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Pollution prevention cost savings potential

Description: The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Celeste, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommendations for improving waste-generation reporting

Description: This document is based on available waste-generation data from the Total Waste Management System (TWMS) database for calendar years 1994 through 1997. The purpose of the analysis is to identify the amount of time required for the data to be considered complete enough and available to the Pollution Prevention Group (PPG) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to prepare accurate estimates for performance measures quarterly reports. The current reports use this incomplete data which forces PPG to make subsequent revisions to the reported data. An approach that can readily address and correct the problem is recommended. In general terms, the completeness of TWMS data is a function of elapsed time. In this report, elapsed time is defined as the interval between the work place end date (WPED), when material is first declared to be waste, and the time that complete information on declared waste is placed into the TWMS database so that the data can be analyzed. Initial estimates of waste quantities by waste type are subject to considerable revision over subsequent months. Revised estimates arise because of initial under or over reporting of waste quantities as routine waste, misclassification of waste types, the time needed to obtain testing and certification results, and several other variables. Final values for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annual waste quantities are, in fact, not available until several months after the end of a given calendar year. This is due to the complexity of the waste management process which takes a significant amount of time to accurately sample, characterize, and certify the waste for final treatment, storage, and disposal. This is driven by the increasingly more stringent waste acceptance criteria of the treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.
Date: September 30, 1998
Creator: Celeste, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan

Description: This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Cantwell, B. & Celeste, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design for environment for the National Ignition Facility

Description: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national center for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and other research into the physics of high temperatures and high densities, and a vital element of the DOE`s nuclear weapons Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. It will be used by scientists from a numerous different institutions and disciplines to support research advancements in national security, energy, basic science, and economic development. Multiple powerful laser beams will `ignite` small fusion targets, helping liberate more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. This paper discusses the Design for Environment process for NIF, some of the subsequent activities resulting from the initial study, and a few of the lessons learned from this process. Subsequent activities include the development of a Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan (P2/WMin) for the facility, which includes Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAS) on predicted waste streams from NIF, development of construction phase recycling plans, analysis of some of the specialized materials of construction to minimize future demolition and decommissioning (D&D) costs and development of cost assessments for more benign cleaning procedures that meet the stringent cleaning specifications for this facility.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Cantwell, E.; Gobor, K.; Celeste, J. & Cerruti, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling tower waste reduction

Description: At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R. & Scott, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

Description: An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.
Date: November 9, 2010
Creator: MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of a near back-scattering imaging system on the National Ignition Facility

Description: A near back-scattering imaging diagnostic system has been implemented, qualified and fielded on the first quad of beams on the National Ignition Facility. This diagnostic images diffusing scatter plates, placed around the final focus lenses on the NIF target chamber, to quantitatively measure the fraction of light back-scattered outside of the incident cone of the focusing optics. The imaging system consists of a wide-angle lens coupled to a gated CCD camera, providing 3mm resolution over a 2m field of view. To account for changes of the system throughput due to exposure to target debris the system was routinely calibrated in situ at 532nm and 355nm using a dedicated pulsed laser source. The diagnostic and calibration methods will be described together with recent results from the NIF early light shots.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Mackinnon, A J; Niemann, C; Piston, K; Holtmeier, G; McCarville, T J; Jones, G et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical Alignment Techniques for Line-Imaging Velocity Interferometry and Line-Imaging Self-Emission of Targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

Description: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 meters. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.
Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Malone, R M; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Frogget, B .; Guyton, R L; Kaufman, M I et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debris Characterization Diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility

Description: Generation of debris from targets and by x-ray ablation of surrounding materials will be a matter of concern for experimenters and the operations staff at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Target chamber and final optics protection, for example debris shield damage, and efficient facility operation drive the interest for the NIF staff. Experimenters are primarily concerned with diagnostic survivability, separation of mechanical versus radiation induced test object response in the case of effects tests, and radiation transport through the debris field when the net radiation output is used to benchmark computer codes. In addition, radiochemical analysis of activated capsule debris during ignition shots can provide a measure of the ablator. Conceptual design of the Debris Monitor and Rad-Chem Station, one of the NIF core diagnostics, is presented. Methods of debris collection, particle size and mass analysis, impulse measurement, and radiochemical analysis are given. A description of recent experiments involving debris collection and impulse measurement on the OMEGA and Pharos lasers is also provided.
Date: June 7, 2000
Creator: Miller, M. C.; Celeste, J. R.; Suter, L. J.; Tobin, M. T.; Grun, J.; Davis, J. F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Images of the Laser Entrance Hole from the Static X-ray Imager at NIF

Description: The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a pinhole camera using a CCD detector to obtain images of hohlraum wall x-ray drive illumination patterns seen through the laser entrance hole (LEH). Carefully chosen filters combined with the CCD response allows recording images in the x-ray range of 3 to 5 keV with 60 {micro}m spatial resolution. The routines used to obtain the apparent size of the backlit LEH, and the location and intensity of beam spots are discussed and compared to predictions. A new soft x-ray channel centered at 870 eV (near the x-ray peak of a 300 eV temperature ignition hohlraum) is discussed.
Date: May 4, 2010
Creator: Schneider, M; Jones, O; Meezan, N; Milovich, J; Town, R; Alvarez, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

South pole bang-time diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The south pole bang-time (SPBT) diagnostic views National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions through the lower hohlraum laser entrance hole to measure the time of peak x-ray emission (peak compression) in indirect drive implosions. Five chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) diamond photoconductive detectors (PCD's) with different filtrations and sensitivities record the time-varying x rays emitted by the target. Wavelength-selecting highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal mirror monochromators increase the x-ray signal-to-background ratio by filtering for 11-keV emission. Diagnostic timing and the in-situ temporal instrument response function are determined from laser impulse shots on the NIF. After signal deconvolution and background removal, the bang time is determined to 45-ps accuracy. The x-ray 'yield' (mJ/sr/keV at 11 keV) is determined from the total area under the peak.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: MacPhee, A.; Edgell, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Bond, E. J.; Burns, S.; Callahan, D. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-resolved Soft X-Ray Imaging (SXRI) diagnostic for use at the NIF and OMEGA lasers

Description: The soft x-ray imager (SXRI) built for the first experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has four soft x-ray channels and one hard x-ray channel. The SXRI is a snout that mounts to a four strip gated imager. This produces four soft x-ray images per strip, which can be separated in time by {approx}60psec. Each soft x-ray channel consists of a mirror plus a filter. The diagnostic was used to study x-ray burnthrough of hot hohlraum targets at the NIF and OMEGA lasers. The SXRI snout design and issues involved in selecting the desired soft x-ray channels are discussed.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Schneider, M; Holder, J; James, D; Bruns, H; Celeste, J; Compton, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ~ps resolution using RadOptic detection

Description: We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Vernon, S. P.; Lowry, M. E.; Baker, K. L.; Bennett, C. V.; Celeste, J. R.; Cerjan, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

Description: We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: May 13, 1991
Creator: Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-resolved Soft X-Ray Imaging (SXRI) diagnostic for use at the NIF and OMEGA lasers (version 2)

Description: The soft x-ray imager (SXRI) built for the first experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has four soft x-ray channels and one hard x-ray channel. The SXRI is a snout that mounts to a four strip gated imager. This produces four soft x-ray images per strip, which can be separated in time by {approx}60psec. Each soft x-ray channel consists of a mirror plus a filter. The diagnostic was used to study x-ray burnthrough of hot hohlraum targets at the NIF and OMEGA lasers. The SXRI snout design and issues involved in selecting the desired soft x-ray channels are discussed.
Date: July 21, 2006
Creator: Schneider, M B; Holder, J P; James, D L; Bruns, H C; Celeste, J R; Compton, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray flux and x-ray burnthrough experiments on reduced-scale targets at the NIF and OMEGA lasers

Description: An experimental campaign to maximize radiation drive in small-scale hohlraums has been carried out at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA USA) and at the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (Rochester, NY USA). The small-scale hohlraums, laser energy, laser pulse, and diagnostics were similar at both facilities but the geometries were very different. The NIF experiments used on-axis laser beams whereas the OMEGA experiments used 19 beams in three beam cones. In the cases when the lasers coupled well and produced similar radiation drive, images of x-ray burnthrough and laser deposition indicate the pattern of plasma filling is very different.
Date: August 24, 2005
Creator: Schneider, M; Hinkel, D; Young, B; Holder, J; Langdon, A; Baldis, H et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department