reached up to 3.5 m/sec. The heat transfer probe was capable of measuring local heat transfer coefficients at eight locations that are 45/sup 0/ apart from each other. The average heat transfer coefficients were then calculated by integrating the local values. A sample of experimental results for the variation of local heat transfer coefficient around the heat transfer tube for glass beads with mean diameter 300 ..mu..m is shown for low and high air flow rates. These experiments were also carried out for 850 ..mu..m mean diameter glass beads and 285 and 465 ..mu..m mean diameter sand. Average heat transfer coefficients were calculated from above mentioned local experimental data. Effects of tube elevation and gas flow rate on average heat transfer coefficient is shown for glass beads with mean diameter of 300 ..mu..m. Experimental results for average heat transfer coefficient versus tube elevation are shown for two different gas flow rates. Effect of static bed height on heat transfer coefficient was also investigated by changing the static ...
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Chen, J. C. & Biyikli, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench cooling of superheated debris beds in containment during LWR core meltdown accidents

Description: Light water reactor core meltdown accident sequence studies suggest that superheated debris beds may settle on the concrete floor beneath the reactor vessel. A model for the heat transfer processes during quench of superheated debris beds cooled by an overlying pool of water has been presented in a prior paper. This paper discusses the coolability of decay-heated debris beds from the standpoint of their transient quench characteristics. It is shown that even though a debris bed configuration may be coolable from the point of view of steady-state decay heat removal, the quench behavior from an initially elevated temperature may lead to bed melting prior to quench of the debris.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Ginsberg, T. & Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat transfer to tubes in freeboard space of fluidized bed combustors. Progress report, August 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

Description: The existing room temperature fluidized bed facility was modified to carry out tests at high flow rates. Tests were carried out to determine the effect of increase in humidity of air on heat transfer coefficients. At low air flow rates, where the static charge effect is low, data without injection of steam were compared with the results for the same flow rates with steam injection. Increasing relative humidity to 65 percent changed the heat transfer coefficient by less than 2 percent. There are several investigations on heat transfer behavior of tubes in the submerged region, some of which are given in the references quoted. The data are mostly at low gas flow rates. Fluidized bed combustion operation calls for high gas flow rates. There are not enough data on heat transfer behavior of tubes in submerged region for high gas flow rates to compare with the anticipated results of this project in freeboard region at high flow rates. For this reason, the first tests were carried out with a submerged horizontal tube at midpoint of an 18 inch high static bed at room temperature. The test particles were 300 ..mu..m and 850 ..mu..m mean diameter glass beads. The maximum superficial gas velocity, U/sub sg/, for 300 ..mu..m mean diameter particles was 3.5 m/sec. At these high gas velocities, local and circumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficients were measured. They are tabulated in Tables. To better visualize the variation heat transfer coefficient as a function of superficial gas velocity, they are plotted. The variation of local heat transfer coefficient around the tube at different gas flow velocities is also shown.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Chen, J.C. & Biyikli, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench cooling of superheated debris beds in containment during LWR core meltdown accidents

Description: Light water reactor core meltdown accident sequence studies suggest that superheated debris beds may settle on the concrete floor beneath the reactor vessel. A model for the heat transfer processes during quench (removal of stored energy from initial temperature to saturation temperature) of superheated debris beds cooled by an overlying pool of water has been presented in a prior paper. This paper discusses the coolability of decay-heated debris beds from the standpoint of their transient quench characteristics. It is shown that even though a debris bed configuration may be coolable from the point of view of steady-state decay heat removal, the quench behavior from an initially elevated temperature may lead to bed melting prior to quench of the debris.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Ginsberg, T. & Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat transfer in freeboard region of fluidized beds

Description: This research involved the study of heat transfer and fluid mechanic characteristics around a horizontal tube in the freeboard region of fluidized beds. Heat transfer coefficients were experimetnally measured for different bed temperatures, particle sizes, gas flow rates, and tube elevations in the freeboard region of air fluidized beds at atmospheric pressure. Local heat transfer coefficients were found to vary significantly with angular position around the tube. Average heat transfer coefficients were found to decrease with increasing freeboard tube elevation and approach the values for gas convection plus radiation for any given gas velocity. For a fixed tube elevation, heat transfer coefficients generally increased with increasing gas velocity and with high particle entrainment they can approach the magnitudes found for immersed tubes. Heat transfer coefficients were also found to increase with increasing bed temperature. It was concluded that this increase is partly due to increase of radiative heat transfer and partly due to change of thermal properties of the fluidizing gas and particles. To investigate the fluid mechanic behavior of gas and particles around a freeboard tube, transient particle tube contacts were measured with a special capacitance probe in room temperature experiments. The results indicated that the tube surface experiences alternating dense and lean phase contacts. Quantitative information for local characteristics was obtained from the capacitance signals and used to develop a phenomenological model for prediction of the heat transfer coefficients around freeboard tubes. The packet renewal theory was modified to account for the dense phase heat transfer and a new model was suggested for the lean phase heat transfer. Finally, an empirical freeboard heat transfer correlation was developed from functional analysis of the freeboard heat transfer data using nondimensional groups representing gas velocity and tube elevation.
Date: October 1, 1983
Creator: Biyikli, S.; Tuzla, K. & Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A distributed activation energy model of heterogeneous coal ignition. Final report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

Description: We present a model which simulates the conventional tube-furnace experiment used for ignition studies. The Distributed Activation Energy Model of Ignition accounts for particle-to particle variations in reactivity by having a single preexponential factor and a Gaussian distribution of activation energies among the particles. The results show that the model captures the key experimental observations, namely (1) the linear increase in ignition frequency with increasing gas temperature, and (2) the variation of the slope of the ignition frequency with oxygen concentration. It is shown that adjustments to the model parameters permit a good fit to experimental data.
Date: November 28, 1995
Creator: Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-680 south connector ramps

Description: Site response analyses were performed using the computer program SHAKE at the I-24/580/980 site to provide seismic ground motions for independent evaluations of the freeway interchange structure. Analytical models and soil parameters for SHAKE analysis were developed from geotechnical data obtained from several site investigation programs conducted at the site in 1960, 1991 and 1995. Two sets of rock outcropping input motions were used: (1) modified Santa Cruz earthquake records provided by Caltrans, and (2) LLNL synthetic strong ground motions. The LLNL synthetic ground motions were developed using LLNL Empirical Green functions method simulating strong earthquakes of moment magnitude 7.25 from the nearby Hayward Fault about 4 km from the site. Calculated ground surface motions using LLNL median rock input-motions are compatible with Caltrans design/evaluation motions.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A distributed activation energy model of heterogeneous coal ignition. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

Description: Experiments designed to measure kinetic rate constants of ignition of pulverized coals showed clearly that, for single particles or dilute suspensions, particle-to-particle variations due to reactivity and/or thermophysical properties are important. There exists ample evidence that the most important factor in interpreting these data is the existence of a variation in chemical reactivity in the sample. It is surprising, therefore, to note that all previous studies presumed that a single (average) activation energy is adequate to describe the ignition process. The equations formulated using this presumption are then correlated to the experimental measurements to infer the kinetic rate constants of ignition. The major objectives are to develop a model of heterogeneous ignition which allows for a distribution of activation energies, and to implement this model to interpret previously published data. It is the authors hypothesis that variations in chemical reactivity account for the experimental trends observed. Another objective of this project is to examine the effects of variations in thermodynamic and physical properties (e.g. specific heat, particle diameter, density) on data interpretation from previous ignition experiments.
Date: April 26, 1995
Creator: Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A distributed activation energy model of heterogeneous coal ignition. Technical progress report, April 1-- June 30, 1995

Description: Experiments designed to measure kinetic rate constants of ignition of pulverized coals showed clearly that, for single particles or dilute suspensions, particle-to-particle variations due to reactivity and/or thermophysical properties are important. There exists ample evidence that the most important factor in interpreting these data is the existence of a variation in chemical reactivity in the sample. It is surprising, therefore, to note that all previous studies presumed that a single (average) activation energy is adequate to describe the ignition process. The equations formulated using this presumption are then correlated to the experimental measurements to infer the kinetic rate constants of ignition. The major objectives are to develop a model of heterogeneous ignition which allows for a distribution of activation energies, and to implement this model to interpret previously published data. It is the authors hypothesis that variations in chemical reactivity account for the experimental trends observed. Another objective of this project is to examine the effects of variations in thermodynamic and physical properties (e.g. specific heat, particle diameter, density) on data interpretation from previous ignition experiments. An attached paper submitted for review to ``Combustion and Flame`` summarizes the Distributed Activation Energy Model of Ignition, which accounts for particle-to-particle variations in reactivity within a sample by allowing for a distribution in activation energies among the particles and a single preexponential factor. The model captures the main characteristics of actual experiments, namely (1) the gradual increase in ignition frequency with increasing gas temperature and (2) the variation of the slope of the ignition frequency with O{sub 2} concentration. Finally, it has been shown that adjustments to the model parameters can be used to fit experimental data and extract reaction rate constants.
Date: July 5, 1995
Creator: Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of foundation modeling on dynamic response of a soil- structure system

Description: This paper presents the results of our investigation to evaluate the effectiveness of different foundation modeling techniques used in soil-structure interaction analyses. The study involved analysis of three different modeling techniques applied to two different foundation configurations (one with a circular and one with a square shape). The results of dynamic response of a typical nuclear power plant structure supported on such foundations are presented.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Chen, J. C. & Tabatabaie, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition rate measurement of laser-ignited coals. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

Description: Over the last several decades many experiments have been conceived to study the ignition of pulverized coal and other solid fuels. We are constructing a laser-based apparatus which offers several advantages over those currently in favor. Sieve-sized particles are dropped batch-wise into a laminar, upward-flow wind tunnel which is constructed with a quartz test section. The gas stream is not preheated. A single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser is focused through the tunnel and ignites several particles. The transparent test section and cool walls allow for application of two-color pyrometry to measure the particles` temperature history during ignition and combustion. Coals ranging in rank from lignites to low-volatile bituminous, and chars derived from these coals, will be studied in this project. For each fuel type, measurements of the ignition temperature under various experimental conditions (particle size and free-stream oxygen concentration), combined with a detailed analysis of the ignition process, will permit the determination of kinetic rate constants of ignition.
Date: April 28, 1996
Creator: Chen, J.C. & Kabadi, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature high pressure thermodynamic measurements for coal model compounds. Semiannual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

Description: The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. A M.S. graduate student Mr. Ahmad Al-Ghamdi has been recruited to work on this project. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project has been upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have begun. The vapor and liquid compositions will be measured using the Perkin-Elmer Auto-system gas chromatograph. A capillary column made by Supelco has been purchased for the analysis. For enthalpy and heat capacity measurements, SETARAM C-80 calorimeter has been purchased and installed. The instrument can be used for calorimetric property measurements at temperatures up to 300{degree}C and pressures up to 1500 psi. Enthalpy measurements for the system benzene-ethylbenzene have begun. Simultaneously, we have undertaken the design of a calorimetric cell that will allow enthalpy measurements at pressures up to 10000 psi. In this report the VLE apparatus and the preliminary work completed for the VLE measurements for the benzene-ethylbenzene system are described. A description of the calorimeter and the measured enthalpy data for the benzene-ethylbenzene system will be included in the next report. 3 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Kabadi, V.N. & Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments and Computational Modeling of Pulverized Coal Ignition

Description: Under typical conditions of pulverized coal combustion, which is characterized by fines particles heated at very high rates, there is currently a lack of certainty regarding the ignition mechanism of bituminous and lower rank coals. It is unclear whether ignition occurs first at the particle oxygen interface (heterogeneous ignition) or if it occurs in the gas phase due to ignition of the devolatilization products (homogeneous ignition). Furthermore, there have been no previous studies aimed at determining the dependence of the ignition mechanism on variations in experimental conditions, such as particle size, oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Finally, there is a need to improve current mathematical models of ignition to realistically and accurately depict the particle-to-particle variations that exist within a coal sample. Such a model is needed to extract useful reaction parameters from ignition studies, and to interpret ignition data in a more meaningful way.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments and Computational Modeling of Pulverized-Clak Ignition.

Description: Under typical conditions of pulverized-coal combustion, which is characterized by fine particles heated at very high rates, there is currently a lack of certainty regarding the ignition mechanism of bituminous and lower rank coals. It is unclear whether ignition occurs first at the particle-oxygen interface (heterogeneous ignition) or if it occurs in the gas phase due to ignition of the devolatilization products (homogeneous ignition). Furthermore, there have been no previous studies aimed at determining the dependence of the ignition mechanism on variations in experimental conditions, such as particle size, oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Finally, there is a need to improve current mathematical models of ignition to realistically and accurately depict the particle-to-particle variations that exist within a coal sample. Such a model is needed to extract useful reaction parameters from ignition studies, and to interpret ignition data in a more meaningful way. We propose to examine fundamental aspects of coal ignition through (1) experiments to determine the ignition mechanism of various coals by direct observation, and (2) modeling of the ignition process to derive rate constants and to provide a more insightful interpretation of data from ignition experiments. We propose to use a novel laser-based ignition experiment to achieve our objectives.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Chen, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition rate measurement of laser-ignited coals. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: Over the last several decades many experiments have been conceived to study the ignition of pulverized coal and other solid fuels. We are constructing a laser-based apparatus which offers several advantages over those currently favor. Sieve-sized particles are dropped batch-wise into a laminar, upward-flow wind tunnel which is constructed with a quartz test section. The gas stream is not preheated. A single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser is focused through the tunnel and ignites several particles. The transparent test section and cool walls allow for application of two-color pyrometry to measure the particles` temperature history during ignition and combustion. Coals ranging in rank from lignites to low-volatile bituminous, and chars derived from these Coals, will be studied in this project. For each fuel type, measurements of the ignition temperature under various experimental conditions (particle size and free-stream oxygen concentration), combined with a detailed analysis of the ignition process, will permit the determination of kinetic rate constants of ignition. This technique offers many advantages over conventional drop-tube furnace experiments. One is the ability to directly measure ignition temperature rather than inferring it from measurements of the minimum gas temperature needed to induce ignition. Another advantage is the high heating rates achievable - on the order of 10{sub 6} K/s. This is a significant improvement over experiments which rely on convective heating from a hot gas, which typically achieves heating rates of 10{sup 4}K/s. The higher heating rate more closely simulates conditions in conventional coal combustors used for power generation.
Date: October 20, 1995
Creator: Chen, J.C. & Kabadi, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of local soil conditions on site amplification

Description: The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is developing a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. The analysis procedure is based upon a state-of-the-art evaluation of the current seismic analysis and design process and explicitly accounts for uncertainties inherent in such a process. In Phase I, the seismic input, the soil-structure interaction, dynamic response of structures and subsystems, and fragility were developed and combined using a probabilistic computational procedure. Demonstration calculations were completed for the Zion nuclear power plant. In Phase II, presently ongoing, additional models, improvements to existing models, and improvements to the probabilistic computational assessment of Zion have been developed. Local site amplification has significant effect on structural response and is a major source of uncertainty. As part of the final Zion analysis in Phase II, an assessment of the local site effect at the Zion site was made using new time histories modified for the Zion soil conditions. In this paper, we briefly describe the approach used to correct the seismic hazard curve and time histories developed in Phase I for local site effects and discuss in some detail the results of our efforts to validate the approach. The principle step in the approach was the use of an equivalent linear iterative technique assuming vertically incident waves to correct a set of time histories appropriate for a rock outcrop for the local soil column. For the Zion soil column this led to large correction factors.
Date: February 18, 1983
Creator: Chen, J.C.; Bernreuter, D.L. & Johnson, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition rate measurement of laser-ignited coals. Technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1996

Description: Over the last several decades many experiments have been conceived to study the ignition of pulverized coal and other solid fuels. The authors are constructing a laser-based apparatus which offers several advantages over those currently in favor. Sieve-sized particles are dropped batch-wise into a laminar, upward-flow wind tunnel which is constructed with a quartz test section. The gas stream is not preheated. A single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser is focused through the tunnel and ignites several particles. The transparent test section and cool walls allow for application of two-color pyrometry to measure the particles` temperature history during ignition and combustion. Coals ranging in rank from lignites to low-volatile bituminous, and chars derived from these coals, will be studied in this project. For each fuel type, measurements of the ignition temperature under various experimental conditions (particle size and free-stream oxygen concentration), combined with a detailed analysis of the ignition process, will permit the determination of kinetic rate constants of ignition. During the past reporting period, the authors have been working on the development of the high-speed data-acquisition system to be used with the two-color pyrometry system for particle temperature measurement. After several attempts and failures at implementing a PC-based data-acquisition board for this purpose, they have decided to purchase an off-the-shelf data-acquisition system. In addition, they have been preparing a manuscript based on data they obtained together with a new model developed to describe the ignition behavior of pulverized coals.
Date: October 28, 1996
Creator: Chen, J.C. & Kabadi, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic response of a nuclear power generation complex including structure-to-structure interaction effects

Description: Seismic responses of the Zion nuclear power generation complex accounting for structure-to-structure interaction effects as predicted by CLASSI and FLUSH Codes are presented in this paper. Two aspects of the multi-structure analyses were considered: the effect of structure-to-structure interaction on structure response and the variability in structure response as predicted by different codes, including structure-to-structure interaction. The effect of structure- to-structure interaction on the response of the Zion reactor building and AFT complex (the auxiliary/fuel-handling/turbine building complex) was assessed by comparing the results of CLASSI analyses with and without interaction between structures. The results show that the reactor building has a very small effect on the AFT complex, but the effect of structure-to-structure interaction on the reactor building from the AFT complex is substantial. A comparison of the reactor building`s response as predicted by CLASSI and FLUSH, structures including structure-to-structure interaction, shows significant differences. Modeling three-dimensional configuration of a complicated power plant structure such as the Zion`s with equivalent two-dimensional models for structure-to-structure interaction analysis requires careful consideration.
Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Chen, J.C.; Masienikov, O.R. & Johnson, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

Description: This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S. & Boissonnade, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health risk from earthquake caused releases of UF{sub 6} at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Description: The health risk to the public and workers from potential exposure to the toxic materials from earthquake caused releases of uranium hexafluoride from the Paducah gaseous Diffusion Plant are evaluated. The results of the study show that the health risk from earthquake caused releases is small, and probably less than risks associated with the transportation of hydrogen fluoride and other similar chemicals used by industry. The probability of more than 30 people experiencing health consequences (injuries) from earthquake damage is less than 4xlO{sup 4}/yr.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Brown, N.W; Lu, S.; Chen, J.C.; Roehnelt, R. & Lombardi, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department