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Aluminum Rayleigh Taylor Strength Measurements and Calculations

Description: A traditional approach to the study of material strength has been revitalized at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF). Rayleigh Taylor strength experiments have long been utilized to measure the material response of metals at high pressure and strain rates. A modulated (sinusoidal or sawtooth perturbation) surface is shocklessly (quasi-isentropically) accelerated by a high explosive (HE) driver, and radiography is used to measure the perturbation amplitude as a function of time. The Aluminum T-6061 targets are designed with several sets of two-dimensional sawtooth perturbations machined on the loading surface. The HE driver was designed to reach peak pressures in the range of 200 to 300 kbar and strain rates in the range of 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The standard constitutive strength models, Steinberg-Guinan (SG) [1], Steinberg-Lund (SL) [2], Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) [3], Johnson-Cooke (JC) [4], and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) [5], have been calibrated by traditional techniques: (Hopkinson-Bar, Taylor impact, flyer plate/shock-driven experiments). The VNIIEF experimental series accesses a strain rate regime not attainable using traditional methods. We have performed a detailed numerical study with a two-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics computer code containing several constitutive strength models to predict the perturbation growth. Results show that the capabilities of the computational methodology predict the amplitude growth to within 5 percent of the measured data, thus validating both the code and the strength models under the given conditions and setting the stage for credible future design work using different materials.
Date: January 10, 2007
Creator: Lindquist, M J; Cavallo, R M; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S M; Remington, B A & Raevsky, V A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strong stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability by material strength at Mbar pressures

Description: Experimental results showing significant reductions from classical in the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate due to high pressure effective lattice viscosity are presented. Using a laser created ramped drive, vanadium samples are compressed and accelerated quasi-isentropically at {approx}1 Mbar pressures, while maintaining the sample in the solid-state. Comparisons with simulations and theory indicate that the high pressure, high strain rate conditions trigger a phonon drag mechanism, resulting in the observed high effective lattice viscosity and strong stabilization of the RT instability.
Date: November 19, 2009
Creator: Park, H S; Lorenz, K T; Cavallo, R M; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T; Rudd, R E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF VANADIUM STRENGTH MODELS AT HIGH PRESSURES AND STRAIN RATES

Description: Experimental results showing significant reductions from classical in the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate due to high pressure material strength or effective lattice viscosity in metal foils are presented. On the Omega Laser in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, target samples of polycrystalline vanadium are compressed and accelerated quasi-isentropically at {approx}1 Mbar pressures, while maintaining the samples in the solid-state. Comparison of the results with constitutive models for solid state strength under these conditions show that the measured RT growth is substantially lower than predictions using existing models that work well at low pressures and long time scales. High pressure, high strain rate data can be explained by the enhanced strength due to a phonon drag mechanism, creating a high effective lattice viscosity.
Date: March 2, 2010
Creator: Park, H; Barton, N R; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V; Cavallo, R M; Lorenz, K T et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of a Multiscale Model of Tantalum Deformation at Megabar Pressures

Description: A new multiscale simulation tool has been developed to model the strength of tantalum under high-pressure dynamic compression. This new model combines simulations at multiple length scales to explain macroscopic properties of materials. Previously known continuum models of material response under load have built upon a mixture of theoretical physics and experimental phenomenology. Experimental data, typically measured at static pressures, are used as a means of calibration to construct models that parameterize the material properties; e.g., yield stress, work hardening, strain-rate dependence, etc. The pressure dependence for most models enters through the shear modulus, which is used to scale the flow stress. When these models are applied to data taken far outside the calibrated regions of phase space (e.g., strain rate or pressure) they often diverge in their predicted behavior of material deformation. The new multiscale model, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, starts with interatomic quantum mechanical potential and is based on the motion and multiplication of dislocations. The basis for the macroscale model is plastic deformation by phonon drag and thermally activated dislocation motion and strain hardening resulting from elastic interactions among dislocations. The dislocation density, {rho}, and dislocation velocity, {nu}, are connected to the plastic strain rate {var_epsilon}{sup p}, via Orowan's equation: {var_epsilon}{sup p} = {rho}b{nu}/M, where b is the Burger's vector, the shear magnitude associated with a dislocation, and M is the Taylor factor, which accounts for geometric effects in how slip systems accommodate the deformation. The evolution of the dislocation density and velocity is carried out in the continuum model by parameterized fits to smaller scale simulations, each informed by calculations on smaller length scales down to atomistic dimensions. We apply this new model for tantalum to two sets of experiments and compare the results with more traditional models. The experiments are based on the ...
Date: May 13, 2010
Creator: Cavallo, R M; Park, H; Barton, N R; Remignton, B A; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRENGTH EXPERIMENTS OF THE PRESSURE-INDUCED alpha->epsilon->alpha' PHASE TRANSITION IN IRON

Description: We present here the first dynamic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) strength measurement of a material undergoing solid-solid phase transition. Iron is quasi-isentropically driven across the pressure-induced bcc ({alpha}-Fe) {yields} hcp ({var_epsilon}-Fe) phase transition and the dynamic strength of the {alpha}, {var_epsilon} and reverted {alpha}{prime} phases have been determined via proton radiography of the resulting Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the iron target and high-explosive products. Simultaneous velocimetry measurements of the iron free surface yield the phase transition dynamics and, in conjunction with detailed hydrodynamic simulations, allow for determination of the strength of the distinct phases of iron. Forward analysis of the experiment via hydrodynamic simulations reveals significant strength enhancement of the dynamically-generated {var_epsilon}-Fe and reverted {alpha}{prime}-Fe, comparable in magnitude to the strength of austenitic stainless steels.
Date: August 10, 2011
Creator: Belof, J L; Cavallo, R M; Olson, R T; King, R S; Gray, G T; Holtkamp, D B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department