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Molecular modeling studies of bituminous coal structure

Description: Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) has been used to define the structural conformations and intramolecular interactions of bituminous coal models. Molecular dynamics studies have produced representative minimum energy conformations for several published molecular models. These studies show the importance of van der Waals (vdW) and hydrogen-bonding interactions as cohesive forces responsible for the three-dimensional (folded) structures of the coal methods. Calculations on pairs of small ring compounds representative of those found in coal clusters demonstrate that aromatics exhibit stronger vdW interactions compared with saturated ring compounds. Correlations of the vdW interactions compared with saturated ring compounds. Correlations of vdW interactions with boiling points also show differences between aromatics and saturated rings. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mirror fusion reactor study

Description: The principal features of a fusion power reactor employing the magnetic mirror confinement concept are described. A parametric design and cost estimate analysis has been used to optimize the design for minimum capital cost per net electric output. Optimized parameters include the vacuum mirror ratio, the injection energy and angle, the choice of a thermal conversion cycle, and the design efficiency of the charged particle direct converter. The sensitivity of the cost of power for the optimized design to variations in many of the reactor parameters is discussed. (auth)
Date: November 12, 1975
Creator: Carlson, G.A. & Moir, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First in-core molten fuel pool experiment. [LMFBR]

Description: If during a LMFBR accident a fuel debris bed is not adequately cooled by overlying sodium and dryout occurs, then the fuel would heat up and melt. Molten fuel pools are of concern due to their potential for ablation of the supporting structure and possible penetration of the reactor vessel. The major goal of the molten fuel pool program has been to develop a versatile experiment in which heat flux and structural ablation could be studied using real materials under typical temperature and heating conditions. This has now been accomplished, using the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) to fission heat enriched UO/sub 2/. In the first experiment conducted, a small portion of a 0.834 kg UO/sub 2/ sample was melted, and temperature data were recorded to above the melting point of the UO/sub 2/ using ultrasonic thermometry.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Plein, H.G. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

Description: We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).
Date: March 9, 1982
Creator: Carlson, G.A. & Logan, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System model for analysis of the mirror fusion-fission reactor

Description: This report describes a system model for the mirror fusion-fission reactor. In this model we include a reactor description as well as analyses of capital cost and blanket fuel management. In addition, we provide an economic analysis evaluating the cost of producing the two hybrid products, fissile fuel and electricity. We also furnish the results of a limited parametric analysis of the modeled reactor, illustrating the technological and economic implications of varying some important reactor design parameters.
Date: October 12, 1977
Creator: Bender, D.J. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mirror fusion reactor design

Description: Recent conceptual reactor designs based on mirror confinement are described. Four components of mirror reactors for which materials considerations and structural mechanics analysis must play an important role in successful design are discussed. The reactor components are: (a) first-wall and thermal conversion blanket, (b) superconducting magnets and their force restraining structure, (c) neutral beam injectors, and (d) plasma direct energy converters.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Neef, W.S. Jr. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the steady-state operation of vacuum systems for fusion machines

Description: A computer code named GASBAL was written to calculate the steady-state vacuum system performance of multi-chamber mirror machines as well as rather complex conventional multichamber vacuum systems. Application of the code, with some modifications, to the quasi-steady tokamak operating period should also be possible. Basically, GASBAL analyzes free molecular gas flow in a system consisting of a central chamber (the plasma chamber) connected by conductances to an arbitrary number of one- or two-chamber peripheral tanks. Each of the peripheral tanks may have vacuum pumping capability (pumping speed), sources of cold gas, and sources of energetic atoms. The central chamber may have actual vacuum pumping capability, as well as a plasma capable of ionizing injected atoms and impinging gas molecules and ''pumping'' them to a peripheral chamber. The GASBAL code was used in the preliminary design of a large mirror machine experiment--LLL's MX. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Roose, T.R.; Hoffman, M.A. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Designs of tandem-mirror fusion reactors

Description: We have completed a comparative evaluation of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axi-cell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axi-cell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Carlson, G.A.; Barr, W.L. & Boghosian, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of ultrasonic thermometry in LMFBR safety research

Description: Ultrasonic thermometry has many potential applications in reactor safety research, where extremely high temperatures and lack of visual access may preclude the use of conventional diagnostics. An application (the in-core molten fuel pool experiment) will be described in which thoriated tungsten ultrasonic thermometers were used to measure temperatures in UO/sub 2/ to incipient melt (2860/sup 0/). Each thermometer included five sensor elements 10 mm long, providing five temperatures within the UO/sub 2/ at various axial locations. The 10 mm spatial resolution is about five times better than previous applications of the technique. Temperature resolution of +-10/sup 0/C was indicated by calibration data. Besides providing temperature data approximately 1000/sup 0/C higher than were obtained with thermocouples, the thermometer yielded valuable axial temperature profile data. Details of the sensors, exciting coils, and signal conditioning electronics will be given.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Carlson, G. A.; Sullivan, W. H. & Plein, H. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem mirror reactor

Description: A parametric analysis and a preliminary conceptual design for a 1000 MWe Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR) are described. The concept is sufficiently attractive to encourage further work, both for a pure fusion TMR and a low technology TMR Fusion-Fission Hybrid.
Date: November 15, 1977
Creator: Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L. & Carlson, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design studies of mirror machine reactors

Description: An overview is presented of a mirror fusion reactor design study. The general methodology used in the study is discussed, the reactor is described, and some design alternatives to the present approach are enumerated. The system chosen for this design study is a mirror machine with direct conversion using D- T fuel. The nominal power output is 200 MW. The coil geometry is the Yin Yang, minimum B with a vacuum mirror ratio of 3. The coil is of particular utility because of its simple conductor shapes and because the two separate conductors, by proper B-field biasing, allow the charged particles to escape preferentially through one mirror only and through a relatively small window'' of that mirror. This is necessary for direct converter economy. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1973
Creator: Werner, R.W.; Carlson, G.A.; Hovingh, J.; Lee, J.D. & Peterson, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department