20 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Preliminary Study of Strong-Sludge Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms in Clay Simulants

Description: The Hanford Site has 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) and 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. The mission of the Department of Energy’s River Protection Project is to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms. A key aspect of the mission is to retrieve and transfer waste from the SSTs, which are at greater risk for leaking, into DSTs for interim storage until the waste is transferred to and treated in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. There is, however, limited space in the existing DSTs to accept waste transfers from the SSTs, and approaches to overcoming the limited DST space will benefit the overall mission. The purpose of this study is to summarize and analyze the key previous experiment that forms the basis for the relaxed controls and to summarize initial progress and results on new experiments focused on understanding the conditions that result in low gas retention. The work is ongoing; this report provides a summary of the initial findings. The previous large-scale test used about 50 m3 of sediment, which would be unwieldy for doing multiple parametric experiments. Accordingly, experiments will begin with smaller-scale tests to determine whether the desired mechanisms can be studied without the difficulty of conducting very large experiments.
Date: October 12, 2010
Creator: Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Probert, Samuel G. & Owen, Antionette T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulant Development for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Mixing and Waste Feed Delivery Testing

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Projection manages the River Protection Project, which has the mission to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms (Certa et al. 2011). Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) is responsible for a primary objective of this mission which is to retrieve and transfer tank waste to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). A mixing and sampling program with four separate demonstrations is currently being conducted to support this objective and also to support activities in a plan for addressing safety concerns identified by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board related to the ability of the WTP to mix, sample, and transfer fast settling particles. Previous studies have documented the objectives, criteria, and selection of non-radioactive simulants for these four demonstrations. The identified simulants include Newtonian suspending liquids with densities and viscosities that span the range expected in waste feed tanks. The identified simulants also include non-Newtonian slurries with Bingham yield stress values that span a range that is expected to bound the Bingham yield stress in the feed delivery tanks. The previous studies identified candidate materials for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian suspending fluids, but did not provide specific recipes for obtaining the target properties and information was not available to evaluate the compatibility of the fluids and particles or the potential for salt precipitation at lower temperatures. The purpose of this study is to prepare small batches of simulants in advance of the demonstrations to determine specific simulant recipes, to evaluate the compatibility of the liquids and particles, and to determine if the simulants are stable for the potential range of test temperatures. The objective of the testing, which is focused primarily on the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, is to determine the composition ...
Date: September 24, 2012
Creator: Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Tran, Diana N. & Buchmiller, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

Description: A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C. & Ricklefs, Joel S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments

Description: In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.
Date: March 21, 2013
Creator: Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C. & Rassat, Scot D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.
Date: January 9, 2012
Creator: Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C. & Matyas, Josef
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PEP Support Laboratory Leaching and Permeate Stability Tests

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A and B, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A, the slurry is concentrated ...
Date: September 25, 2009
Creator: Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E. & Buchmiller, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing Report: Littleford-Day Dryer Operation: Dryer Operation Impacts of Proposed MIS Mitigation Changes

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed a series of tests using the Littleford Day 22-liter dryer during investigations that evaluated changes in the melter-feed composition for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System. During testing, a new melter-feed formulation was developed that improved dryer performance while improving the retention of waste salts in the melter feed during vitrification.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Shimskey, Rick W.; Buchmiller, William C. & Elmore, Monte R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PEP Support: Laboratory Scale Leaching and Permeate Stability Tests

Description: This report documents results from a variety of activities requested by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The activities related to caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, permeate precipitation behavior of waste as well as chromium (Cr) leaching are: • Model Input Boehmite Leaching Tests • Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Support Leaching Tests • PEP Parallel Leaching Tests • Precipitation Study Results • Cr Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Tests. Leaching test activities using the PEP simulant provided input to a boehmite dissolution model and determined the effect of temperature on mass loss during caustic leaching, the reaction rate constant for the boehmite dissolution, and the effect of aeration in enhancing the chromium dissolution during caustic leaching. Other tests were performed in parallel with the PEP tests to support the development of scaling factors for caustic and oxidative leaching. Another study determined if precipitate formed in the wash solution after the caustic leach in the PEP. Finally, the leaching characteristics of different chromium compounds under different conditions were examined to determine the best one to use in further testing.
Date: May 21, 2010
Creator: Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E. & Buchmiller, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Aging Tests of Vendor-Produced Blended Feed Simulant

Description: The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is procuring through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) a minimum of five 3,500 gallon batches of waste simulant for Phase 1 testing in the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). To make sure that the quality of the simulant is acceptable, the production method was scaled up starting from laboratory-prepared simulant through 15-gallon vendor prepared simulant and 250-gallon vendor prepared simulant before embarking on the production of the 3500-gallon simulant batch by the vendor. The 3500-gallon PEP simulant batches were packaged in 250-gallon high molecular weight polyethylene totes at NOAH Technologies. The simulant was stored in an environmentally controlled environment at NOAH Technologies within their warehouse before blending or shipping. For the 15-gallon, 250-gallon, and 3500-gallon batch 0, the simulant was shipped in ambient temperature trucks with shipment requiring nominally 3 days. The 3500-gallon batch 1 traveled in a 70-75°F temperature controlled truck. Typically the simulant was uploaded in a PEP receiving tank within 24-hours of receipt. The first uploading required longer with it stored outside. Physical and chemical characterization of the 250-gallon batch was necessary to determine the effect of aging on the simulant in transit from the vendor and in storage before its use in the PEP. Therefore, aging tests were conducted on the 250-gallon batch of the vendor-produced PEP blended feed simulant to identify and determine any changes to the physical characteristics of the simulant when in storage. The supernate was also chemically characterized. Four aging scenarios for the vendor-produced blended simulant were studied: 1) stored outside in a 250-gallon tote, 2) stored inside in a gallon plastic bottle, 3) stored inside in a well mixed 5-L tank, and 4) subject to extended temperature cycling under summer temperature conditions in a gallon plastic bottle. The following series of aging tests ...
Date: April 21, 2009
Creator: Russell, Renee L.; Buchmiller, William C.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A. & Rinehart, Donald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strong-Sludge Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms in Clay Simulants

Description: The Hanford Site has 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) and 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. The mission of the Department of Energy's River Protection Project is to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms. A key aspect of the mission is to retrieve and transfer waste from the SSTs, which are at greater risk for leaking, into DSTs for interim storage until the waste is transferred to and treated in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. There is, however, limited space in the existing DSTs to accept waste transfers from the SSTs, and approaches to overcoming the limited DST space will benefit the overall mission. The purpose of this study is to summarize and analyze the key previous experiment that forms the basis for the relaxed controls and to summarize progress and results on new experiments focused on understanding the conditions that result in low gas retention. The previous large-scale test used about 50 m3 of sediment, which would be unwieldy for doing multiple parametric experiments. Accordingly, experiments began with smaller-scale tests to determine whether the desired mechanisms can be studied without the difficulty of conducting very large experiments. The most significant results from the current experiments are that progressively lower gas retention occurs in tests with progressively deeper sediment layers and that the method of gas generation also affects the maximum retention. Based on the results of this study, it is plausible that relatively low gas retention could occur in sufficiently deep tank waste in DSTs. The current studies and previous work, however, have not explored how gas retention and release will behave when two or more layers with different properties are present.
Date: February 24, 2012
Creator: Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Probert, Samuel G.; Owen, Antionette T. & Brockman, Fred J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

Description: This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J. & Vienna, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Disruption of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles with Sloped Fins in Flat-Bottom and 2:1 Elliptical-Bottom Vessels

Description: Radioactive sludge was generated in the K-East Basin and K-West Basin fuel storage pools at the Hanford Site while irradiated uranium metal fuel elements from the N Reactor were being stored and packaged. The fuel has been removed from the K Basins, and currently, the sludge resides in the KW Basin in large underwater Engineered Containers. The first phase to the Sludge Treatment Project being led by CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is to retrieve and load the sludge into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport the sludge to T Plant for interim storage. The STSCs will be stored inside T Plant cells that are equipped with secondary containment and leak-detection systems. The sludge is composed of a variety of particulate materials and water, including a fraction of reactive uranium metal particles that are a source of hydrogen gas. If a situation occurs where the reactive uranium metal particles settle out at the bottom of a container, previous studies have shown that a vessel-spanning gas layer above the uranium metal particles can develop and can push the overlying layer of sludge upward. The major concern, in addition to the general concern associated with the retention and release of a flammable gas such as hydrogen, is that if a vessel-spanning bubble (VSB) forms in an STSC, it may drive the overlying sludge material to the vents at the top of the container. Then it may be released from the container into the cell’s secondary containment system at T Plant. A previous study demonstrated that sloped walls on vessels, both cylindrical coned-shaped vessels and rectangular vessels with rounded ends, provided an effective approach for disrupting a VSB by creating a release path for gas as a VSB began to rise. Based on the success of sloped-wall vessels, a similar concept ...
Date: September 22, 2010
Creator: Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Chun, Jaehun; Russell, Renee L.; Schmidt, Andrew J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

Description: K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and potential for erosion, it is important to ...
Date: February 20, 2011
Creator: Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Sludge Simulant Selection for Soil Mechanics Property Measurement

Description: The current System Plan for the Hanford Tank Farms uses relaxed buoyant displacement gas release event (BDGRE) controls for deep sludge (i.e., high level waste [HLW]) tanks, which allows the tank farms to use more storage space, i.e., increase the sediment depth, in some of the double-shell tanks (DSTs). The relaxed BDGRE controls are based on preliminary analysis of a gas release model from van Kessel and van Kesteren. Application of the van Kessel and van Kesteren model requires parametric information for the sediment, including the lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus. No lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus in situ measurements for Hanford sludge are currently available. The two chemical sludge simulants will be used in follow-on work to experimentally measure the van Kessel and van Kesteren model parameters, lateral earth pressure at rest, and shear modulus.
Date: March 23, 2010
Creator: Wells, Beric E.; Russell, Renee L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Brown, Garrett N.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation and Characterization of {sup 238}Pu-Ceramics for Radiation Damage Experiments

Description: The results from this initial characterization of the {sup 238}Pu- and {sup 239}Pu-bearing ceramics showed that the target phase assemblage was achieved in all but one material, {sup 238}Pu-zirconolite baseline. This {sup 238}Pu-zirconolite baseline material appears to have been prepared incorrectly with a 14 mass% excess of Pu (9.6 mass% actual vs. 8.4 mass% target; 4.8 mole% actual vs. 4.1 mole% target). It is not surprising that PuO{sub 2} was found to be one of the dominant phases. The densities of these materials compared well with the theoretical densities given by Stewart, Vance, and Ball [14]. For all but three of the materials, the average density was >94% of theoretical. Of the three, one was {sup 238}Pu-zirconolite baseline (108%) that contained unreacted PuO{sub 2}. In our MCC leach testing, the normalized elemental mass losses from the various ceramic specimens depended on the elemental ceramic constituent, the Pu isotope, and the ceramic. Of the primary constituents, Al and Ca were the most easily released. Plutonium and U were the next most susceptible to release. In general, the Hf had the lowest releases during the tests. The Gd and Ti releases varied, depending on the ceramic and the Pu isotope in the ceramic. The Mo, which was added as a trace constituent to monitor the stability of the crystalline structure, exhibited consistently high-normalized elemental releases. The amount of Pu leached depended the most on the Pu isotope in the ceramic with more Pu released from the {sup 238}Pu specimens than from the {sup 239}Pu specimens, independent of ceramic type. Interestingly, the Mo releases were typically higher for the {sup 239}Pu specimens than for the {sup 238}Pu specimens. The higher Pu release from the {sup 238}Pu specimens is not yet understood; the consistency between the ICP/MS- and GEA-measured Pu releases from the {sup ...
Date: June 15, 2000
Creator: Strachan, Denis M; Scheele, Randall D; Buchmiller, William C; Vienna, John D; Sell, Richard L & Elovich, Robert J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

Description: Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW). SBW is a high soda, acid high activity waste stored at the INEEL in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates the its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high then a molten alkali sulfate containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product quality constraint determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This report summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW. Summary
Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: Vienna, John D.; Buchmiller, William C.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Graham, Dennis D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Macisaac, Brett D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Status of Radiation Damage Experiments

Description: Experiments have been on-going for about two years to determine the effects that radiation damage have on the physical and chemical properties of candidate titanate ceramics for the immobilization of plutonium. We summarize the results of these experiments in this document.
Date: November 20, 2001
Creator: Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Richard L.; Legore, Virginia L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Status of Radiation Damage Experiments

Description: Experiments have been on-going for about two years to determine the effects that radiation damage have on the physical and chemical properties of candidate titanate ceramics for the immobilization of plutonium. We summarize the results of these experiments in this document.
Date: November 20, 2001
Creator: Strachan, Denis M; Scheele, Randall D; Icenhower, Jonathan P; Kozelisky, Anne E; Sell, Richard L; Legore, Virginia L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

Description: Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.
Date: August 6, 2007
Creator: Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

Description: One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular ...
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department