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Little Supersymmetry and the Supersymmetric Little Hierarchy Problem

Description: The current experimental lower bound on the Higgs mass significantly restricts the allowed parameter space in most realistic supersymmetric models, with the consequence that these models exhibit significant fine-tuning. We propose a solution to this `supersymmetric little hierarchy problem'. We consider scenarios where the stop masses are relatively heavy - in the 500 GeV to a TeV range. Radiative stability of the Higgs soft mass against quantum corrections from the top quark Yukawa coupling is achieved by imposing a global SU(3) symmetry on this interaction. This global symmetry is only approximate - it is not respected by the gauge interactions. A subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged by the familiar SU(2) of the Standard Model. The physical Higgs is significantly lighter than the other scalars because it is the pseudo-Goldstone boson associated with the breaking of this symmetry. Radiative corrections to the Higgs potential naturally lead to the right pattern of gauge and global symmetry breaking. We show that both the gauge and global symmetries can be embedded into a single SU(6) grand unifying group, thereby maintaining the prediction of gauge coupling unification. Among the firm predictions of this class of models are new states with the quantum numbers of 10 and $\bar{10}$ under SU(5) close to the TeV scale. The Higgs mass is expected to bebelow 130 GeV, just as in the MSSM.
Date: April 22, 2004
Creator: Birkedal, Andreas; Chacko, Z. & Gaillard, Mary K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural Little Hierarchy from Partially Goldstone Twin Higgs

Description: We construct a simple theory in which the fine-tuning of the standard model is significantly reduced. Radiative corrections to the quadratic part of the scalar potential are constrained to be symmetric under a global U(4) x U(4){prime} symmetry due to a discrete Z{sub 2} 'twin' parity, while the quartic part does not possess this symmetry. As a consequence, when the global symmetry is broken the Higgs fields emerge as light pseudo-Goldstone bosons, but with sizable quartic self-interactions. This structure allows the cutoff scale, {Lambda}, to be raised to the multi-TeV region without significant fine-tuning. In the minimal version of the theory, the amount of fine-tuning is about 15% for {Lambda} = 5 TeV, while it is about 30% in an extended model. This provides a solution to the little hierarchy problem. In the minimal model, the 'visible' particle content is exactly that of the two Higgs doublet standard model, while the extended model also contains extra vector-like fermions with masses {approx} (1 {approx} 2) TeV. At the LHC, our minimal model may appear exactly as the two Higgs doublet standard model, and new physics responsible for cutting off the divergences of the Higgs mass-squared parameter may not be discovered. Several possible processes that may be used to discriminate our model from the simple two Higgs doublet model are discussed for the LHC and for a linear collider.
Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: Chacko, Z.; Nomura, Yasunori; Papucci, Michele & Perez, Gilad
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Folded Supersymmetry and the LDP Paradox

Description: We present a new class of models that stabilize the weak scale against radiative corrections up to scales of order 5 TeV without large corrections to precision electroweak observables. In these ''folded supersymmetric'' theories the one loop quadratic divergences of the Standard Model Higgs field are canceled by opposite spin partners, but the gauge quantum numbers of these new particles are in general different from those of the conventional superpartners. This class of models is built around the correspondence that exists in the large N limit between the correlation functions of supersymmetric theories and those of their non-supersymmetric orbifold daughters. By identifying the mechanism which underlies the cancellation of one loop quadratic divergences in these theories, we are able to construct simple extensions of the Standard Model which are radiatively stable at one loop. Ultraviolet completions of these theories can be obtained by imposing suitable boundary conditions on an appropriate supersymmetric higher dimensional theory compactified down to four dimensions. We construct a specific model based on these ideas which stabilizes the weak scale up to about 20 TeV and where the states which cancel the top loop are scalars not charged under Standard Model color. Its collider signatures are distinct from conventional supersymmetric theories and include characteristic events with hard leptons and missing energy.
Date: September 21, 2006
Creator: Burdman, Gustavo; Chacko, Z.; Goh, Hock-Seng & Harnik, Roni
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Quirky Collider Signals of Folded Supersymmetry

Description: We investigate the collider signals associated with scalar quirks ('squirks') in folded supersymmetric models. As opposed to regular superpartners in supersymmetric models these particles are uncolored, but are instead charged under a new confining group, leading to radically different collider signals. Due to the new strong dynamics, squirks that are pair produced do not hadronize separately, but rather form a highly excited bound state. The excited 'squirkonium' loses energy to radiation before annihilating back into Standard Model particles. We calculate the branching fractions into various channels for this process, which is prompt on collider time-scales. The most promising annihilation channel for discovery is W+photon which dominates for squirkonium near its ground state. We demonstrate the feasibility of the LHC search, showing that the mass peak is visible above the SM continuum background and estimate the discovery reach.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Burdman, Gustavo; Chacko, Z.; Goh, Hock-Seng; Harnik, Roni & Krenke, Christopher A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Late Time Neutrino Masses, the LSND Experiment and the Cosmic Microwave Background

Description: Models with low-scale breaking of global symmetries in the neutrino sector provide an alternative to the seesaw mechanism for understanding why neutrinos are light. Such models can easily incorporate light sterile neutrinos required by the LSND experiment. Furthermore, the constraints on the sterile neutrino properties from nucleosynthesis and large scale structure can be removed due to the non-conventional cosmological evolution of neutrino masses and densities. We present explicit, fully realistic supersymmetric models, and discuss the characteristic signatures predicted in the angular distributions of the cosmic microwave background.
Date: May 7, 2004
Creator: Chacko, Z.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Oliver, Steven J. & Perelstein, Maxim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Twin Higgs Model from Left-Right Symmetry

Description: We present twin Higgs models based on the extension of the Standard Model to left-right symmetry that protect the weak scale against radiative corrections up to scales of order 5 TeV. In the ultraviolet the Higgs sector of these theories respects an approximate global symmetry, in addition to the discrete parity symmetry characteristic of left-right symmetric models. The Standard Model Higgs field emerges as the pseudo-Goldstone boson associated with the breaking of the global symmetry. The parity symmetry tightly constrains the form of radiative corrections to the Higgs potential, allowing natural electroweak breaking. The minimal model predicts a rich spectrum of exotic particles that will be accessible to upcoming experiments, and which are necessary for the cancellation of one-loop quadratic divergences. These include right-handed gauge bosons with masses not to exceed a few TeV and a pair of vector-like quarks with masses of order several hundred GeV.
Date: December 14, 2005
Creator: Chacko, Z.; Goh, Hock-Seng; U., /Arizona; Harnik, Roni & /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutrino telescopes as a direct probe of supersymmetrybreaking

Description: We consider supersymmetric models where the scale of supersymmetry breaking lies between 5 x 10{sup 6} GeV and 5 x 10{sup 8} GeV. In this class of theories, which includes models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, the lightest supersymmetric particle is the gravitino. The next to lightest supersymmetric particle is typically a long lived charged slepton with a lifetime between a microsecond and a second, depending on its mass. Collisions of high energy neutrinos with nucleons in the earth can result in the production of a pair of these sleptons. Their very high boost means they typically decay outside the earth. We investigate the production of these particles by the diffuse flux of high energy neutrinos, and the potential for their observation in large ice or water Cerenkov detectors. The relatively small cross-section for the production of supersymmetric particles is partially compensated for by the very long range of heavy particles. The signal in the detector consists of two parallel charged tracks emerging from the earth about 100 meters apart, with very little background. A detailed calculation using the Waxman-Bahcall limit on the neutrino flux and realistic spectra shows that km{sup 3} experiments could see as many as 4 events a year. We conclude that neutrino telescopes will complement collider searches in the determination of the supersymmetry breaking scale, and may even give the first evidence for supersymmetry at the weak scale.
Date: December 15, 2003
Creator: Albuquerque, Ivone; Burdman, Gustavo & Chacko, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceleressence: Dark energy from a phase transition at the seesawscale

Description: Simple models are constructed for ''acceleressence'' dark energy: the latent heat of a phase transition occurring in a hidden sector governed by the seesaw mass scale v{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}, where v is the electroweak scale and M{sub Pl} the gravitational mass scale. In our models, the seesaw scale is stabilized by supersymmetry, implying that the LHC must discover superpartners with a spectrum that reflects a low scale of fundamental supersymmetry breaking. Newtonian gravity may be modified by effects arising from the exchange of fields in the acceleressence sector whose Compton wavelengths are typically of order the millimeter scale. There are two classes of models. In the first class the universe is presently in a metastable vacuum and will continue to inflate until tunneling processes eventually induce a first order transition. In the simplest such model, the range of the new force is bounded to be larger than 25 {micro}m in the absence of fine-tuning of parameters, and for couplings of order unity it is expected to be {approx} 100 {micro}m. In the second class of models thermal effects maintain the present vacuum energy of the universe, but on further cooling, the universe will ''soon'' smoothly relax to a matter dominated era. In this case, the range of the new force is also expected to be of order the millimeter scale or larger, although its strength is uncertain. A firm prediction of this class of models is the existence of additional energy density in radiation at the eV era, which can potentially be probed in precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background. An interesting possibility is that the transition towards a matter dominated era has occurred in the very recent past, with the consequence that the universe is currently decelerating.
Date: October 5, 2004
Creator: Chacko, Z.; Hall, Lawrence J. & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Massive gravity on a brane

Description: At present no theory of a massive graviton is known that is consistent with experiments at both long and short distances. The problem is that consistency with long distance experiments requires the graviton mass to be very small. Such a small graviton mass however implies an ultraviolet cutoff for the theory at length scales far larger than the millimeter scale at which gravity has already been measured. In this paper we attempt to construct a model which avoids this problem. We consider a brane world setup in warped AdS spacetime and we investigate the consequences of writing a mass term for the graviton on a the infrared brane where the local cutoff is of order a large (galactic) distance scale. The advantage of this setup is that the low cutoff for physics on the infrared brane does not significantly affect the predictivity of the theory for observers localized on the ultraviolet brane. For such observers the predictions of this theory agree with general relativity at distances smaller than the infrared scale but go over to those of a theory of massive gravity at longer distances. A careful analysis of the graviton two-point function, however, reveals the presence of a ghost in the low energy spectrum. A mode decomposition of the higher dimensional theory reveals that the ghost corresponds to the radion field. We also investigate the theory with a brane localized mass for the graviton on the ultraviolet brane, and show that the physics of this case is similar to that of a conventional four dimensional theory with a massive graviton, but with one important difference: when the infrared brane decouples and the would-be massive graviton gets heavier than the regular Kaluza-Klein modes, it becomes unstable and it has a finite width to decay off the brane into the continuum ...
Date: December 11, 2003
Creator: Chacko, Z.; Graesser, M.L.; Grojean, C. & Pilo, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department