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Aquifer thermal energy storage costs with a seasonal chill source

Description: The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system from a seasonal chill source was investigated. Costs were estimated for point demand and residential development ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR. AQUASTOR was developed at PNL specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on the costs of ATES delivered chill were: system size; well flow rate; transmission distance; source temperature; well depth; and cost of capital. The effects of each parameter are discussed. Two primary constraints of ATES chill systems are the extremely low energy density of the storage fluid and the prohibitive costs of lengthy pipelines for delivering chill to residential users. This economic analysis concludes that ATES-delivered chill will not be competitive for residential cooling applications. The otherwise marginal attractiveness of ATES chill systems vanishes under the extremely low load factors characteristic of residential cooling systems. (LCL)
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Brown, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An introduction to computer viruses

Description: This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Brown, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of storage battery system cost estimates

Description: Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Brown, D.R. & Russell, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the market penetration of residential cool storage technology using economic cost modeling

Description: This study estimated the market penetration for residential cool storage technology by using economic cost modeling. Residential cool storage units produce and store chill during off-peak periods of the day to be used during times of peak power needs. The report provides projections of unit sales expected in 5-year intervals for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Such projections help to determine the maximum amount of energy that could be displaced by this technology in the future. 19 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Weijo, R.O. & Brown, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage systems

Description: This study defines the current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage technologies based on the characteristics of conventional air conditioning equipment and residential time-of-day (TOD) rate structures existing during the 1986--1987 time frame. Currently, rate structures are changing rapidly. Given the volatility of rate structures, the establishment of cost goal is challenging. The goals presented in this study are based on the utility rate structure as of 1986. This study serves to define residential cool storage cost and performance requirements in the current economic environment as well as the many issues affecting the requirements for residential cool storage systems both now and in the future. The same methodology can be employed to establish long-run goals once future rate structures are adequately defined. 12 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1988
Creator: Brown, D.R. & Spanner, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An introduction to computer viruses

Description: This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Brown, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation of a mill tailings thickener installed at J.R. Simplot Company`s Smoky Canyon Mine under the Energy $avings Plan

Description: This report describes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the impact of an energy conservation project completed in the fall of 1992. The project (a mill tailings thickener) was installed at J.R. Simplot Company`s (Simplot`s) Smoky Canyon Mine in Caribou County, Idaho near Afton, Wyoming. The project at Simplot is one in a continuing series of industrial energy conservation projects to have its impact evaluated by PNL. All of the projects have received or will receive acquisition payments from the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) under the Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The E$P is being offered to reduce electricity consumption in the industrial sector of Bonneville`s service territory. For the Simplot project, the acquisition payment offered under the program was equal to the lesser of 10{cents}/kilowatt-hour (kWh) saved in the first year or 80% of eligible project costs, up to a limit of $250,000. The general objective of the impact evaluation was to determine how much electricity is saved by the project and at what cost to Bonneville and to the region.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Brown, D.R. & Spanner, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transmission line capital costs

Description: The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Hughes, K.R. & Brown, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at Mayr Brothers Logging Company under the Energy Savings Plan

Description: This impact evaluation of adjustable speed drives (ASDs), programmble logic controllers (PLCs), and high efficiency motors (HEMs) that were recently installed at Mayr Brothers Logging Co., Inc. (Mayr Bros.) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The project consists of ASDs, PLCs, and HEMs that were installed at the Mayr Bros. new small log nill at their facility in Hoquiam, Washington. Energy savings directly accrue through improved motor efficiency and indirectly accrue via an increase in production rate. This latter effect reduces energy consumption per unit of production by spreading fixed energy requirements over a greater number of units. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electricity is being saved at Mayr Bros. as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Mayr Bros. proposal and completion report). The energy conservation measures were incorporated into the small log mill while the mill was constructed in 1992 and 1993. Financing the new mill had stretched Mayr Bros. cash and credit resources to the limit. Without the acquisition payment, Mayr Bros. would not have been able to afford the additional investment in the energy conservation measures. Therefore, all of the project`s impact can be attributed to the E$P. The key recommendation resulting from this impact evaluation is to avoid the direct comparison of energy consumption estimates derived via engineering calculations and metering. If ``before and after`` metering is not possible, engineering calculations should be calibrated against metered data to enhance comparability.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Brown, D.R. & Spanner, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

Description: At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Humphreys, K.K. & Brown, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

Description: A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R. & Reilly, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

Description: A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R. & Reilly, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

Description: This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L. & Chockie, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aquifer thermal energy storage costs with a seasonal heat source.

Description: The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system from a seasonal heat source was investigated. This investigation considers only the storage of energy from a seasonal heat source. Cost estimates are based upon the assumption that all of the energy is stored in the aquifer before delivery to the end user. Costs were estimated for point demand, residential development, and multidistrict city ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR which was developed specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on ATES costs were: cost of purchased thermal energy; cost of capital; source temperature; system size; transmission distance; and aquifer efficiency. ATES-delivered energy costs are compared with the costs of hot water heated by using electric power or fuel-oils. ATES costs are shown as a function of purchased thermal energy. Both the potentially low delivered energy costs available from an ATES system and its strong cost dependence on the cost of purchased thermal energy are shown. Cost components for point demand and multi-district city ATES systems are shown. Capital and thermal energy costs dominate. Capital costs, as a percentage of total costs, increase for the multi-district city due to the addition of a large distribution system. The proportion of total cost attributable to thermal energy would change dramatically if the cost of purchased thermal energy were varied. It is concluded that ATES-delivered energy can be cost competitive with conventional energy sources under a number of economic and technical conditions. This investigation reports the cost of ATES under a wide range of assumptions concerning parameters important to ATES economics. (LCL)
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Reilly, R.W.; Brown, D.R. & Huber, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

Description: This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.
Date: May 1, 1985
Creator: Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A. & Brown, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation of an Energy $avings Plan project at Holnam Incorporated

Description: This impact evaluation of four energy conservation measures (ECMs) that were recently installed at Holnam Incorporated (Holnam) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Holnam as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECMs was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interview, and review of previous program submittals (Holnam's Proposals and Completion Reports). The four ECMs were all electronic power control devices that replaced less efficient technologies for controlling power to the kiln drive motors, cooler grate drive motors, cooler fan motors, and kiln stack gas precipitators. Energy savings from this project are expected to be 1,782,000 kWh/yr or 0.20 average megawatts. On a unit production basis, this project will save 3.4 kWh/ton of cement, based on Holnam's projected average annual future production rate. The four ECMs cost a total of $248,232 to install, and Holnam received payment of $115,615 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. Program administrative costs incurred by Bonneville, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and Seattle City Light (SCL) were estimated to be $29,362. The real levelized cost (1992 $) of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 6.2 mills/kWh over the project's expected 15-year life, and the real levelized cost (1992 $) to the region will be 14.1 mills/kWh. Based on expected ECM installation costs and energy savings benefits alone, none of the four ECMs would have been implemented by Holnam without the E$P acquisition payment.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Brown, D.R. & Spanner, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation of an energy dollar sign avings plan project at Elf Atochem North America

Description: This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Elf Atochem North America (Atochem) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy savings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Atochem as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interview, review of previous program submittals and review of process evaluation results from 1989. The ECM itself consists of adding anode area to each of the sodium chlorate (chlorate) cells at Atochem's Tacoma facility. Increasing the anode area reduces the current density, which reduces cell resistance at the same current, thus reducing energy consumption at the same chlorate production rate. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to average about 24,000,000 kWh/yr or about 1000 kWh/ton of chlorate produced. The net cost of the ECM was $1,410,400, and Atochem received a payment of $212,500 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 0.7 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 5.7 mills/kWh. Bonneville's offer to pay Atochem $212,500 via the E$P Program was viewed by Atochem management as a big incentive that made a difference.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Brown, D.R. & Spanner, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation: Volume 2, Appendices

Description: Volume 1 of this report documented the analyses and evaluation of the concepts. This volume contains appendices which provided additional information on the approach used in the analysis, and further detail of the study results. Appendix A describes tradeoffs involved in the orientation of trough collector fields. The methodology used in the calculation of levelized energy costs is described in Appendix B. Additional detail on the annual energy output for each of the technologies is provided in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a discussion on the method and assumptions used in developing optical performance models for central receiver systems, and gives a detailed description of the results obtained. Plant cost data is shown in Appendix E, and a method for first-order sensitivity analyses using the data is described. The calculational approach used to estimate the manufacturing cost of distributed solar components is described in Appendix F.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A. & Brown, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High rate spectroscopy for on-line nuclear coal analyzer (Nucoalyzer)

Description: A high count rate, time-variant Ge(Li) spectrometer has been developed for on-line coal analysis. The analyzer is being fabricated for use in a power generating station. Prompt neutron activation of coal samples is the basis of analysis, with /sup 252/Cf as the source for irradiation. The spectroscopy system allows counting rates up to 150 k counts per second without significant loss in energy resolution or peak shape. The high data throughput allows the coal analyzer to be used for on-line process control. The coal analyzer will be discussed, with emphasis on the high-rate signal processing system. Results of analysis of coal samples will be presented.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: McQuaid, J.H.; Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T. & Bozorgmanesh, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact evaluation of adjustable speed drives installed at Great Western Malting Company under the Energy $avings Plan

Description: This impact evaluation of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) that were recently installed at Great Western Malting Company (GWM) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The project consists of four ASDs that are used to control the power to motors driving kiln exhaust fans. The ASDs are being used to control the air flow rate through the compartment house malt drying kilns, which was previously controlled with dampers. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at GWM as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (GWM`s proposal and completion report).
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Brown, D. R. & Spanner, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of methods for forecasting the market penetration of new technologies

Description: In 1993 the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) initiated a program called Quality Metrics. Quality Metrics was developed to measure the costs and benefits of technologies being developed by EE R&D programs. The impact of any new technology is directly related to its adoption by the market. The techniques employed to project market adoption are critical to measuring a new technology`s impact. Our purpose was to review current market penetration theories and models and develop a recommended approach for evaluating the market penetration of DOE technologies. The following commonly cited innovation diffusion theories were reviewed to identify analytical approaches relevant to new energy technologies: (1) the normal noncumulative adopter distribution method, (2) the Bass Model, (3) the Mansfield-Blackman Model, (4) the Fisher-Pry Model, (5) a meta-analysis of innovation diffusion studies. Of the theories reviewed, the Bass and Mansfield-Blackman models were found most applicable to forecasting the market penetration of electricity supply technologies. Their algorithms require input estimates which characterize the technology adoption behavior of the electricity supply industry. But, inadequate work has been done to quantify the technology adoption characteristics of this industry. The following energy technology market penetration models were also reviewed: (1) DOE`s Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) Model, (2) DOE`s Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), (3) the Assessment of Energy Technologies (ASSET) model by Regional Economic Research, Inc., (4) the Market TREK model by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The two DOE models were developed for electricity generation technologies whereas the Regional Economic Research and EPRI models were designed for demand- side energy technology markets. Therefore, the review and evaluation focused on the DOE models.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Gilshannon, S.T. & Brown, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department