118 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

System studies overview

Description: Viewgraphs of the conference presentation on ignition devices are given. Topics which are included are the relationship between the compact ignition device and the TFCX high-performance (HP) copper device, the status of current compact ignition device systems, structural aspects of the TFCX-HP copper device, questions on shielding, peak stress criteria, and major engineering design constraints. 2 figs. (WRF)
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Brown, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The configuration development of the compact ignition tokamak (CIT) device

Description: The paper consists of viewgraphs discussing different component design options for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). The author concludes that a CIT device configuration has been established which meets physics requirements, performance margins and engineering component design needs. The baseline (R/sub 0/ = 1.75 meters) machine appears reasonable based on the analysis performed to date. (LSP)
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Brown, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design review of the INTOR mechanical configuration

Description: The INTOR conceptual design has been carried out by design teams working in the home countries with periodic workshop sessions in Vienna to review the ongoing work and to make decisions on the evolving design. The decisions taken at each workshop session were then incorporated into each national design activity, so that the four national design contributions would progressively converge toward a single design with increasingly greater detail. This paper defines the final INTOR configuration that has evolved during the conceptual design phase, defining the major system design alternatives that were considered and the rationale for selecting the final system configuration.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Brown, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Configuration review of TFCX design options

Description: As part of the preconceptual design effort of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX), several candidate design options have been explored in order to identify a preferred option that will be developed in further detail during the conceptual design phase of the TFCX program. The development of the TFCX concepts has been a collaborative effort between the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) with broad community input. The design options being considered include an all-superconducting design, a superconducting/copper toroidal field (TF) hybrid design, and several different all-copper configurations.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Brown, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The configuration development of the compact ignition tokamak device

Description: The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) device is planned as the next major fusion device to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to demonstrate ignition operations of a burning plasma. Stringent engineering requirements have been imposed on this device by physics necessities of high margins against ignition and by cost constraints in minimizing the overall cost of the project. A compact design has been developed under these design conditions incorporating many unique design features, including a hydraulic preload system to provide a compression load to the toroidal field (TF) inner leg and using a high-strength copper-Inconel composite material in the design of the TF coil and the ohmic heating solenoid. The device is inertially cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the vacuum vessel, coils, and supporting structure are contained in a thermally insulated cryostat. A close-in igloo shield surrounds the device to provide the capability for hands-on access within the test cell and also to minimize activation. Even with the compact nature of this device, there still remains the basic requirement of maximizing access to the plasma for diagnostics and heating components; access for electrical leads and coolant lines; and access to provide the capability of remotely maintaining all diagnostic and peripheral equipment that interfaces with the device. This paper describes the configurational development that has taken place during the conceptual design period of the CIT project, highlighting the major design integration features used to develop a functional device that meets the physics and component design requirements. 1 ref., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Brown, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Configuration and structural design of Compact Ignition Tokamak

Description: Viewgraphs are presented on the configuration and structural design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak, originally presented to the US/Japan Workshop on Next Step Machine Design. Items discussed in this presentation include: PPPL 0424 ref design; MIT LITE ref design; IGNITOR 1.01 M ref design; and IGNITOR 1.08 M press configuration. (JDB)
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Brown, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parametric Analyses of Alternative Flow Models at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Calibrations and Controls - State of Nevada-Funded Research

Description: The controls on the potentiometric surface and temperature distribution at Yucca Mountain have long been thought to be related to major fault zones. The exact way the faults influence these distributions has been somewhat elusive. The parametric studies discussed in this paper show that the fault zone x, y and z permeability tensors, as well as the alignment of the fault zone in relation to the flow field (1), are major contributing factors in the pressure and temperature distributions. A series of runs were conducted for the State of Nevada with a 3-dimensional model utilizing the AT2VOC version of the A-TOUGH code (2),(3). The runs were conducted under steady state conditions and utilized fully coupled heat and flow conditions. The model setup and boundary conditions are fully described. Comparisons were done with varying degrees of anisotropic permeability ratios in the fault zones. The resulting temperature and pressure profiles are compared. The model, while simple, allowed us to examine the relationship of the head and temperature distributions to the position and permeability of major fault zones. It is our conclusion that the major faults included in this model do significantly affect the observed head and temperature distributions. Performance Assessments currently may not reflect actual doses at the Compliance boundary due to the potential for radionuclide flow to be captured in the Ghost Dance Fault and be transported primarily south with little dilution and dispersion.
Date: February 26, 2002
Creator: Lehman, L. & Brown, T. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shielding design of electron beam stop for Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility (DARHT)

Description: An electron beam stop was designed to allow workers to be present in the experimental area while the accelerators are producing electron beam pulses. The beam stop is composed of a graphite region to stop the electron pulses and a surrounding tungsten region to attenuate photons produced by electron transport in the graphite. Radiation-transport dose calculations were performed to set the dimensions of the graphite and tungsten regions. To reduce calculational effort, electron transport in the graphite was calculated separately from photon dose transport to worker locations. The source for photon dose transport was generated by tallying photons emerging from the graphite during electron transport.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Brown, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unsaturated zone transport modeling of the Greater Confinement Disposal Site

Description: Unsaturated zone transport modeling is being conducted as part of the performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility which is located on the Nevada Test Site. This performance assessment is based on an iterative process of modeling and data collection to assess the likelihood the site will meet the US Environmental Protection Agency`s containment, individual protection and groundwater protection requirements for the disposal of transuranic wastes, high-level wastes and spent fuel. The current iteration of the performance assessment evaluates the potential impact of future events on the transport system. The future events included in this analysis are subsidence, bioturbation, erosion, climate change, irrigated farming and drilling. This paper presents the unsaturated transport model, how it fits into the performance assessment and how the future events are incorporated in the model.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Brown, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

Description: Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desirable engineering features of the next-generation tokamak device

Description: Recent scoping studies examined a series of superconducting, long-pulse Driven Current Tokamak (DCT) devices. One class of options is an ignited, D-T burning device designated DCT-8. It was concluded that the DCT-8 is a most attracttive engineering option to adequately bridge the gap between the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR).
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Brown, T.G. & Flanagan, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray streak crystal spectography

Description: We have built an x-ray streaked crystal spectrograph for making time-resolved x-ray spectral measurements. This instrument can access Bragg angles from 11/sup 0/ to 38/sup 0/ and x-ray spectra from 200 eV to greater than 10 keV. We have demonstrated resolving powers, E/..delta..E > 200 at 1 keV and time resolution less than 20 psec. A description of the instrument and an example of the data is given.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Kauffman, R.L.; Brown, T. & Medecki, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The configuration development and integration of the TPX device

Description: The TPX configuration was designed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allowed access for remote maintenance. The steady state operations of TPX favored the use of superconducting magnets for both the toroidal and poloidal field systems. The desire to react the TF centering and overturning forces in a simplified wedged system lead to a TF case concept incorporating ``two-coil`` TF modules in a 90{degrees} four-coil quadrant arrangement. Low ripple and tangential plasma access to accommodate TFTR neutral beams were leading factors in determining the size and number of TF coils. The need for a large amount of space for the divertor and first wall component coolant services further influenced the shaping of the vacuum vessel. Additional configuration influences included: low activation considerations, diverter pumping, remote maintenance requirements, service access and compatibility with the existing TFTR text cell facility. The TPX configuration development and integration process has evolved through the conceptual design period and is now ready to enter the Preliminary Design Phase of the project. This paper describes the status of the configuration development and integration of the major TPX tokamak subsystems components.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Brown, T. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale

Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Brown, M.; Huntington, G. & Brown, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equilibrium field coil concepts for INTOR

Description: Methods are presented for reducing ampere-turn requirements in the EF coil system. It is shown that coil currents in an EF coil system external to the toroidal field coils can be substantially reduced by relaxing the triangularity of a D-shaped plasma. Further reductions are realized through a hybrid EF coil system using both internal and external coils. Equilibrium field coils for a poloidally asymmetric, single-null INTOR configuration are presented. It is shown that the shape of field lines in the plasma scrapeoff region and divertor channel improves as triangularity is reduced, but it does so at the possible expense of achievable stable beta values.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M. & Brown, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Configuration development and structural assessment of the FEDC ignitor concept

Description: The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) performed a design study for a compact ignition tokamak. The ignitor concept has two unique features. First, the throat of the copper plate toroidal field (TF) coils is preloaded in the vertical direction to minimize the stress levels in the copper. Second, the net inward radial TF coil forces are balanced by a combination of wedging on the adjacent faces of the TF coils and by bucking against the ohmic heating solenoid coils in the bore of the tokamak. Later ignitor concepts eliminated the wedging reactions. Both of these features inherently reduce the radial build of the tokamak device. The FEDC version of ignitor incorporates both of these unique features packaged in a different configurational arrangement. The FEDC ignitor features a totally external preload system. The preload is applied directly to the inner leg of the TF coils in the vertical direction only. Horizontal rings are utilized only to react inplane TF coil forces and are not part of the preload system. Modular quadrants of TF coil encasements are utilized to vastly simplify device assembly methods. This paper presents the configuration and a structural assessment of the FEDC ignitor concept.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Brown, T.G.; Lee, V.D. & Mayhall, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Plan and Test Specifications for Unloading LR-56 Waste at the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility

Description: The LR-56 cask is an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), type B (U) certified Medium to High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Transport Cask. The LR-56 consists of a trailer equipped with the following component and systems: cubic meter lead shielded cask; Self-contained ventilation system including an air pressure/vacuum pump for cask loading and unloading; Waste temperature, level, leak detection, and other surveillance equipment; Control room for control of loading and unloading operations and waste surveillance; Hoist system for removing well caps on the cask; Power connection and control connections for operating the cask from a remote facility; The cask may be unloaded or loaded using either the onboard pressure/vacuum pump or by an external waste transfer pump. Rinse heads and connections allow the cask to be rinsed using supplied rinse water. The cask was designed to be vented using the LR-56 onboard ventilation system, which is connected to the cask via a hose through a penetration in the cask. Three wells located on the top of the cask, offer valved penetrations into the cask for venting, waste pumping, and rinsing. Other penetrations in the cask enable surveillance instrumentation to be used to monitor inside the cask. To date, the LR-56 cask system at the Hanford facility has not been used. Since the vessel has never received radioactive waste, the LR-56 is not yet a regulated system. It is desired to use the LR-56 cask to transport waste in calendar year 2000.
Date: December 3, 2000
Creator: BROWN, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optics elements for modeling electrostatic lenses and accelerator components II. Acceleration columns

Description: A set of optical models for a variety of electrostatic lenses and accelerator columns has been developed for the computer code TRACE 3-D. TRACE 3-D is an envelope (matrix) code including space charge that is often used to model bunched beams in magnetic transport systems and radiofrequency (RF) accelerators when the effects of beam current may be important. Several new matrix models have been developed that allow the code to be used for modeling beam lines and accelerators with electrostatic components. The new models include a number of options for: (1) einzel lenses, (2) accelerator columns, (3) electrostatic deflectors (prisms), and (4) an electrostatic quadrupole. A prescription for setting up the initial beam appropriate to modeling 2-D (continuous) beams has also been developed. The new models for (2) are described in this paper, selected comparisons with other calculations are presented, and a beamline application is summarized.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Gillespie, G. H. & Brown, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acid mine drainage prevention, control and treatment technology development for the Stockett/Sand Coulee area. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

Description: The project was initiated to assist the State of Montana to develop a methodology to ameliorate acid mine drainage problems associated with the abandoned mines located in the Stockett/Sand Coulee area near Great Falls, Montana. Extremely acidic water is continuously discharging from abandoned coal mines in the Stockett/Sand Coulee area at an estimated rate of greater than 600 acre-feet per year (about 350 to 400 gallons per minute). Due to its extreme acidity, the water is unusable and is contaminating other water supplies. Most of the local alluvial aquifers have been contaminated, and nearly 5% of the private wells that were tested in the area during the mid-1980`s showed some degree of contamination. Significant government money has been spent replacing water supplies due to the magnitude of this problem. In addition, millions of dollars have been spent trying to remediate acid mine drainage occurring in this coal field. To date, the techniques used have focused on the management and containment of mine waters, rather than designing technologies that would prevent the formation of acid mine drainage.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Brown, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ammonium attenuation in aquifer material impacted with high levels of organic wastes. Final report

Description: Total concentrations of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +1}) have been found to exceed the State of Wyoming ground water quality standard for Class 1 aquifers near Torrington, Wyoming. The cause of the NH{sub 4}{sup +1} contamination is thought to be associated with fertilizer use and/or the leaching of organics into the ground water from impoundments holding wastes from sugar beet processing. This type of contamination could be expected from other industrial processes, including those associated with the use of fossil fuels. In an initial step in understanding and solving the ground water contamination problem, Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a laboratory investigation to understand the aquifer system as it relates to the chemistry of NH{sub 4}{sup +1} as it moves through the aquifer material. The data collected during the attenuation tests do provide an indication that the attenuation of NH{sub 4}{sup +1} in the ground water system will occur. In addition, the results show the redox condition of the site and the possible chemical reactions that are influencing the ground water quality.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant (FRESA) User's Manual: Version 2.5

Description: The FRESA computer program, Version 2.5, provides an easy way to collect and process building and facility data to indicate opportunities for renewable energy applications in federal facilities and buildings. The purpose of this analytic tool is to focus feasibility study efforts on those applications most likely to prove cost-effective. The program is a supplement to energy and water conservation audits, which must be completed for all federal buildings and will flag renewable energy opportunities by facilitating the evaluation and ranking process. FRESA results alone are generally not sufficient to establish project feasibility. The FRESA User's Manual provides instruction on getting started; an overview of the FRESA program structure; an explanation of the screening process; detailed information on using the functions of Facility/Building Info, Building/Facility Analysis, Input/Output, and Weather Data or Adding a Zip Code; troubleshooting; and archiving data. Appendices include Algorithms Used in FRESA Prescreening, Excel Spreadsheets for FRESA Inputs, Other Useful Information, and Acronyms and Abbreviations.
Date: April 5, 2000
Creator: Brown, T.; Tapia, D. & Mas, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technologies for Distributed Energy Resources. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Technical Assistance Fact Sheet

Description: This four-page fact sheet describes distributed energy resources for Federal facilities, which are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Distributed energy resources include both existing and emerging energy technologies: advanced industrial turbines and microturbines; combined heat and power (CHP) systems; fuel cells; geothermal systems; natural gas reciprocating engines; photovoltaics and other solar systems; wind turbines; small, modular biopower; energy storage systems; and hybrid systems. DOE FEMP is investigating ways to use these alternative energy systems in government facilities to meet greater demand, to increase the reliability of the power-generation system, and to reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels.
Date: July 16, 2001
Creator: Pitchford, P. & Brown, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department