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Soil-structure interaction methods, SIM code. Volume III

Description: The Structure In Media (SIM) Code determines the response of a structure, embedded in soil/rock media, to a specified dynamic disturbance in the media. The structure is modeled as a series of lumped mass, elastic beams which may be interconnected with elastic springs. The disturbance in the free field is specified in terms of an accelerogram, the scale of which may vary with depth. Soil/structure interaction is treated in two parts. The first determines the interaction forces developed at the base of the structure while the second evaluates the interaction forces developed along the side walls of the structure. Details of the model are discussed.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Miller, C.A. & Costantino, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soil-structure interaction methods. SLAVE code. Volume 2

Description: This report presents a detailed description of SLAVE Code, a program which performs the exact deconvolution analysis for horizontal earthquake ground motions. The objective is to determine the horizonal motion-time histories (accelerograms) which must be input at the basement of a horizontally bedded soil system which will yield the specified surface (or near surface) criteria motion history. In the deconvolution analysis, the soil overburden is represented by a vertical soil column (linear shear beam) to which criteria motion is input at (or near) the top. The accelerogram generated by SLAVE Code at the basement or bottom of the soil column will regenerate this criteria motion when input at the bottom of the soil column. 2 refs.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Costantino, C.J. & Miller, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of generic floor response spectra for equipment qualification for seismic loads

Description: A generic floor response spectra has been developed for use in the qualification of electrical and mechanical equipment in operating nuclear power plants. Actual PWR and BWR - Mark I structural models were used as representative of a class of structures. For each model, the stiffness properties were varied, with the same mass, so as to extend the fundamental base structure natural frequency from 2 cps to 36 cps. This resulted in fundamental mode coupled natural frequencies as low as 0.86 cps and as high as 30 cps. The characteristics of 1000 floor response spectra were studied to determine the generic spectra. A procedure for its application to any operating plant has been established. The procedure uses as much or as little information that currently exists at the plant relating to the question of equipment qualification. A generic floor response spectra is proposed for the top level of a generic structure. Reduction factors are applied to the peak acceleration for equipment at lower levels.
Date: October 1, 1984
Creator: Curreri, J.R. & Costantino, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soil-structure interaction methods: SLAM code. Volume 4

Description: This report presents a detailed description of SLAM Code, a large finite element computer program to treat the two-dimensional (axisymmetric or planar) wave propagation problem through arbitrary nonlinear materials and the interaction of these motions with a flexible structure embedded within or on the soil. The basic configuration consists of a general flexible structure embedded within a soil/rock foundation composed of an arbitrary number of material layers or zones, each layer possessing its own, generally nonlinear, constitutive law. The wave propagation from the input locations into the free-field is treated by finite element methods of analysis, including the effects of nonlinear properties of the soil. An additional characteristic concerns the use of non-reflecting or ''quiet'' boundaries. These boundaries are used to limit the size of the required mesh while at the same time minimizing the effects of reflections caused by artificial boundaries of the mesh. Such characteristics are desirable when long duration responses of the structure are desired. 9 refs., 9 figs.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Costantino, C.J. & Miller, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method to generate generic floor response spectra for operating nuclear power plant

Description: The general approach in the development of the response spectra was to study the effects on the dynamic characteristics of each of the elements in the chain of events that goes between the loads and the responses. This includes the loads, the soils and the structures. A free-field earthquake response spectra was used to generate horizontal earthquake time histories. The excitation was applied through the soil and into the various structures to produce responses in equipment. An entire range of soil conditions was used with each structure, from soft soil to solid rock. Actual PWR and BWR - Mark I structural models were used as representative of a class of structures. For each model, the stiffness properties were varied, with the same mass, so as to extend the fundamental base structure natural frequency from 2 cps to 36 cps. This resulted in fundamental mode coupled natural frequencies as low as 0.86 cps and as high as 30 cps. From all of these models of soils and structures, floor response spectra were generated at each floor level. The natural frequencies of the structures were varied to obtain maximum response conditions. The actual properties were first used to locate the natural frequencies. The stiffness properties were then varied, with the same mass, to extend the range of the fundamental base structure natural frequency. The intention was to have the coupled structural material frequencies in the vicinity of the peak amplitude frequency content of the excitation spectrum. Particular attention was therefore given to the frequency band between 2 Hz and 4 Hz. A horizontal generic floor response spectra is proposed for the top level of a generic structure. Reduction factors are applied to the peak acceleration for equipment at lower levels.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Curreri, J.; Costantino, C.; Subudhi, M. & Reich, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of soil-structure interaction on floor response spectra

Description: A study was undertaken to investigate the influence of soil-structure interaction on floor response spectra developed in typical nuclear power plant structures. A horizontal earthquake time history, whose spectra envelops the Regulatory Guide 1.60 criteria and is scaled to a log peak acceleration, was used as input to structural models. Two different structural stick models were used, representing typical BWR and PWR facilities. By varying the structural and soil stiffness parameters, a wide range of system behaviors were investigated. Floor response spectra, required to assess equipment qualification, were of primary interest. It was found from a variation of parameter study that the interaction soil parameters, particularly radiation damping, greatly affect the nature of the calculated responses. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Costantino, C.J.; Miller, C.A. & Curreri, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard problems for structural computer codes

Description: BNL is investigating the ranges of validity of the analytical methods used to predict the behavior of nuclear safety related structures under accidental and extreme environmental loadings. During FY 85, the investigations were concentrated on special problems that can significantly influence the outcome of the soil structure interaction evaluation process. Specially, limitations and applicability of the standard interaction methods when dealing with lift-off, layering and water table effects, were investigated. This paper describes the work and the results obtained during FY 85 from the studies on lift-off, layering and water-table effects in soil-structure interaction.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A. & Costantino, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of Fukushima data with SSI models

Description: The seismic response of nuclear power plant structures is often calculated using lumped parameter methods. A finite element model of the structure is coupled to the soil with a spring-dashpot system used to represent the interaction process. The parameters of the interaction model are based on analytic solutions to simple problems which are idealizations of the actual problem. The objective of this work is to compare predicted responses using the standard lumped parameter models with experimental data. Comparisons are made between response predictions based on lumped parameter models and measured data at the Fukushima Reactor Containment Building during a moderately large earthquake. These comparisons are shown to be good for fairly uniform soil systems. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J. & Philippacopoulos, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard Problems to Evaluate Soil Structure Interaction Computer Codes

Description: The seismic response of nuclear power plant structures is often calculated using lumped parameter methods. A finite element model of the structure is coupled to the soil with a spring-dashpot system used to represent the interaction process. The parameters of the interaction model are based on analytic solutions to simple problems which are idealizations of the actual problems of interest. The objective of the work reported in this paper is to compare predicted responses using the standard lumped parameter models with experimental data. These comparisons are shown to be good for a fairly uniform soil system and for loadings which do not result in nonlinear interaction effects such as liftoff. 7 references, 7 figures.
Date: 1979~
Creator: Miller, C. A.; Costantino, C. J. & Philippacopoulos, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT OF P-CARES: PROBABILISTIC COMPUTER ANALYSIS FOR RAPID EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES.

Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) undertook an effort to revise the CARES (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) program under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The CARES program provided the NRC staff a capability to quickly check the validity and/or accuracy of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) models and associated data received from various applicants. The aim of the current revision was to implement various probabilistic simulation algorithms in CARES (referred hereinafter as P-CARES [1]) for performing the probabilistic site response and soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses. This paper provides an overview of the development process of P-CARES, including the various probabilistic simulation techniques used to incorporate the effect of site soil uncertainties into the seismic site response and SSI analyses and an improved graphical user interface (GUI).
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: NIE,J.; XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C. & THOMAS, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OVERVIEW ON BNL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.

Description: A study was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), to determine the applicability of established soil-structure interaction analysis methods and computer programs to deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. This paper provides an overview of the BNL study including a description and discussions of analyses performed to assess relative performance of various SSI analysis methods typically applied to NPP structures, as well as the importance of interface modeling for DEB structures. There are four main elements contained in the BNL study: (1) Review and evaluation of existing seismic design practice, (2) Assessment of simplified vs. detailed methods for SSI in-structure response spectrum analysis of DEB structures, (3) Assessment of methods for computing seismic induced earth pressures on DEB structures, and (4) Development of the criteria for benchmark problems which could be used for validating computer programs for computing seismic responses of DEB NPP structures. The BNL study concluded that the equivalent linear SSI methods, including both simplified and detailed approaches, can be extended to DEB structures and produce acceptable SSI response calculations, provided that the SSI response induced by the ground motion is very much within the linear regime or the non-linear effect is not anticipated to control the SSI response parameters. The BNL study also revealed that the response calculation is sensitive to the modeling assumptions made for the soil/structure interface and application of a particular material model for the soil.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: XU,J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C. & GRAVES, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR COMPUTING SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES ON DEEPLY EMBEDDED NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STRUCTURES.

Description: PAPER DISCUSSES COMPUTATIONS OF SEISMIC INDUCED SOIL PRESSURES USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED AND OR BURIED STIFF STRUCTURES SUCH AS THOSE APPEARING IN THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS OF STRUCTURES FOR ADVANCED REACTORS.
Date: June 26, 2006
Creator: XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C. & HOFMAYER, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS USING NUPEC RECORDED FREE FIELD MOTIONS.

Description: THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY BNL, USING THE FREE FIELD EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS RECORDED AT THE NUPEC TEST SITE. THE BNL ANALYSIS WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SOIL PROPERTIES FOR THE TEST SITE TO BE USED FOR SSI ANALYSES. THE FREE FIELD DATA WERE PROVIDED BY NUPEC. THE METHODOLOGY EMPLOYED IN THE BNL PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF SITE IDENTIFICATION INCLUDES THE MONTE CARLO PR...
Date: August 4, 2002
Creator: XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A. & KITADA,Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A probabilistic model to liquefaction assessment of dams

Description: In an effort to evaluate earthquake liquefaction potential of soil media, several statistical models ranging from purely empirical to mathematically sophisticated have been devised. While deterministic methods define susceptibility of a soil structure to liquefaction, for a given seismic event, in the sense that the site does or does not liquefy, probabilistic approaches incorporate statistical properties associated with both the earthquake and site characterization. In this study a stochastic model is formulated to assess liquefaction potential of soil structures in general and earth dams in particular induced by earthquakes. Such earthquakes are realizations of a random process expressed in the form of a power spectral density. Uncertainties in the soil resistance to liquefaction are also introduced with probability density functions around in-situ measurements of parameters associated with the soil strength. The attempt of this study is to devise a procedure that will lead to a continuous probability of liquefaction at a given site. Monte Carlo simulations are employed for the probabilistic model. In addition a stochastic model is presented. The dynamic response of the two-phase medium is obtained with the help of the POROSLAM code and it is expressed in the form of a transfer function (Unit Response).
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Simos, N.; Costantino, C.J. & Reich, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances

Description: This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C. & Veletsos, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BNL PREDICTION OF NUPECS FIELD MODEL TESTS OF NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SMALL TO MODERATE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES.

Description: As part of a verification test program for seismic analysis codes for NPP structures, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model test programs to ensure the adequacy of methodologies employed for seismic analyses of NPP structures. A collaborative program between the United States and Japan was developed to study seismic issues related to NPP applications. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its contractor, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this program to apply common analysis procedures to predict both free field and soil-structure Interaction (SSI) responses to recorded earthquake events, including embedment and dynamic cross interaction (DCI) effects. This paper describes the BNL effort to predict seismic responses of the large-scale realistic model structures for reactor and turbine buildings at the NUPEC test facility in northern Japan. The NUPEC test program has collected a large amount of recorded earthquake response data (both free-field and in-structure) from these test model structures. The BNL free-field analyses were performed with the CARES program while the SSI analyses were preformed using the SASS12000 computer code. The BNL analysis includes both embedded and excavated conditions, as well as the DCI effect, The BNL analysis results and their comparisons to the NUPEC recorded responses are presented in the paper.
Date: August 17, 2003
Creator: XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A. & KITADA,Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS USING NUPEC RECORDED FREE FIELD MOTIONS.

Description: THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A PROBABILISTIC SITE IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY BNL, USING THE FREE FIELD EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS RECORDED AT THE NUPEC TEST SITE. THE BNL ANALYSIS WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SOIL PROPERTIES FOR THE TEST SITE TO BE USED FOR SSI ANALYSES. THE FREE FIELD DATA WERE PROVIDED BY NUPEC. THE METHODOLOGY EMPLOYED IN THE BNL PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF SITE IDENTIFICATION INCLUDES THE MONTE CARLO PROCESS IN CONJUNCTION WITH EQUIVALENT LINEARCONVOLUTION ANALYSES FOR GENERATING A LARGE NUMBER OF SITE PROFILES FOR USE IN CONVOLUTION STUDIES FROM WHICH MEAN ESTIMATES OF RESPONSE CAN BE GENERATED. THE RANDOM VARIABLE SELECTED TO CHARACTERIZE THE SITE PROFILE IS THE SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY IN EACH SOIL LAYER OF THE SITE PROFILE. A LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTION WAS ASSUMED WITH THE STANDARD DEVIATION DETERMINED FROM AVAILABLE SITE DATA AND APPLICABLE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS. THE CONVOLUTION ANALYSES WERE PERFORMED USING AN APPROPRIATE SOILDEGRADATION MODEL AN D THE OUTCROP INPUT MOTIONS GENERATED FROM THE RECORDED IN ROCK MOTIONS. THE BNL ANALYSIS PRODUCED RESULTS IN TERMS OF THE MEAN, MEDIAN AND VARIOUS FRACTILES OF FREE FIELD SOIL PROPERTIES AT THE TEST SITE, AND THE CORRESPONDING SURFACE RESPONSE SPECTRA, WHICH ARE PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER.
Date: August 4, 2002
Creator: XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A. & KITADA,Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated system for seismic evaluations

Description: This paper describes the various features of the Seismic Module of the CARES system (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures). This system was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to perform rapid evaluations of structural behavior and capability of nuclear power plant facilities. The CARES is structured in a modular format. Each module performs a specific type of analysis i.e., static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear, etc. This paper describes the features of the Seismic Module in particular. The development of the Seismic Module of the CARES system is based on an approach which incorporates all major aspects of seismic analysis currently employed by the industry into an integrated system that allows for carrying out interactively computations of structural response to seismic motions. The code operates on a PC computer system and has multi-graphics capabilities. It has been designed with user friendly features and it allows for interactive manipulation of various analysis phases during the seismic design process. The capabilities of the seismic module include (a) generation of artificial time histories compatible with given design ground response spectra, (b) development of Power Spectral Density (PSD) functions associated with the seismic input, (c) deconvolution analysis using vertically propagating shear waves through a given soil profile, and (d) development of in-structure response spectra or corresponding PSD's. It should be pointed out that these types of analyses can also be performed individually by using available computer codes such as FLUSH, SAP, etc. The uniqueness of the CARES, however, lies on its ability to perform all required phases of the seismic analysis in an integrated manner. 5 refs., 6 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Xu, J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J. & Graves, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

Description: This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C. & Veletsos, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the liquefaction failure of an earth dam

Description: In an effort to better assess the potential for sliding and liquefaction failure of earthen dams when subjected to earthquake loadings, a dynamic finite element approach focusing on these two failure mechanisms as well as on the vital role of the pore water pressure was undertaken. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Blot dynamic equations of motion. The constitutive model for the soil material was assumed to be linear with nonlinear terms included in the hysteretic damping terms. Despite the linear character of this theoretical model, one can still draw important conclusions regarding the stability and the liquefaction resistance of the cross-section. As an example, a hypothetical earth dam constructed over a saturated soil layer was considered. The steady state conditions of in-situ stress and pore pressure distributions in both the embankment and the foundation are evaluated and implemented in the stability and liquefaction criteria in conjunction with the dynamic analysis. The latter is carried out in the frequency domain and it reflects the response of the dam-foundation system to a seismic excitation. The computational aspect of the study is performed with finite element analysis. A transmitting boundary formulation for the two phase material was used to treat the infinite space problem. It is anticipated that the intensity of the earthquake input and certain soil properties have a profound effect on the failure susceptibility of the dam section. To address the uncertainties regarding the true values of such parameters, the analysis considered them parametrically.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Simos, N.; Reich, M. & Costantino, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

Description: This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C. & Veletsos, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spacing effects on seismic responses of underground waste storage tanks

Description: In this paper, an investigation is performed for determination of the effects of spacing on seismic response of grouped underground tank structures. The study is carried out using a 2-D Finite Element Method, and the key mechanisms for transmitting structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) effects are identified. A parametric analysis is performed to quantify the SSSI effects. Results of the study are presented.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Xu, J.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Miller, C. A. & Costantino, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IDENTIFICATION OF FREE-FIELD SOIL PROPERTIES USING NUPEC RECORDED GROUND MOTIONS.

Description: Over the past twenty years, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model test programs to investigate various aspects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects on nuclear power plant structures, including embedment and dynamic structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) effects. As part of a collaborative agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NUPEC, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed a numerical analysis to predict the free field soil profile using industry standard methods and the recorded free field responses to actual earthquake events. This paper describes the BNL free-field analyses, including the methods and the analysis results and their comparison to recorded data in the free field. The free-field soil profiles determined from the BNL analyses are being used for both the embedment and SSSI studies, the results of which will be made available upon their completion.
Date: March 22, 2001
Creator: Xu, J.; Costantino, C.; Hofmayer, C.; Murphy, A.; Chokshi, N. & Kitada, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department