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Configuration control plan for the ports NCS IBM RS/6000

Description: This document describes the actions and responsibilities for maintaining the quality and integrity of the NS software resident on the IBM RS/6000 workstation managed by the Nuclear Criticality Safety group at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This document does not address the validation of NS software packages for the RS/6000.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Brown, A.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rationale and summary of methods for determining ultrasonic properties of materials at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: This report is a summary of the methods used to determine ultrasonic velocities through the many materials tested at the Acoustic Properties of Materials Laboratory. Ultrasonic velocity techniques enable the determination of material properties, including elastic moduli, without harming the materials being tested, an advantage some over mechanical methods. Ultrasonic modulus determination has other advantages as well: (1) relative ease and low cost of material preparation; and (2) comparative analysis to physical testing as a function of material loading rate dependence. In addition, ultrasonic measurement provides clues to determine grain size and orientation, and provides a relative indication of material anisotropy with respect to the material geometry. The authors usually perform ultrasonic measurements on materials in ambient atmospheric conditions, and in a relatively free-free condition. However, the authors can perform them in other environments, as required. This paper describes some of the techniques used in this laboratory and shows how ultrasonic velocities are used to establish elastic constants. It also includes a sample test report for a homogeneous isotropic solid, along with a list of references.
Date: February 9, 1995
Creator: Brown, A. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons

Description: Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country`s infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams.Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one inch in diameter. Moisture may seep into the grout around the tendons and cause corrosion. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is working with the California Department of Water Resources to develop advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructively inspecting their tendons. A unique transducer was designed and fabricated to interrogate the entire tendon. A robust,portable unit was assembled that included a computer controlled data acquisition system and specialized data processing software to analyze the ultrasonic signals. This system was tested on laboratory specimens and is presently being fielded at two dam sites.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Thomas, G. & Brown, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of nondestructive evaluation techniques for DAM inspection. Progress report, January 1995 through August 1997

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concluded a two and a half year study on the development of an ultrasonic inspection system to inspect post stressed steel tendons on dams and flood gates. The inspection systems were part of a program for the California Department of Water Resources. The effort included the identification of the location and amount of corrosion damage to the tendons, identification of the cause of corrosion, and the technology for inhibiting corrosion. Several NDE methods for inspecting and quantifying damage to steel reinforced concrete water pipes were investigated and presented to the DWR for their consideration. The additional methods included Ground Penetrating RADAR, Electro- Potential Measurements, Infrared Technology, Pipe Inspection Crawlers (designed to travel inside pipelines and simultaneously report on the pipe condition as viewed by ultrasonic methods and video cameras from within the pipeline.) Reference to consultants hired by LLNL for similar on-site corrosion inspections were given to the DWR. The LLNL research into industries that have products to prevent corrosion resulted in the identification of an Innsbruck, Austria, company. This company claims to have products to permanently protect post- or pre-stressed tendons. The caveat is that the tendon protection system must be installed when the tendons are installed because no retrofit is available. Corrosion mitigation on the steel reinforcements surrounding the concrete was addressed through active and passive cathodic protection schemes. The combination of corrosion and erosion were addressed during consideration for the inspection of water-pump impeller-blades that are used in the three stage, million horsepower, pumping stations at Edmunston.
Date: September 4, 1997
Creator: Brown, A. E. & Thomas, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrorefining of copper from a cuprous ion complexing electrolyte. II. Experimental comparison of possible alternative electrolytes and preliminary cost engineering analysis

Description: The energy saving potential and refining capability of three copper(I)/electrolyte systems for the electrorefining of copper were compared experimentally. The alternative electrolyte systems studied were copper(I)/acid chloride, copper(I)/acetonitrile and sulfuric acid, and copper(I)/ammonia solutions. These were compared to the conventional copper(II)/sulfuric acid electrolyte. All of the alternative electrolyte systems demonstrated at least some potential for saving energy when run at an equal deposition rate to the conventional process; the chloride electrolyte showed the greatest energy saving potential, about 70%, and the ammonia electrolyte showed the least, about 25%. All of the alternative electrolyte systems, however, exhibited performance problems, primarily with regard to inadequate separation of impurities. A preliminary capital cost estimate was made for the copper(I)/chloride system. This estimate showed that, for the alternative electrolyte system to be cost competitive (that is, a reduction of capital cost of about 15 to 20%) with the conventional electrorefining process, the refining cells would have to be operated at a current density of about 25 to 30 mA-cm/sup -2/. At this current density, the estimated energy saving potential for the copper(I)/chloride system was still about 50%.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O. & Cook, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transfer Retention at City College in Engineering (TRACC). Final report, September 30, 1992--September 29, 1993

Description: Goal of TRACC (Transfer Retention at City College in Engineering) is to increase the number of minority transfer students from community colleges who receive Bachelors degrees in engineering and computer science from CCNY. TRACC offers qualified students access to academic and social support services. TRACC has shown promising results in its first year; TRACC student pass rates in coursework were higher compared to a cohort group of non-TRACC students. They report that tutoring and enrichment courses are valuable and contribute to better performance in classes. The advisement process is utilized and is seen as beneficial. Other services provided by TRACC are viewed by students as contributing to overall career development and enhanced social life at CCNY. TRACC was the College`s first attempt to address the needs of transfer students.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Brown, A. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

Description: Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S. & Swaminathan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

Description: This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.
Date: July 1, 2013
Creator: Brown, A.; Repac, B. & Gonder, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN CALCINATION OF NITRATES OF ALUMINUM, STAINLESS STEEL, AND NICHROME

Description: Earlier studies showed that low concentrations of boric acid inhibit the formation of alpha alumina in the fluidized calcination of aluminum nitrate wastes. Studies designed to determine the optimum concentration of boric acid and the relative effectiveness of phosphoric acid were performed by heating synthetic mixtures at moderate pressure; results indicared that they were equally effective at the same molal concentration. Differential thermal analysis of mixtures showed that the boric acid reacted with alumina below 183 deg C. Extraction of boric acid from selected samples indicated that the B was bonded (probably in a random manner, as in glasses) to the alumina rather than to Na, Additlon of fission products was studied, and no unusual effects were found. Transformation studies on calcination of stainless steel nitrates indicate that alpha iron oxide is formed even with the addition of moderate amounts of addltives such as boric acid, phosphoric acid, aluminum nitrate, or combinations of these. Rare earths are the most effective additive found. Similar studies on nichrome wastes indicate that nickel oxide (crystalline) is formed even with additives. The studies include heating of synthetic mixtures at moderate pressure, differential thermal analysis, and use of a laboratory fluidized calciner. (auth)
Date: December 28, 1962
Creator: Eding, H J; Huggins, M L & Brown, A G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Establishment of a bioassay system for cancer risk assessment in energy technology

Description: Separate abstracts were prepared for 20 papers in this report. For several years the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), has supported a research program aimed at developing new experimental approaches for the improvement of cancer risk assessments. The central issue is to overcome the organizational, species and other barriers that make it difficult to extrapolate laboratory-based data to predict risk to man. Most of the participants at the meeting are involved in research aimed at understanding the mechanism(s) of chemical carcinogenesis. Complex mixtures of chemicals are associated with many energy technologies. DOE's initial program emphasis focused on semi-applied research aimed at quantitative evaluation of carcinogenic activity of complex materials. Since much progress has been made in DOE integrated technology-specific chemical-biological characterization studies, the number and kinds of chemicals of concern has been reduced to a relatively few well-defined classes. Although the classes of compounds seem to be unique to some of the synfuel technologies, they are quite similar to compounds of general interest, for example, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Special emphasis was placed on molecular and cellular dosimetry as one of the key requirements for quantitative comparison of effects at the cell level in vivo and in vitro. Although it is relatively easy to measure cell, tissue, organ and whole organism doses associated with radiation exposures, we are just learning how to do this for chemical agents. Several methods have been developed in the past several years which can be used.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Ts'o, P.O.P.; Bruce, S.A. & Brown, A. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of the response function for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm system neutron detectors

Description: Neutron-sensitive radiation detectors are used in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s (PORTS) criticality accident alarm system (CAAS). The CAAS is composed of numerous detectors, electronics, and logic units. It uses a telemetry system to sound building evacuation horns and to provide remote alarm status in a central control facility. The ANSI Standard for a CAAS uses a free-in-air dose rate to define the detection criteria for a minimum accident-of-concern. Previously, the free-in-air absorbed dose rate from neutrons was used for determining the areal coverge of criticality detection within PORTS buildings handling fissile materials. However, the free-in-air dose rate does not accurately reflect the response of the neutron detectors in use at PORTS. Because the cost of placing additional CAAS detectors in areas of questionable coverage (based on a free-in-air absorbed dose rate) is high, the actual response function for the CAAS neutron detectors was determined. This report, which is organized into three major sections, discusses how the actual response function for the PORTS CAAS neutron detectors was determined. The CAAS neutron detectors are described in Section 2. The model of the detector system developed to facilitate calculation of the response function is discussed in Section 3. The results of the calculations, including confirmatory measurements with neutron sources, are given in Section 4.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; Brown, A.S.; Dobelbower, M.C. & Woollard, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spreadsheet application to classify radioactive material for shipment

Description: A spreadsheet application has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to aid the shipper when classifying nuclide mixtures of normal form, radioactive materials. The results generated by this spreadsheet are used to confirm the proper US Department of Transportation (DOT) classification when offering radioactive material packages for transport. The user must input to the spreadsheet the mass of the material being classified, the physical form (liquid or not), and the activity of each regulated nuclide. The spreadsheet uses these inputs to calculate two general values: (1) the specific activity of the material, and (2) a summation calculation of the nuclide content. The specific activity is used to determine if the material exceeds the DOT minimal threshold for a radioactive material (Yes or No). If the material is calculated to be radioactive, the specific activity is also used to determine if the material meets the activity requirement for one of the three Low Specific Activity designations (LSA-I, LSA-II, LSA-III, or Not LSA). Again, if the material is calculated to be radioactive, the summation calculation is then used to determine which activity category the material will meet (Limited Quantity, Type A, Type B, or Highway Route Controlled Quantity).
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote Compositional Analysis of Spent-Fuel Residues Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Description: We report on the application of a novel technique known as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for remotely detecting and characterizing the elemental composition of highly radioactive materials including spent-fuel residues and High-Level Waste (HLW). Within the UK nuclear industry, LIBS has been demonstrated to offer a convenient alternative to sampling and laboratory analysis of a wide range of materials irrespective of the activity of the material or the ambient radiation levels. Proven applications of this technology include in-situ compositional analysis of nuclear reactor components, remote detection and characterization of vitrified HLW and remote compositional analysis of highly-active gross contamination within a spent-fuel reprocessing plant.
Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Whitehouse, A. I.; Young, J.; Evans, C. P.; Brown, A.; Simpson, A. & Franco, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN ALUMINA. Technical Report, May to December 1961

Description: e transformation studies showed that synthetic aluminas produced in the laboratory were not transformed to alpha alumina at 400 to 700' deg n the presence of nitric acid and water vapor. Amorphous aluminn produced in the pilot plant was transformed to alpha alumina. This indicated that the amorphous alumina produced in the pilot plant is structurally predisposed to form alpha alumina. Most additives did not appear to have any special effects. Lithium formed zeta alumina, LiAl/sub 5/O/sub 8/. Phosphate formed an unidentified phase. Zinc formed zinc aluminate. Sulfate favored higher water and lower nitrate contents than any of the other additives and formed natroalunite in one sample. The synthetic aluminas were heated in the micro reactor at pressures of 150 to 1300 psi. Most of the synthetic aluminas containing sodium formed alpha alumina while those without sodium did not, which agreed with the pilot plant results. Additives which allowed alpha alumina to form were calcium, iron, and lithium. Potassium, silicate, sulfate and zinc allowed alpha alumina to form when sodium was also present. Phosphate, boric acid, and magnesium seemed to prevent the formation of alpha alumina. Fission products, at 10 times the expected amount, also appeared to prevent formation of alpha alumina. Phosphate and boric acid deserve additional research to determine concentration limits. New phases were found in the course of the research. A-phase, formed at 150 psi at 400 deg C, was also found to be formed at 1200 psi from aluminum metal and water. A C-phase was found which may be a dibasic aluminum nitrate (Diban), which was different from the crystalline Diban compounds found at Idaho Falls. A B-phase was also found, but not in sufficient purity to characterize. These new phases may be important in the transformation of aluminum nitrate to alpha alumina. Electron diffraction examination ...
Date: December 1, 1961
Creator: Eding, H J; Huggins, M L & Brown, A G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An approach to estimating radiological risk of offsite release from a design basis earthquake for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP)

Description: In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1A, a seismic analysis was performed on DOE's Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), a facility for processing low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste. Because no hazard curves were available for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), DOE guidelines were used to estimate the frequency for the specified design-basis earthquake (DBE). A dynamic structural analysis of the building was performed, using the DBE parameters, followed by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the PRA, a functional organization of the facility equipment was effected so that top events for a representative event tree model could be determined. Building response spectra (calculated from the structural analysis), in conjunction with generic fragility data, were used to generate fragility curves for the PREPP equipment. Using these curves, failure probabilities for each top event were calculated. These probabilities were integrated into the event tree model, and accident sequences and respective probabilities were calculated through quantification. By combining the sequences failure probabilities with a transport analysis of the estimated airborne source term from a DBE, onsite and offsite consequences were calculated. The results of the comprehensive analysis substantiated the ability of the PREPP facility to withstand a DBE with negligible consequence (i.e., estimated release was within personnel and environmental dose guidelines). 57 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Reny, D.A. & Brown, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On-line safety monitoring of a large high pressure high temperature autoclave

Description: Four years of experience with on-line monitoring of a large autoclave used primarily for forming bonds and material densification is reported. The purpose of this work is to confirm that no flaws are growing in the autoclave during operation. Failure of this device during operation could endanger personnel and would damage property. Its loss would seriously curtail several ongoing research efforts. The vessel is monitored with a commercial minicomputerized flaw location system. Four 4-sensor arrays are attached to the exterior of the device to receive acoustic emission signals. Computed locations are stored on cassette tape and selected portions can be displayed on a cathode ray screen. It is shown that although the minicomputer is implemented with two dimensional location software, the information can be reprocessed in a central computer to produce locations in three dimensions. Long term storage of data, data display, noise analysis, calibration, and computerized location error analysis is discussed. No degradation by flaw growth has been detected in the device to date. This is the expected result, since it has an estimated 30-y life.
Date: January 18, 1979
Creator: Tatro, C.A.; Brown, A.E.; Freeman, T.H. & Yanes, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANL's research and development of alternative components for MCFC's

Description: Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems are currently limited by several technical problems. The objectives of this project are to focus on these problems and develop materials . and cell components that will ameliorate or eliminate them. Specifically, new ceramic materials are being investigated for dimensionally stable electrode materials with improved chemical and electrochemical properties over the present NiO cathode and Ni/Cr and Ni/Al anodes. Also, altemative electrolyte formulations to the present Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} are being studied.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Kucera, G.H.; Brown, A.P.; Roche, M.; Chu, D. & Indacochea, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

Description: Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: McClain, D. L.; Byrd, F. D. & Brown, A. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator

Description: Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Swift, G. W. & Brown, A. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department