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Interaction of molecular beams with solid surfaces

Description: From proceedings of the International Summer Institute in surface science; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA (28 Aug 1973). Molecular beam - surface scattering experiments, the nature of elastic and inelastic scattering, and the information obtained from detection of the angular distribution and kinetic energy of the scattered particles are described. The types of energy exchange that take place between a gas atom or molecule and the surface atoms and the theories that have been developed to explain some of these energy transfer processes are discussed. Finally the results of some experiments are reviewed, and directions for future research are pointed out. (JFP)
Date: August 1, 1973
Creator: Somorjai, G.A. & Brumbach, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ZPPR progress report: September 1988--December 1988

Description: Further results are presented from the JUPITER-III program. Calculation models and k-effective results are given for the three configurations of the large, homogeneous assembly ZPPR-18. Reaction rate results, including sodium activation are given for ZPPR-18A. Also included are spatial decoupling results from ZPPR-18. As a successor to JUPITER-III, the Io program investigated the effects of uranium fuel distribution in mixed uranium and plutonium fueled assemblies. The ZPPR-19A and 19B assemblies which made up the Io program are described.
Date: January 20, 1989
Creator: Brumbach, S.B. & Collins, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ZPPR progress report: November 1987-January 1988

Description: This report details activities for the time period of November, 1987 through January, 1988. Further results are presented from the axially heterogeneous assembly ZPPR-17, a part of the JUPITER-III program. The loading of the ZPPR-17C assembly, with 13 half-inserted control rods, is described along with operational measurements, calculation models, and measurements and prediction of criticality. From ZPPR-17A, calculated and measured results are given for reaction rates and measured results for bowing, expansion and small sample worth experiments. From the earlier metal-fuel ZPPR-15 program results are given for measurements and calculations of Doppler reactivity coefficients.
Date: February 15, 1988
Creator: Collins, P.J. & Brumbach, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ZPPR progress report, January 1989 through April 1989

Description: Further results are presented from the large, homogeneous assembly ZPPR-18 in the JUPITER-III program. Reaction rate results are given for ZPPR-18B along with measured gamma ray dose results from ZPPR-18A and 18B. Control rod worth results from the ZPPR-18 assemblies are included. Calculation models, measured and calculated k-effective values and measured sodium worth values, are presented for the ZPPR-19 assemblies of the lo program.
Date: April 27, 1989
Creator: Collins, P.J. & Brumbach, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ZPPR progress report: August 1987-October 1987

Description: This progress report details activities during the time period of August through October, 1987. Results are presented from the axially heterogeneous assembly ZPPR-17, a part of the Jupiter-III program. The loading of the ZPPR-17B assembly, with 25 control rod positions, is described along with operational measurements, calculation models, measurements and predictions of criticality and measured axial worth profiles for B[sub 4]C. From ZPPR-17A, calculated and measured results are given for banks of control rod positions along with revised measured values for various single, central control rods.
Date: November 16, 1987
Creator: Brumbach, S.B. & Collins, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ZPPR progress report: February 1988 through April 1988

Description: Results are presented for control rod worth experiments in the axially heterogeneous assembly ZPPR-17, a part of the JUPITER-III program. From the earlier metal-fuel ZPPR-15 program, results are given for measurements and calculations of neutron spectra and sodium voiding in several configurations.
Date: May 13, 1988
Creator: Brumbach, S.B. & Collins, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANL analysis of ZPPR-13A

Description: The ZPPR-13 experiments provide basic physics data for radial heterogeneous LMFBR cores of approximately 700MWe size. Assemblies ZPPR-13A, ZPPR-13B and ZPPR-13C comprised the JUPITER-II cooperative program between the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and PNC of Japan. The measurements were made between August 1982 and April 1984. The core designs and the measurements were planned jointly by the two parties with substantial input from U.S. industrial interests to ensure coverage of the design requirements. This report describes in detail the results of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) analyses of phase 13A.
Date: August 9, 1984
Creator: Collins, P.J. & Brumbach, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

JUPITER-II Program: ANL analysis of ZPPR-13A and ZPPR-13B

Description: The ZPPR-13 experiments provide basic physics data for radial heterogeneous LMFBR cores of approximately 700MWe size. Assemblies ZPPR-13A, ZPPR-13B and ZPPR-13A comprised the JUPITER-II cooperative program between the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and PNC of Japan. The measurements were made between August 1982 and April 1984. The core designs and the measurements were planned jointly by the two parties with substantial input from U.S. industrial interests to ensure coverage of the design requirements. This report describes in detail the results of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) analyses of phases 13A and 13B/1 and includes preliminary results for the later assemblies of phase 13B..
Date: August 1, 1984
Creator: Collins, P.J. & Brumbach, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-Cell Reaction Rate Distributions and Cell-Average Reaction Rates in Fast Critical Assemblies

Description: Measurements are described for determining average values of fission rates in uranium-235, uranium-238 and plutonium-239 and capture rates in uranium-238 for heterogeneous cells used to construct fast critical assemblies. The measurements are based on irradiations of foils of uranium-238, uranium-235 and plutonium-239 with counting of fission and capture products using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Both plate and pin cells are considered. Procedures are described for inferring cell-average reaction rate values from a single foil location based on a cell using a quantity called a cell factor. Cell factors are determined from special measurements in which several foils are irradiated within a cell. Comparisons are presented between cell factors determined by measurements and by Monte Carlo calculations which lend credibility to the measurement procedures.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Brumbach, S. B. & Gasidlo, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The JUPITER-III Program: ANL analysis of ZPPR-17

Description: The ZPPR-17 assembly was part of the JUPITER-III cooperative program between the US DOE and PNC of Japan. The assembly was designed to study the neutronic behavior of a large, axially heterogeneous, liquid-metal-cooled reactor. The unique feature of the assembly was an internal blanket region in the axial center of the core extending two-thirds of the core radius. Assembly variants with 25 control rod positions and with 13 half-inserted control rods were built. This report describes in detail the results of measurements and analyses of ZPPR-17. The measurements emphasized reaction rate distributions, and gamma dose measurements were included. Additional measurements were control worth, sodium void worth, and reactivity coefficients associated with small material motions in assembly expansion and bowing.
Date: January 31, 1989
Creator: Brumbach, S.B.; Collins, P.J.; Grasseschi, G.L.; Schaefer, R.W.; Brumbach, S.B.; Collins, P.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Autoradiography as a Safeguards Inspection Technique for Unirradiated LWR Fuel Assemblies

Description: A nondestructive autoradiographic method is described which can provide a verification that rods in the interior of unirradiated LWR fuel assemblies contain low-enriched uranium. Sufficient absorber must be used to reduce contributions to image density by beta radiation from uranium-238 daughters. When appropriate absorbers are used, the density of the image of a uranium-containing fuel rod is proportional to the uranium-235 enrichment in that rod. Exposure times as short as 1.5 hours can be achieved by using fast film and intensifying screens. Methods are discussed for reducing contributions to the image density of any single rod from radiation produced by all other rods in the assembly. The technique is useful for detecting missing rods, dummy rods, and rods containing depleted uranium. These defects can be detected by visual inspection of the autoradiographs. In its present state of development, the technique is not sensitive enough to reliably detect the difference between the various uranium-235 enrichments encountered in current BWR fuel assemblies. Results are presented for field tests of the technique at BWR and PWR facilities.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Brumbach, S. B. & Perry, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Program for Development and Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay Techniques for Plutonium Holdup

Description: An outline is presented for an experimental program to develop and evaluate nondestructive assay techniques applicable to holdup measurement in plutonium-containing fuel fabrication facilities. The current state-of-the-art in holdup measurements is reviewed. Various aspects of the fuel fabrication process and the fabrication facility are considered for their potential impact on holdup measurements. The measurement techniques considered are those using gamma-ray counting, neutron counting, and temperature measurement. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed. Potential difficulties in applying the techniques to holdup measurement are identified. Experiments are proposed to determine the effects of such problems as variation in sample thickness, in sample distribution, and in background radiation. These experiments are also directed toward identification of techniques most appropriate to various applications. Also proposed are experiments to quantify the uncertainties expected for each measurement.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Brumbach, S. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Autoradiographic Technique for Rapid Inventory of Plutonium-Containing Fast Critical Assembly Fuel

Description: A nondestructive autoradiographic technique is described which can provide a verification of the piece count and the plutonium content of plutonium-containing fuel elements. This technique uses the spontaneously emitted gamma rays from plutonium to form images of fuel elements on photographic film. Autoradiography has the advantage of providing an inventory verification without the opening of containers or the handling of fuel elements. Missing fuel elements, substitution of nonradioactive material, and substitution of elements of different size are detectable. Results are presented for fuel elements in various storage configurations and for fuel elements contained in a fast critical assembly.
Date: October 1977
Creator: Brumbach, S. B. & Perry, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium Calorimetry and SNM Holdup Measurements, Progress Report: March 1976-August 1976

Description: The calorimetric instrumentation developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for making nondestructive measurements of the plutonium content of fuel rods is discussed. Measurements with these instruments are relatively fast (i.e., 15 to 20 minutes) when compared to the several hours usually required with more conventional calorimeters and for this reason are called ''fast-response.'' Most of the discussion concerns the One-Meter and the Four-Meter Fuel-Rod Calorimeters and the Analytical Small-Sample Calorimeter. However, to provide some background and continuity where needed, a small amount of discussion is devoted to the three earlier calorimeters which have been described previously in the literature. A brief review is presented of the literature on plutonium holdup measurements. The use of gamma-ray techniques for holdup measurements is discussed and results are given for the determination of sample thickness using the ratio of intensities of high- and low-energy gamma rays. The measurements cover the plutonium metal thickness range from 0.001 to 0.120 inches. The design of a gamma-ray collimator with 37 parallel holes is also discussed. Neutron-counting experiments using BF3 proportional counters embedded in two polyethylene slabs are described. This detector configuration is characterized for its sensitivity to sample and background plutonium, counting both coincidence (fission) and total neutrons. In addition, the use of infrared imaging devices to measure small temperature differences is considered for locating large amounts of plutonium holdup and also for performing fast attribute checks for fabricated fuel elements.
Date: February 1977
Creator: Brumbach, S. B.; Finkbeiner, A. M.; Lewis, R. N. & Perry, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department