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Effects of ExB velocity shear and magnetic shear on turbulence and transport in magnetic confinement devices

Description: One of the scientific success stories of fusion research over the past decade is the development of the ExB shear stabilization model to explain the formation of transport barriers in magnetic confinement devices. This model was originally developed to explain the transport barrier formed at the plasma edge in tokamaks after the L (low) to H (high) transition. This concept has the universality needed to explain the edge transport barriers seen in limiter and divertor tokamaks, stellarators, and mirror machines. More recently, this model has been applied to explain the further confinement improvement from H (high)-mode to VH (very high)-mode seen in some tokamaks, where the edge transport barrier becomes wider. Most recently, this paradigm has been applied to the core transport barriers formed in plasmas with negative or low magnetic shear in the plasma core. These examples of confinement improvement are of considerable physical interest; it is not often that a system self-organizes to a higher energy state with reduced turbulence and transport when an additional source of free energy is applied to it. The transport decrease that is associated with ExB velocity shear effects also has significant practical consequences for fusion research. The fundamental physics involved in transport reduction is the effect of ExB shear on the growth, radial extent and phase correlation of turbulent eddies in the plasma. The same fundamental transport reduction process can be operational in various portions of the plasma because there are a number ways to change the radial electric field Er. An important theme in this area is the synergistic effect of ExB velocity shear and magnetic shear. Although the ExB velocity shear appears to have an effect on broader classes of microturbulence, magnetic shear can mitigate some potentially harmful effects of ExB velocity shear and facilitate turbulence stabilization.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Burrell, K. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of flow shear in enhanced core confinement regimes

Description: The importance of the ExB flow shear in various enhanced confinement regimes is discussed in terms of the turbulence suppression criterion in toroidal geometry. This criterion is then further generalized to include the poloidal angle dependence of the equilibrium electrostatic potential. The implication of the recently observed in-out asymmetry in the fluctuation behavior in DIII-D VH-mode is discussed.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Hahm, T.S. & Burrell, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A global fitting code for multichordal neutral beam spectroscopic data

Description: Knowledge of the heat deposition profile is crucial to all transport analysis of beam heated discharges. The heat deposition profile can be inferred from the fast ion birth profile which, in turn, is directly related to the loss of neutral atoms from the beam. This loss can be measured spectroscopically be the decrease in amplitude of spectral emissions from the beam as it penetrates the plasma. The spectra are complicated by the motional Stark effect which produces a manifold of nine bright peaks for each of the three beam energy components. A code has been written to analyze this kind of data. In the first phase of this work, spectra from tokamak shots are fit with a Stark splitting and Doppler shift model that ties together the geometry of several spatial positions when they are fit simultaneously. In the second phase, a relative position-to-position intensity calibration will be applied to these results to obtain the spectral amplitudes from which beam atom loss can be estimated. This paper reports on the computer code for the first phase. Sample fits to real tokamak spectral data are shown.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Seraydarian, R.P.; Burrell, K.H. & Groebner, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress towards sustainment of advanced tokamak modes in DIII-D

Description: Improving confinement and beta limits simultaneously in long-pulse ELMy H-mode discharges is investigated. The product {beta}{sub N}H{sub 98y} serves as a useful figure-of-merit for performance, where {beta}{sub N} {triple_bond} {beta}/(I/aB) and H{sub 98y} is the ratio of the thermal confinement time relative to the most recent ELMy H-mode confinement scaling established by the ITER confinement database working group. In discharges with q{sub 0} {approximately} 1 (no sawteeth) and discharges with q{sub min} > 1.5 and negative central magnetic shear, {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 2.9 and H{sub 98y} {approximately} 1.4 are sustained for up to 2 s. Although peaked profiles are observed, steep internal transport barriers are not present. Further increases in {beta}{sub N} in these discharges is limited by neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) in the positive shear region. In another recently developed regime, {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 3.8 and H{sub 98y} {approximately} 1.8 has been sustained during large infrequent ELMs in non-sawtoothing discharges with 1{sub 0} {approximately} 1. This level of performance is similar to that obtained in ELM-free regimes such as VH-mode. The limitation on {beta}{sub N} and pulse length in these discharges is also the onset of NTMs.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Rice, B. W.; Burrell, K. H. & Ferron, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dependence of H-mode power threshold on global and local edge parameters

Description: Measurements of local electron density n{sub e}, electron temperature T{sub e}, and ion temperature T{sub i} have been made at the very edge of the plasma just prior to the transition into H-mode for four different single parameter scans in the DIII-D tokamak. The means and standard derivations of n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and T{sub i} under these conditions for a value of the normalized toroidal flux of 0.98 are respectively, 1.5 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, 0.051 {+-} 0.016 keV, and 0.14 {+-} 0.03 keV. The threshold condition for the transition is more sensitive to temperature than to density. The data indicate that the dependence is not as simple as a requirement for a fixed value of the ion collisionality.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Groebner, R.J.; Carlstrom, T.N. & Burrell, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics of turbulence control and transport barrier formation in DIII-D

Description: This paper describes the physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence control and transport barrier formation on DIII-D as determined from a synthesis of results from different enhanced confinement regimes, including quantitative and qualitative comparisons to theory. A wide range of DIII-D data support the hypothesis that a single underlying physical mechanism, turbulence suppression via E x B shear flow is playing an essential, though not necessarily unique, role in reducing turbulence and transport in all of the following improved confinement regimes: H-mode, VH-mode, high-{ell}{sub i} modes, improved performance counter-injection L-mode discharges and high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges. DIII-D data also indicate that synergistic effects are important in some cases, as in NCS discharges where negative magnetic shear also plays a role in transport barrier formation. This work indicates that in order to control turbulence and transport it is important to focus on understanding physical mechanisms, such as E x B shear, which can regulate and control entire classes of turbulent modes, and thus control transport. In the highest performance DIII-D discharges, NCS plasmas with a VH-mode like edge, turbulence is suppressed at all radii, resulting in neoclassical levels of ion transport over most of the plasma volume.
Date: October 1996
Creator: Doyle, E.J.; Burrell, K.H. & Carlstrom, T.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from the DIII-D scientific research program

Description: The DIII-D research program is aimed at developing the scientific basis for advanced modes of operation which can enhance the commercial attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Features that improve the attractiveness of the tokamak as a fusion power plant include: high power density (which demands high {beta}), high ignition margin (high energy confinement time), and steady state operation with low recirculating power (high bootstrap fraction), as well as adequate divertor heat removal, particle and impurity control. This set of requirements emphasizes that the approach to improved performance must be an integrated approach, optimizing the plasma from the core, through the plasma edge and into the divertor. The authors have produced high performance ELMing H-mode plasmas with {beta}{sub N} H{sub 98y} {approximately} 6 for 5 {tau}{sub E} ({approximately}1 s) and demonstrated that core transport barriers can be sustained for the length of the 5-s neutral beam pulse in L-mode plasmas. They have demonstrated off-axis electron cyclotron current drive for the first time in a tokamak, discovering an efficiency above theoretical expectations. Edge stability studies have shown that the H-mode edge pressure gradient is not limited by ballooning modes; the self-consistent bootstrap provides second stable regime access. Divertor experiments have provided a new understanding of convection and recombination in radiative divertors and have produced enhanced divertor radiation with scrape off layer plasma flows and impurity enrichment.
Date: November 1998
Creator: Taylor, T. S.; Burrell, K. H. & Baker, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental evidence for the suitability of ELMing H-mode operation in ITER with regard to core transport of helium

Description: Studies have been conducted in DIII-D to assess the viability of the ITER design with regard to helium ash removal, including both global helium exhaust studies and detailed helium transport studies. With respect to helium ash accumulation, the results are encouraging for successful operation of ITER in ELMing H-mode plasmas with conventional high-recycling divertor operation. Helium can be removed from the plasma core with a characteristic time constant of {approximately} 8 energy confinement times, even with a central source of helium. Furthermore, the exhaust rate is limited by the pumping efficiency of the system and not by transport of helium within the plasma core. Helium transport studies have shown that D{sub He}/X{sub eff} {approximately} 1 in all confinement regimes studied to date and there is little dependence of D{sub He}/X{sub eff} on normalized gyroradius in dimensionless scaling studies, suggesting that D{sub He}/X{sub eff} will be {approximately} 1 in ITER. These observations suggest that helium transport within the plasma core should be sufficient to prevent unacceptable fuel dilution in ITER. However, helium exhaust is also strongly dependent on many factors (e.g., divertor plasma conditions, plasma and baffling geometry, flux amplification, pumping speed, etc.) that are difficult to extrapolate. Studies have revealed the helium diffusivity decreases as the plasma density increases, which is unfavorable to ITER`s extremely high density operation.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Wade, M. R.; Hillis, D. L. & Burrell, K. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma rotation and the radial electric field during off-axis NBI in the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Experiments have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak to investigate whether off-axis NBI can: (a) drive significant perpendicular flow to lead to increased suppression of turbulence and improved confinement, and (b) be used to control the radial electric field profile. Measurements of both impurity ion poloidal and toroidal rotation profiles were made using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. These experiments used a low current, low elongation (I{sub p} = 0.5 MA, {kappa} = 1.2) plasma whose magnetic axis was shifted 36 cm vertically upward from the vessel midplane and then shifted downward to be centered on the midplane later in the discharge. 10.7 MW of beam power was applied to maximize NBI effect while operating at low target densities and high temperature to minimize poloidal damping. Results from these experiments show a slight increase in impurity ion poloidal rotation velocity during the vertical shifted phase of off-axis NBI discharge. The toroidal rotation profile is more peaked during off-axis NBI. Both these effects lead to a change in the V x B contribution to the radial electric field during off-axis NBI.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H. & Hassam, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D

Description: In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: deGrassie, J.S.; Baker, D.R. & Burrell, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of H-mode threshold conditions in DIII-D

Description: Studies have been conducted in DIII-D to determine the dependence of the power threshold P{sub lh} for the transition to the H-mode regime and the threshold P{sub hl} for the transition from H-mode to L-mode as functions of external parameters. There is a value of the line-averaged density n{sub e} at which P{sub lh} has a minimum and P{sub lh} tends to increase for lower and higher values of n{sub e}. Experiments conducted to separate the effect of the neutral density n{sub 0} from the plasma density n{sub e} give evidence of a strong coupling between n{sub 0} and n{sub e}. The separate effect of neutrals on the transition has not been determined. Coordinated experiments with JET made in the ITER shape show that P{sub lh} increases approximately as S{sup 0.5} where S is the plasma surface area. For these discharges, the power threshold in DIII-D was high by normal standards, thus suggesting that effects other than plasma size may have affected the experiment. Studies of H-L transitions have been initiated and hysteresis of order 40% has been observed. Studies have also been done of the dependence of the L-H transition on local edge parameters. Characterization of the edge within a few ms prior to the transition shows that the range of edge temperatures at which the transition has been observed is more restrictive than the range of densities at which it occurs. These results suggest that some temperature function is important for controlling the transition.
Date: October 1996
Creator: Groebner, R. J.; Carlstrom, T. N. & Burrell, K. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H-mode pedestal characteristics in ITER shape discharges on DIII-D

Description: Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal are studied in Type 1 ELM discharges with ITER cross-sectional shape and aspect ratio. The scaling of the width of the edge step gradient region, {delta}, which is most consistent with the data is with the normalized edge pressure, ({beta}{sub POL}{sup PED}){sup 0.4}. Fits of {delta} to a function of temperature, such as {rho}{sub POL}, are ruled out in divertor pumping experiments. The edge pressure gradient is found to scale as would be expected from infinite n ballooning mode theory; however, the value of the pressure gradient exceeds the calculated first stable limit by more than a factor of 2 in some discharges. This high edge pressure gradient is consistent with access to the second stable regime for ideal ballooning for surfaces near the edge. In lower q discharges, including discharges at the ITER value of q, edge second stability requires significant edge current density. Transport simulations give edge bootstrap current of sufficient magnitude to open second stable access in these discharges. Ideal kink analysis using current density profiles including edge bootstrap current indicate that before the ELM these discharges may be unstable to low n, edge localized modes.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H. & Groebner, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of a {del}B drift effect model with measured H-mode power thresholds

Description: The H-mode power threshold has a weak but positive B{sub T} dependence when the ion {del}B drift is away from the X-point, in contrast to the nearly linear B{sub T} dependence when the ion {del}B drift is toward the X-point. This indicates that geometry plays an important role in the H-mode power threshold scaling. A simple model of the {del}B drift effect failed to predict this behavior, but successfully predicted the sign change of gas puffing and low X-point height on the power threshold. The difference between the threshold power required for sawtooth and nonsawtooth triggered transitions can be substantial. This effect may contribute to the observed B scaling of the H-mode power threshold.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Carlstrom, T.N.; Burrell, K.H. & Groebner, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of high performance negative central magnetic shear discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Reliable operation of discharges with negative central magnetic shear has led to significant increases in plasma performance and reactivity in both low confinement, L-mode, and high confinement, H-mode, regimes in the DIII-D tokamak. Using neutral beam injection early in the initial current ramp, a large range of negative shear discharges have been produced with durations lasting up to 3.2 s. The total non- inductive current (beam plus bootstrap) ranges from 50% to 80% in these discharges. In the region of shear reversal, significant peaking of the toroidal rotation [f{sub {phi}} {approx} 30-60 kHz] and ion temperature [T{sub i}(0) {approx} 15-22 keV] profiles are observed. In high power discharges with an L-mode edge, peaked density profiles are also observed. Confinement enhancement factors up to H {equivalent_to} {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub ITER-89P} {approx} 2.5 with an L-mode edge, and H {approx} 3.3 in an Edge Localized Mode (ELM)-free H-mode, are obtained. Transport analysis shows both ion thermal diffusivity and particle diffusivity to be near or below standard neoclassical values in the core. Large pressure peaking in L- mode leads to high disruptivity with {Beta}{sub N} {equivalent_to} {Beta}{sub T}/(I/aB) {<=} 2.3, while broader pressure profiles in H- mode gives low disruptivity with {Beta}{sub N} {<=} 4.2.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Rice, B.W.; Burrell, K.H. & Lao, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rotational and magnetic shear stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic modes and turbulence in DIII-D high performance discharges

Description: The confinement and the stability properties of the DIII-D tokamak high performance discharges are evaluated in terms of rotational and magnetic shear with emphasis on the recent experimental results obtained from the negative central magnetic shear (NCS) experiments. In NCS discharges, a core transport barrier is often observed to form inside the NCS region accompanied by a reduction in core fluctuation amplitudes. Increasing negative magnetic shear contributes to the formation of this core transport barrier, but by itself is not sufficient to fully stabilize the toroidal drift mode (trapped- electron-{eta}{sub i}mode) to explain this formation. Comparison of the Doppler shift shear rate to the growth rate of the {eta}{sub i} mode suggests that the large core {bold E x B} flow shear can stabilize this mode and broaden the region of reduced core transport . Ideal and resistive stability analysis indicates the performance of NCS discharges with strongly peaked pressure profiles is limited by the resistive interchange mode to low {Beta}{sub N} {lt} 2.3. This mode is insensitive to the details of the rotational and the magnetic shear profiles. A new class of discharges which has a broad region of weak or slightly negative magnetic shear (WNS) is described. The WNS discharges have broader pressure profiles and higher values than the NCS discharges together with high confinement and high fusion reactivity.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H. & Casper, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress towards sustainment of internal transport barriers in DIII-D

Description: Neutral beam heated discharges with internal transport barriers (ITB) have been observed in most of the world`s major tokamaks including DIII-D, TFTR, JT-60U and JET. Improved core confinement has been observed over a range of q profiles, including negative central magnetic shear (NCS) and weak positive shear. In discharges with an L-mode edge, the duration of ITBs is generally limited to a few energy confinement times ({tau}{sub e}) by low-n MHD activity driven by the steep core pressure gradient or by q{sub min} passing through low-order rational values. In order for ITBs to be useful in achieving a more compact advanced tokamak, the radius of the ITB must be expanded and the pressure gradient must be controlled in order to optimize {beta}{sub N} and the bootstrap alignment. In this paper, the authors discuss the results of recent experiments on DIII-D to produce and sustain ITBs for longer pulse lengths. Three techniques are evaluated: (1) reduction of neutral beam power (P{sub NBI}) and plasma current to form a weaker ITB which can be sustained; (2) use of an ELMing H-mode edge to help broaden the pressure profile and improve MHD instability; (3) modification of the plasma shape (squareness) to achieve smaller ELMs with a lower density pedestal at the edge.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Rice, B. W.; Ferron, J. R. & Burrell, K. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High performance low and high q discharges in DIII-D

Description: The High performance H-mode regime on DIII-D has been extended to both low q and high q (high {Beta}p) and low q operation. In high current operation, VH-mode discharges were obtained for the first time with I{sub P}(MA)/B{sub T} (T) > 1. These discharges had q{sub 95}= 3.4, H = 2.9, {Beta}{sub N}= 3, and {Beta}{sub T}{Tau}{sub E}=3%-sec. {Beta}{sub T}{Tau}{sub E} was improved by approximately 50% over previous results. These discharges were obtained with neutral beam injection during the plasma current ramp up which maintained the axial q above 1. In low current operation, neutral beam heated discharges with 100% of the plasma current from non-inductive sources were obtained at high q, q{sub 95}=15, with {Beta}{sub N}=3.9, H=3.1, and {Beta}{sub p}=4.9. These discharges represent an extension of the high performance regime to q{sub 95} > 7.2, which was made possible by reduction in the locked mode low density limit, as the result of improvements in the magnetic field error correcting coils. These low current discharges do not exhibit some of the standard signatures of VH-mode, but appear to represent a new regime of improved H-mode confinement. Similar, non-VH-mode, high energy confinement discharges were obtained at low density and moderate q.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H. & Chu, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confinement and stability of DIII-D negative central shear discharges

Description: Negative central magnetic shear (NCS) discharges with {Beta}{sub N} {le} 4, H {le} 3, and up to 80% of the current non-inductively driven are reproducibly produced in the DIII-D tokamak. Strong peaking of T{sub i}, plasma rotation, and in some cases n{sub e} are observed inside the NCS region. Transport analysis shows that the core ion thermal diffusivity is substantially reduced and near the neoclassical value after the formation of the internal transport barrier. The negative central shear is necessary but not sufficient for the formation of this transport barrier. The power required for the formation appears to increase with the toroidal magnetic field. The high performance phase of H-mode NCS discharges often ends with an ELM-like collapse initiated from the edge whereas the L-mode discharges which have a more peaked pressure profile tend to end with a more global n = 1 MHD event.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H. & Chan, V.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High spatial and temporal resolution visible spectroscopy of the plasma edge in DIII-D

Description: In DIII-D, visible spectroscopic measurements of the He II 468.6 nm and C VI 529.2 nm Doppler broadened spectral lines, resulting from charge exchange recombination interactions between beam neutral atoms and plasma ions, are performed to determine ion temperatures, and toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities. The diagnostics system comprises 32 viewing chords spanning a typical minor radius of 63 cm across the midplane, of which 16 spatial chords span 11 cm of the plasma edge just within the separatrix. A temporal resolution of 260 {mu}s per time slice can be obtained as a result of using MCP phosphors with short decay times and fast camera readout electronics. Results from this system will be used in radial electric field comparisons with theory at the L-H transition and ion transport analysis. 6 refs., 3 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J. & Seraydarian, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic study of edge poloidal rotation and radial electric fields in the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Doppler-shift spectroscopy has shown that finite values of poloidal rotation velocity {upsilon}{sub {theta}} and of radial electric field E{sub r} exist at the edge of a tokamak plasma and that dramatic increases occur in these parameters at an L-H transition. E{sub r} is negative in the L-mode and becomes more negative in the H-mode; {upsilon}{sub {theta}} increases in magnitude at the transition. In addition, the radial gradients (shear) of {upsilon}{sub {theta}} and E{sub r} are large and these gradients also increase at the L-H transition. These results are based on measurements of Doppler shifts of light emitted by He II ions, located in a region about 1--3 cm inside the separatrix. These observations have been made with horizontally-viewing and vertically-viewing spectrometer systems on the DIII-D tokamak. The nearly orthogonal views of these systems are used to determine the plasma's flow velocity in terms of the orthogonal sets {upsilon}{sub {theta}} and {upsilon}{sub {phi}} or of {upsilon}{sub {perpendicular}} and {upsilon}{sub {parallel}}. Knowledge of {upsilon}{sub {perpendicular}} is used to calculate E{sub r} from the force balance equation for a single ion species. The existing results impose constraints on theories of the L-H transition. More detailed studies of the spatial profiles and temporal evolution of {upsilon}{sub {theta}} and E{sub r} will be made with upgraded instrumentation, which is now coming on-line. 28 refs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Groebner, R.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P. & Seraydarian, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sample system for time resolved tokamak plasma impurity analysis

Description: A fast sample system for time resolved measurements of material transport and unipolar arcing in ISX-B, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has been designed, fabricated and tested. The sample system consists of a wheel which is driven through about one revolution during ISX plasma discharge. The wheel is driven via a cable and bellows system from outside the plasma chamber. A feedthrough mechanism supports and advances the fast sample system through an isolation valve to the exposure position. A separate vacuum pumping system is provided to evacuate the sample system before opening the isolation valve into the plasma chamber. Provision is made for a heat flux probe and a particle energy analyzer probe to be carried on the same feedthrough. The system is currently installed on ISX and operating experience and data are being gathered.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Hager, E.R.; Burrell, K.H.; Ellis, L.V.; Ahlgren, D.H. & Gomay, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collisionality Scaling of Main-ion Toroidal and Poloidal Rotation in Low Torque DIII-D Plasmas

Description: In tokamak plasmas with low levels of toroidal rotation, the radial electric fi eld Er is a combination of pressure gradient and toroidal and poloidal rotation components, all having similar magnitudes. In order to assess the validity of neoclassical poloidal rotation theory for determining the poloidal rotation contribution to Er , Dα emission from neutral beam heated tokamak discharges in DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 , 614 (2002)] has been evaluated in a sequence of low torque (electron cyclotron resonance heating and balanced diagnostic neutral beam pulse) discharges to determine the local deuterium toroidal rotation velocity. By invoking the radial force balance relation the deuterium poloidal rotation can be inferred. It is found that the deuterium poloidal low exceeds the neoclassical value in plasmas with collisionality #23;#3; νi &lt; 0: 1, being more ion diamagnetic, and with a stronger dependence on collisionality than neoclassical theory predicts. At low toroidal rotation, the poloidal rotation contribution to the radial electric fi eld and its shear is signi cant. The eff ect of anomalous levels of poloidal rotation on the radial electric fi eld and cross fi eld heat transport is investigated for ITER parameters.
Date: May 10, 2013
Creator: Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Solomon, W. M.; Budny, R. V. & Candy, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A fast CCD detector for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Charge Exchange Recombination (CER) spectroscopy has become a standard diagnostic for tokamaks. CER measurements have been used to determine spatially and temporally resolved ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal ion rotation speed, impurity density and radial electric field. Knowledge of the spatial profile and temporal evolution of the electric field shear in the plasma edge is crucial to understanding the physics of the L to H transition. High speed CER measurements are also valuable for Edge Localized Mode (ELM) studies. Since the 0.52 ms minimum time resolution of our present system is barely adequate to study the time evolution of these phenomena, we have developed a new CCD detector system with about a factor of two better time resolution. In addition, our existing system detects sufficient photons to utilize the shortest time resolution only under exceptional conditions. The new CCD detector has a quantum efficiency of about 0.65, which is a factor of 7 better than our previous image intensifier-silicon photodiode detector systems. We have also equipped the new system with spectrometers of lower f/number. This combination should allow more routine operation at the minimum integration time, as well as improving data quality for measurements in the divertor-relevant region outside of the separatrix. Construction details, benchmark data and initial tokamak measurements for the new system will be presented.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Thomas, D. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J. & Gohil, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of toroidal rotation by fast wave power in DIII-D

Description: The application of fast wave power in DIII-D has proven effective for both electron heating and current drive. Since the last RIF Conference FW power has been applied to advanced confinement regimes in DIII-D; negative central shear (NCS), VH- and H-modes, high {beta}{sub p}, and high-{ell}i. Typically these regimes show enhanced confinement of toroidal momentum exhibited by increased toroidal rotation velocity. Indeed, layers of large shear in toroidal velocity are associated with transport barriers. A rather common occurrence in these experiments is that the toroidal rotation velocity is decreased when the FW power is turned on, to lowest order independent of whether the antennas are phased for co or counter current drive. At present all the data is for co-injected beams. The central toroidal rotation can be reduced to 1/2 of the non-FW level. Here the authors describe the effect in NCS discharges with co-beam injection.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Grassie, J.S. de; Baker, D.R. & Burrell, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department