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Superconducting magnets for mirror machines

Description: The simple mirror configuration, consisting of a long solenoid with increased field strength at the ends (magnetic mirrors), proved to be an unstable plasma container and was replaced by the minimum absolute value of B mirror configuration. The Yin-Yang minimum absolute value of B coil was chosen for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) experiment and recent conceptual designs of standard mirror reactors. For the multicell field-reversed mirror reactor concept we returned to the long solenoid configuration, augmented by normal copper mirror coils and Ioffe bars placed at the first wall radius to provide a shallow magnetic well for each field-reversed plasma layer. The central cell of the tandem mirror is also a long solenoid while the end plug cells require a minimum absolute value of B configuration.
Date: September 12, 1978
Creator: Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of tandem mirror reactors with thermal barriers

Description: End-plug technologies for tandem mirror reactors include high-field superconducting magnets, neutral beam injectors, and gyrotrons for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH). In addition to their normal use for sustenance of the end-plug plasmas, neutral beam injectors are used for ''pumping'' trapped ions from the thermal barrier regions by charge exchange. An extra function of the axially directed pump beams is the removal of thermalized alpha particles from the reactor. The principles of tandem mirror operation with thermal barriers will be demonstrated in the upgrade of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX-U) in 1981 and the tandem configuration of the Mirror fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) in 1984.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem mirror reactors

Description: Preliminary fusion reactor designs have been developed based on the tandem mirror confinement concept. These have included a 1000 MWe fusion power reactor and a nearer term fusion-fission hybrid reactor with reduced plasma confinement and technology requirements. Brief descriptions are given.
Date: September 12, 1978
Creator: Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field-reversed mirror reactor

Description: The reactor design is a multicell arrangement wherein a series of field-reversed plasma layers are arranged along the axis of a long superconducting solenoid which provides the background magnetic field. Normal copper mirror coils and Ioffe bars placed at the first wall radius provide shallow axial and radial magnetic wells for each plasma layer. Each of 11 plasma layers requires the injection of 3.6 MW of 200 keV deuterium and tritium and produces 20 MW of fusion power. The reactor has a net electric output of 74 MWe and an estimated direct capital cost of $1200/kWe.
Date: September 12, 1978
Creator: Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion component design for the moving-ring field-reversed mirror reactor

Description: This partial report on the reactor design contains sections on the following: (1) burner section magnet system design, (2) plasma ring energy recovery, (3) vacuum system, (4) cryogenic system, (5) tritium flows and inventories, and (6) reactor design and layout. (MOW)
Date: January 28, 1981
Creator: Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mirror fusion reactor study

Description: The principal features of a fusion power reactor employing the magnetic mirror confinement concept are described. A parametric design and cost estimate analysis has been used to optimize the design for minimum capital cost per net electric output. Optimized parameters include the vacuum mirror ratio, the injection energy and angle, the choice of a thermal conversion cycle, and the design efficiency of the charged particle direct converter. The sensitivity of the cost of power for the optimized design to variations in many of the reactor parameters is discussed. (auth)
Date: November 12, 1975
Creator: Carlson, G.A. & Moir, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First in-core molten fuel pool experiment. [LMFBR]

Description: If during a LMFBR accident a fuel debris bed is not adequately cooled by overlying sodium and dryout occurs, then the fuel would heat up and melt. Molten fuel pools are of concern due to their potential for ablation of the supporting structure and possible penetration of the reactor vessel. The major goal of the molten fuel pool program has been to develop a versatile experiment in which heat flux and structural ablation could be studied using real materials under typical temperature and heating conditions. This has now been accomplished, using the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) to fission heat enriched UO/sub 2/. In the first experiment conducted, a small portion of a 0.834 kg UO/sub 2/ sample was melted, and temperature data were recorded to above the melting point of the UO/sub 2/ using ultrasonic thermometry.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Plein, H.G. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

Description: We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).
Date: March 9, 1982
Creator: Carlson, G.A. & Logan, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System model for analysis of the mirror fusion-fission reactor

Description: This report describes a system model for the mirror fusion-fission reactor. In this model we include a reactor description as well as analyses of capital cost and blanket fuel management. In addition, we provide an economic analysis evaluating the cost of producing the two hybrid products, fissile fuel and electricity. We also furnish the results of a limited parametric analysis of the modeled reactor, illustrating the technological and economic implications of varying some important reactor design parameters.
Date: October 12, 1977
Creator: Bender, D.J. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mirror fusion reactor design

Description: Recent conceptual reactor designs based on mirror confinement are described. Four components of mirror reactors for which materials considerations and structural mechanics analysis must play an important role in successful design are discussed. The reactor components are: (a) first-wall and thermal conversion blanket, (b) superconducting magnets and their force restraining structure, (c) neutral beam injectors, and (d) plasma direct energy converters.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Neef, W.S. Jr. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mirror fusion reactors. [Conceptual design studies for power plants]

Description: We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant.
Date: May 19, 1978
Creator: Carlson, G.A. & Moir, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem mirror reactor studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, FY 1980

Description: The principles of tandem mirror operation with thermal barriers will be demonstrated in the upgrade of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX-U) in 1981 and the tandem configuration of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) in 1984. Continued analysis and conceptual design over this period will evolve the optimal configuration and parameters for a power-producing reactor. In this article we describe the progress we have made in this reactor design study effort during 1980.
Date: March 20, 1981
Creator: Carlson, G.A. & Neef, W.S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of non-adiabaticity of alpha particles in the axisymmetric cusp TMR

Description: One of the end plug configurations we have investigated for use in a tandem mirror reactor is the axisymmetric cusp. We show that because of non-adiabaticity, the containment of 3.5 MeV alpha particles in this configuration is insufficient for the attainment of acceptable plasma performance.
Date: July 20, 1981
Creator: Carlson, G.A. & Barr, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the steady-state operation of vacuum systems for fusion machines

Description: A computer code named GASBAL was written to calculate the steady-state vacuum system performance of multi-chamber mirror machines as well as rather complex conventional multichamber vacuum systems. Application of the code, with some modifications, to the quasi-steady tokamak operating period should also be possible. Basically, GASBAL analyzes free molecular gas flow in a system consisting of a central chamber (the plasma chamber) connected by conductances to an arbitrary number of one- or two-chamber peripheral tanks. Each of the peripheral tanks may have vacuum pumping capability (pumping speed), sources of cold gas, and sources of energetic atoms. The central chamber may have actual vacuum pumping capability, as well as a plasma capable of ionizing injected atoms and impinging gas molecules and ''pumping'' them to a peripheral chamber. The GASBAL code was used in the preliminary design of a large mirror machine experiment--LLL's MX. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Roose, T.R.; Hoffman, M.A. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department