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A STUDY OF MECHANICAL-ELECTROLYTIC POLISHING ON URANIUM METALLOGRAPHIC SPECIMENS

Description: Proposed techniques for 'hot'' metallographic preparation are described. The following data from experiments on saw cutting, hand grinding, and electrolytic polishing have been obtained: radioactive contamination from saw cutting and grinding; depths of scratches and cold worked metal from saw cutting and grinding; metal removal rates for various grades of emery grinding papers; metal removal rates for electropolishing; optimum sequence for specimen grinding on emery papers; and time requirements for satisfactory electrolytic polishing of saw cut, rough ground, and fine ground uranium specimens. It has been shown that an efficient and effective procedure for preparation of saw cut uranium is the removal of about three-fourths of the cold worked layer with grade number 2 paper, followed by grades 3/0 and 4/0. The remaining fine scratches and thin layer of cold worked metal were removed by prolonged electropolishing in phosphoric acidethylene glycol-ethyl alcohol solution. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Brown, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changing Western water institutions: energy's role

Description: This paper describes the institutional mechanisms through which physical availability of water, historical pattern of water use, and unresolved water issues combine to constrain and channel the energy industry's use of water. These institutional mechanisms include the developing markets for water rights, the legal and administrative structure governing water allocation, the formation of social attitudes about water, and the political process that often implements concensus. Within this context, the narrow physical interpretation commonly given to the question, Is there enough water, broadens greatly to include the institutional dimension that is the most important component of the question.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Brown, F.L. & Roach, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"PIN-CUSHION" IRRADIATION TESTS OF URANIUM AND ITS ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS. Metallurgy Program 6.1.1

Description: ABS>An irradiation test of 1/16 in. diameter x 3/16 in. long U/sup 235/ and U/sup 235/-Zr alloy specimens, in the range 2 to 20 wt.% Zr, is described. The small pins were mounted in heat transfer blocks, or ''cushions,'' in such a way that suriace roughening and length changes could be observed, recorded, and compared for five stabilizing heat treatments up to exposure levels of approximately 1% total atom burnup. Addition of 2% Zr was found to be very beneficial, but the behavior of the alloys underwent distinct changes in going from 2 to 4 wt.% Zr. Material, both as-cast and subsequently isothermally treated, changed from minus to plus elongation, whereas wrought materials, either gamma-slow cooled or isothermally treated, changed from plus to minus behavior. Data-quenched wrought material varied unpredictably. Addition of Zr up to 20% showed further improvement in stability for all treatments. Factors which may have contributed to this behavior are discussed. (auth)
Date: March 1, 1956
Creator: Paine, S.H. & Brown, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"PIN-CUSHION" IRRADIATION OF CAST URANIUM-PLUTONIUM ALLOY SPECIMENS

Description: BS> The irradiation behavior of small pin specimens of chill-cast U-10 wt.% Pu and U-15 wt.% Pu specimens projecting from heat transfer cushions is described. The specimens were coated with a thin layer of carbonyl-deposited nickel. The 15 wt.% Pu pins showed excellent dimensional stability at 1/3 at.% total burnup. The 10 wt.% Pu specimens were somewhat inferior, failure of one of them indicating that the improvement in performane over unalloyed uranium may be due to the restraint imposed by the cladding. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1958
Creator: Paine, S.H. & Brown, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE METALLOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT FOR THE ANL METALLURGY DIVISION. Final Report on Program 6.10.6

Description: A summary of the early general development of radiometallography and a short discussion of the special problems that had to be faced at that time are given. A description of the remote metallography installation at the Metallurgy Division of Argonne National Laboratory is given by means of 19 illustrations, together with a discussion of the cave and its major items of equipment. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1959
Creator: Paine, S.H. & Brown, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXAMINATION OF IRRADIATED RaLa SOURCE FUEL ROD (PROTOTYPE NO. 2) FOR LOS ALAMS SCIENTIFIEC LABORATORY. Final Reoprt on Metallurgy Program 6.1.21

Description: A LASL fuel-bearing assembly was irradiated in the Materials Testing Reactor and subsequently examined at ANL. The design was found to be adequate for containing specimens irradiated to high burnup levels if certain defects introduced by the fabrication procedure are corrected. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Paine, S.H.; Murphy, W.F. & Brown, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXAMINATION OF JACKETED URANIUM SLUGS FROM THE LOS ALAMOS FAST REACTOR "CLEMENTINE"

Description: Examination of clad uranium reflector slugs wbich falled by rupture and swelling during the first year of operation of Clementine revealed no anisotropic damage to the uranium because of burnup or thermal cycling. The cladding was found to be of high-sulfur-free-machining steel, and it is postulated that thermal stresses caused welding flaws to open enough to permit seepage and corrosive attack upon the uranium cores by the reactor coolant (mercury). (auth)
Date: October 1, 1959
Creator: Paine, S.H.; Murphy, W.F. & Brown, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MODIFICATION OF CP-5 FUEL ASSEMBLIES FOR FUEL CAPSULE IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS

Description: BS>The standard vertical fuel tube assembly of the CP-5 research reactor was modified to permit diversion of heavywater coolant into the thimble for temperature-controlled irradiation experiments of capsules containing fuel specimens. The modification entailed revisions to the thimble, outer top shield plug and center shield plug. and helium sweep system. The modified thimble is provided with inlet actor flow system through the thimble cavity. The coolant in the thimble removes fission heat from the encapsulated samples introduced into the thimble cavity. Flow tests of the thimble were first performed on a flow stand, with final flow characteristics being determined in the reactor. A helium purge system was incorporated to remove dissociation gases trapped in the thimble cavity. Four configurations of capsules and capsule baskets were flow tested under conditions simulating operating flow conditions from 2- to 10-Mw reactor power. Irradiation capsules are now being satisfactorily operated in the modified thimbles at 2-Mw reactor power. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1959
Creator: Beck, W.N.; Kittel, J.H. & Brown, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN AUTOMATIC POLISHING MACHINE FOR REMOTE METALLOGRAPHY

Description: Requirements for successfull polishing of metallographic specimens are discussed and the design of a machine to accomplish such work on radioactive specimens in a metallographic cave is presented. Quality results, readily obtrained by use of the ANL machine, are illustrated by photomicrographs. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1959
Creator: Brown, F.L.; Paine, S.H.; Fousek, R.J. & Armstrong, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A SHIELDED METALLOGRAPH FOR REMOTE METALLOGRAPHY. Topical Report- Metallurgy Program 6.10.6

Description: A unique concept is featured in the adaptation of a Bausch and Lomb Research Metallograph for remote metallography at Argonne National Laboratory. The metallograph is placed outside and adjacent to the metallographic preparation hot cell, and only the microscope section is shielded. This arrangement results in the decisive advantages of simplified adaptation for remote operation, and unaltered optical system, and greatly reduced shielding bulk. A mechanical transfer system shuttles the irradiated specimens between cave and metallograph. All controls and adjustments of the metallograph are available for use in remote metallography; microscope adjustments are manipulated with simple, hand-operated mechanical linkages; stage adjustments are motorized; camera and light source, outside the shield, are operated by hand in the normal manner. The shield, 1 1/4 in. of depleted U incorporated in the stage plus 4 in. of Pb surrounding both microscope and stage, provides for continuous operation with the equivalent of up to 50 c of Co activity. Lead-glass windows permit viewing; a reversible turret and door in the shield cubicle permit easy access to the microscope and stage. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Brown, F.L.; Haaker, L.W.; Paine, S.H. & Blomgren, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Shielded Metallograph for Remote Metallography

Description: From Introduction: "This report presents the specific design requirements arising from these initial decisions, followed by description and keyed illustrations of the various features of the installation. The Bausch and Lomb Research Metallograph was the instrument chosen as being most readily adapted to the over-all plan."
Date: October 1957
Creator: Brown, F. L.; Haaker, L. W.; Paine, S. H. & Blomgren, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department