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CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, CHEMICAL DEVELOPMENT SECTION C, PROGRESS REPORT ON SEPARATIONS CHEMISTRY AND SEPARATIONS PROGRESS RESEARCH FOR JANUARY-JUNE 1963

Description: Cesium Recovery from Ores. Adaptation of the phenol extraction (Phenex) process to the recovery of cesium from ore leach liquors continued to show promise. In roast-leach tests, 98 to 99% of the cesium was dissolved from pollucite ore by roasting the ore at 800 deg C with 1.8 parts of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ plus 1.2 parts of NaCl and leaching with water. More than 99% of the cesium was recovered from the leach liquor and separated from other alkali metals by extracting with 4-sec-butyl-2-( alpha -methylbenzyl)phenol (BAMBP) in diisopropylbenzene and stripping with hydrochloric acid. Santophen-1 also extracted cesium effectively, but, because of the limited solubility of the cesiumSantophen-1 complex in the diluent, the utility of this phenol in ore processing is questionable. Separation of Alkali Metals. The extraction and separation of alkali metals from nitrate solutions was studied with several different types of extractants, including substituted phenols, alkylphosphoric acids, sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids, and mixtures of some of these. With all of these reagents, cesium was extracted more strongly than rubidium, which in turn was extracted more strongly than the other alkali metals. Separation factors were higher with the phenols than with the other extractants. Acid Recovery by Amine Extraction. Preliminary tests showed the potential usefulness of tertiary amines for recovering and purifying phosphoric acid from the highly contaminated wet-process acid produced in the fertilizer industry. Water stripping of the amine solvent yielded a product that was more than 1.5 M in H/ sub 2/PO/sub 6/ and was almost free of iron and aluminum. Final-Cycle Plutonium Recovery by Amine Extraction. Batch equilibration tests with both aged and fresh samples of Purex-plant 1BP solution showed that the aged but not the fresh samples contained a considerable quantity of zirconium-niobium species highly extractable by the hydrocarbon diluents used with amines and other ...
Date: October 25, 1963
Creator: Brown, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Luminosity and tune shift in e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage rings

Description: Luminosity and tune shift have been the subject of numerous papers and talks since the invention of electron-positron storage rings. This paper derives an equation for luminosity and one for the linear tune shift based upon two simple assumptions. The first assumption is that the storage ring be designed such that the linear tune shifts in the two transverse planes, x and y, are equal; i.e., that ..delta..nu/sub x/ = ..delta..nu/sub y/. The second assumption is that the maximum acceptable disruption angle, theta/sub D/, of the colliding beams is approximately equal to the ''natural'' beam spread, theta/sub B/, of the stored colliding beams at the interaction point. First derived is the results for round beams having transverse gaussian distribution functions and then extend the derivation to beams having elliptical cross sections. Then compared are theoretical results with the observed results in several operating machines and with the ''design'' parameters of three new machines; namely KEK, BEPC, and LEP.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Brown, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications and systems studies for solar industrial process heat

Description: The program has been highlighted by the development of analytical computer programs, engineering case studies in specific industries, applications and market studies and the assessment of operating experience in actual solar installations. For example, two analytical computer codes (known as PROSYS and ECONMAT) have been assembled and used for the large-scale matching of industrial processes with different types of solar equipment. Verification of the results of this large-scale matching have resulted in a program of detailed case studies of solar and conservation options in local dairies, metal can manufacturing plants, meatpacking plants, and other factories.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Brown, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Goals: objects and measures of progress

Description: One of the most useful outputs of systems and market analysis is a concise statement of technology goals. The concept of goal-setting as previously developed in other programs of research and development is introduced. In this context goals are merely the visible output of a systematic translation of market requirements into research and development actions. Cost goals are one type of information linkage between market and research, although a complete statement of technology goals must include both tangible and intangible physical requirements as well. The process of devising goals and measuring progress against these goals is briefly illustrated in an example from the Solar Industrial Process Heat Program. The process of establishing a program framework and program goals has not been completed for solar process heat; it is hoped that this paper will encourage steps in this direction.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Brown, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A conceptual design of Final Focus Systems for linear colliders

Description: Linear colliders are a relatively recent development in the evolution of particle accelerators. This report discusses some of the approaches that have been considered for the design of Final Focus Systems to demagnify the beam exiting from a linac to the small size suitable for collisions at the interaction point. The system receiving the most attention is the one adopted for the SLAC Linear Collider. However, the theory and optical techniques discussed should be applicable to the design efforts for future machines.
Date: June 1, 1987
Creator: Brown, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

Description: A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. More specific information is included under the planning regions and site specific data summaries. A brief discussion of the geothermal characteristics and a listing of a majority of the known hot springs is included. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented, including: economics, financing, state leasing, federal leasing, direct-use technology, water quality laws, water rights, and the Major Facility Siting Act. (MHR)
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Brown, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

Description: The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commercial buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particularly to the supplemental supply of process heat of all kinds. The realization of that potential will depend, however, on the identification of the most suitable applications and locations for industrial solar energy and the continued improvement in cost, durability, and reliability of solar equipment. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications is surveyed, including a description of current costs and operating histories. Because the current status is unsatisfactory in view of the goals established by President Carter for solar industrial energy, the most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar IPH are outlined. The effect of government tax policy will be of little impact until technical efficiency and cost effectiveness are significantly improved.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Brown, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

Description: A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Brown, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, CHEMICAL DEVELOPMENT SECTION C PROGRESS REPORT FOR OCTOBER-DECEMBER 1961

Description: Recovery of Th (and U) from Granitic Rock. Recovery of Th by acid leaching ten addltlonal granite samples (36 to 82 ppm Th) from the Conway formation in N. H. ranged from about 50 to 85%, and averaged about 70%, Study of the effect of grind size on the recovery of Th from Conway and Plkes Peak granites showed no significant differences in the range minus 20 to minus 200 mesh. The Th concentration in a sized Conway granite sample was found to be much greater in the fine than in the coarse fractions, whereas Pikes Peak granite showed only slight Th enrichment in the finer fractions. U recoveries in acid leaching of four different granite samples were not improved by adding an oxidant. Collection and Analysis of Granite Samples. A field survey of the Conway granite formations in N. H. was made. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates that the accessible surface of the Conway granite averages at least 40 ppm Th. Collection and Analysis of Lateritic Soils. The Th concentration ranged 5 to 16 ppm in twenty-two samples of sub-lateritic soil from Miss., Ala., Ga., and Va. Final Cycle Pu Recovery by Amine Extraction. In continued batch countercurrent testing with simulated Purex 1BP solution of the proposed chemical flowsheet for final cycle Pu recovery by amine extraction, the extraction profile with the amine (TLA) concentration decreased from 0.3 to 0.15 M again confirmed the predicted extraction isotherm. The product solution contained 23 g Pu/liter (nominal x20 concentration factor), and the stripped organic and the raffinate contained, resp., 0.001 and <0.002 g/liter. Extraction and Separation of Zr and Hf. Results are summarized for tests on the extraction and separation of Zr and Hf with amines and organophosphorus esters and acids. All three extractant classes showed some promise but the ...
Date: February 21, 1962
Creator: Brown, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic optics of the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) Final Focus System

Description: In this report we discuss some general optics principles and scaling laws that have been useful in guiding the design and operation of the Final Focus System for the Stanford Linear Collider. Included are expressions for the minimum {Beta}{sub x}* and {Beta}{sub y}* that can be expected for the present SLC design at the interaction point as a function of beam emittance. 6 refs., 13 figs.
Date: December 1, 1988
Creator: Brown, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOLVENT EXTRACTION RECOVERY OF VANADIUM (AND URANIUM) FROM ACID LIQUORS WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHOSPHORIC ACID

Description: Bench-scale studies were made on use of di(2ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in an organic diluent (Dapex process) for solvent extraction recovery of vanadium from acid leach liquors. Vanadium may be stripped from the solvent by either acidic or alkaline reagents, the former having been studied in considerably greater detail. A process for single-cycle recovery and separation of uranium and vanadium from sulfate leach liquors was shown to be attractive both from the standpoint of operation and chemical costs. Process schemes for recovery of vanadium from uranium-barren liquors are also described. On the basis of the encouraging laboratory results, pilot scale tests for specific applications are recommended. (auth)
Date: November 25, 1959
Creator: Crouse, D.J. & Brown, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical distortions in electron/positron storage rings

Description: We have studied the optical distortions in the PEP electron/positron storage ring for various optical configurations using the computer programs DIMAT, HARMON, PATRICIA, and TURTLE. The results are shown graphically by tracing several thousand trajectories from one interaction region to the next using TURTLE and by tracing a few selected rays several hundred turns using the programs DIMAT and PATRICIA. The results show an interesting correlation between the calculated optical cleanliness of a particular lattice configuration and the observed operating characteristics of the machine.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Brown, K.L.; Donald, M. & Servranckx, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First- and second-order charged particle optics

Description: Since the invention of the alternating gradient principle there has been a rapid evolution of the mathematics and physics techniques applicable to charged particle optics. In this publication we derive a differential equation and a matrix algebra formalism valid to second-order to present the basic principles governing the design of charged particle beam transport systems. A notation first introduced by John Streib is used to convey the essential principles dictating the design of such beam transport systems. For example the momentum dispersion, the momentum resolution, and all second-order aberrations are expressed as simple integrals of the first-order trajectories (matrix elements) and of the magnetic field parameters (multipole components) characterizing the system. 16 references, 30 figures.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Brown, K.L. & Servranckx, R.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optics modules for circular accelerator design

Description: The first-order differential equations of motion for a single particle in a closed circular machine are solved, introducing the concepts of phase shift, beta functions, and the Courant-Snyder invariant. The transfer matrix between two points in the machine is derived as a function of the phase shift and the parameters contained in the Courant-Snyder invariant. Typical optical modules used in circular machine designs are introduced and related to their characteristic transfer matrix elements, the phase shift through them, and the Courant-Snyder-Twiss parameters. The systematics of some elementary phase ellipse matching problems between optical modules are discussed. Second-order optical modules are discussed, including how they are used to provide the momentum bandwidth needed for the design of a typical circular machine. (LEW)
Date: May 1, 1986
Creator: Brown, K.L. & Servranckx, R.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of the second-order achromat concept to the design of particle accelerators

Description: A property of the second-order achromat, whereby dipole and sextupole families may be inserted into a lattice for chromatic corrections without introducing second-order geometrical (on momentum) optical distortions, has been incorporated in several new particle accelerator designs. These include the SLC at SLAC, LEP at CERN, the EROS pulse stretcher ring at Saskatoon, the CEBAF ring at SURA, and the MIT ring.
Date: May 1, 1985
Creator: Brown, K.L. & Servranckx, R.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Circular machine design techniques and tools

Description: Some of the basic optics principles involved in the design of circular accelerators such as Alternating Gradient Synchrotrons, Storage and Collision Rings, and Pulse Stretcher Rings are outlined. Typical problems facing a designer are defined, and the main references and computational tools are reviewed that are presently available. Two particular classes of problems that occur typically in accelerator design are listed - global value problems, which affect the control of parameters which are characteristic of the complete closed circular machine, and local value problems. Basic mathematical formulae are given that are considered useful for a first draft of a design. The basic optics building blocks that can be used to formulate an initial machine design are introduced, giving only the elementary properties and transfer matrices only in one transverse plane. Solutions are presented for some first-order and second-order design problems. (LEW)
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Servranckx, R.V. & Brown, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

Description: The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Brown, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relaxation of the lower frit loading constraint for DWPF process control

Description: The lower limit on the frit loading parameter when measurement uncertainty is introduced has impacted DWPF performance during immobilization of Tank 42 Sludge; therefore, any defensible relaxation or omission of this constraint should correspondingly increase DWPF waste loading and efficiency. Waste loading should be increased because the addition of frit is the current remedy for exceeding the lower frit loading constraint. For example, frit was added to DWPF SME Batches 94, 97 and 98 to remedy these batches for low frit loading. Attempts were also made to add frit in addition to the optimum computed to assure the lower frit loading constraint would be satisfied; however, approximately half of the SME Batches produced after Batch 98 have violated the lower frit loading constraint. If the DWPF batches did not have to be remediated and additional frit added because of the lower frit loading limit, then both, the performance of the DWPF process and the waste loading in the glass produced would be increased. Before determining whether or not the lower frit loading limit can be relaxed or omitted, the origin of this and the other constraints related to durability prediction must be examined. The lower limit loading constraint results from the need to make highly durable glass in DWPF. It is required that DWPF demonstrate that the glass produced would have durability that is at least two standard deviations greater than that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Glass durability cannot be measured in situ, it must be predicted from composition which can be measured. Fortunately, the leaching characteristics of homogeneous waste glasses is strongly related to the total molar free energy of the constituent species. Thus the waste acceptance specification has been translated into a requirement that the total molar free energy associated with the glass composition that would ...
Date: March 2000
Creator: Brown, K. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department