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Hydrostatic compaction of Microtherm HT.

Description: Two samples of jacketed Microtherm{reg_sign}HT were hydrostatically pressurized to maximum pressures of 29,000 psi to evaluate both pressure-volume response and change in bulk modulus as a function of density. During testing, each of the two samples exhibited large irreversible compactive volumetric strains with only small increases in pressure; however at volumetric strains of approximately 50%, the Microtherm{reg_sign}HT stiffened noticeably at ever increasing rates. At the maximum pressure of 29,000 psi, the volumetric strains for both samples were approximately 70%. Bulk modulus, as determined from hydrostatic unload/reload loops, increased by more than two-orders of magnitude (from about 4500 psi to over 500,000 psi) from an initial material density of {approx}0.3 g/cc to a final density of {approx}1.1 g/cc. An empirical fit to the density vs. bulk modulus data is K = 492769{rho}{sup 4.6548}, where K is the bulk modulus in psi, and {rho} is the material density in g/cm{sup 3}. The porosity decreased from 88% to {approx}20% indicating that much higher pressures would be required to compact the material fully.
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Broome, Scott Thomas & Bauer, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revised results for geomechanical testing of MRIG-9 core for the potential SPR siting at the Richton Salt Dome.

Description: This report is a revision of SAND2009-0852. SAND2009-0852 was revised because it was discovered that a gage used in the original testing was mis-calibrated. Following the recalibration, all affected raw data were recalculated and re-presented. Most revised data is similar to, but slightly different than, the original data. Following the data re-analysis, none of the inferences or conclusions about the data or site relative to the SAND2009-0852 data have been changed. A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the mechanical behavior of salt from the Richton salt dome. The resulting information is intended for use in design and evaluation of a proposed Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility in that dome. Core obtained from the drill hole MRIG-9 was obtained from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Mechanical properties testing included: (1) acoustic velocity wave measurements; (2) indirect tensile strength tests; (3) unconfined compressive strength tests; (4) ambient temperature quasi-static triaxial compression tests to evaluate dilational stress states at confining pressures of 725, 1450, 2175, and 2900 psi; and (5) confined triaxial creep experiments to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the salt at axial stress differences of 4000 psi, 3500 psi, 3000 psi, 2175 psi and 2000 psi at 55 C and 4000 psi at 35 C, all at a constant confining pressure of 4000 psi. All comments, inferences, discussions of the Richton characterization and analysis are caveated by the small number of tests. Additional core and testing from a deeper well located at the proposed site is planned. The Richton rock salt is generally inhomogeneous as expressed by the density and velocity measurements with depth. In fact, we treated the salt as two populations, one clean and relatively pure (> 98% halite), the other salt with abundant (at times) anhydrite. The density has been related to the insoluble content. ...
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Broome, Scott Thomas & Bauer, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geomechanical testing of MRIG-9 core for the potential SPR siting at the Richton salt dome.

Description: A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the mechanical behavior of salt from the Richton salt dome. The resulting information is intended for use in design and evaluation of a proposed Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility in that dome. Core obtained from the drill hole MRIG-9 was obtained from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Mechanical properties testing included: (1) acoustic velocity wave measurements; (2) indirect tensile strength tests; (3) unconfined compressive strength tests; (4) ambient temperature quasi-static triaxial compression tests to evaluate dilational stress states at confining pressures of 725, 1450, 2175, and 2900 psi; and (5) confined triaxial creep experiments to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the salt at axial stress differences of 4000 psi, 3500 psi, 3000 psi, 2175 psi and 2000 psi at 55 C and 4000 psi at 35 C, all at a constant confining pressure of 4000 psi. All comments, inferences, discussions of the Richton characterization and analysis are caveated by the small number of tests. Additional core and testing from a deeper well located at the proposed site is planned. The Richton rock salt is generally inhomogeneous as expressed by the density and velocity measurements with depth. In fact, we treated the salt as two populations, one clean and relatively pure (> 98% halite), the other salt with abundant (at times) anhydrite. The density has been related to the insoluble content. The limited mechanical testing completed has allowed us to conclude that the dilatational criteria are distinct for the halite-rich and other salts, and that the dilation criteria are pressure dependent. The indirect tensile strengths and unconfined compressive strengths determined are consistently lower than other coastal domal salts. The steady-state-only creep model being developed suggests that Richton salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared to other domal and bedded salts. The ...
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Dunn, Dennis P.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bronowski, David R.; Bauer, Stephen J. & Hofer, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature-dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

Description: Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts. Interest in raising the operating temperature of concentrating solar technologies and the incorporation of thermal storage has motivated studies on the implementation of molten salt as the system working fluid. Recently, salt has been considered for use in trough-based solar collectors and has been shown to offer a reduction in levelized cost of energy as well as increasing availability (Kearney et al., 2003). Concerns regarding the use of molten salt are often related to issues with salt solidification and recovery from freeze events. Differences among salts used for convective heat transfer and storage are typically designated by a comparison of thermal properties. However, the potential for a freeze event necessitates an understanding of salt mechanical properties in order to characterize and mitigate possible detrimental effects. This includes stress imparted by the expanding salt. Samples of solar salt, HITEC salt (Coastal Chemical Co.), and a low melting point quaternary salt were cast for characterization tests to determine unconfined compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), ...
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Everett, Randy L.; Iverson, Brian D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip & Bronowski, David R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase transformation of PZST-86/14-5-2Nb ceramic under quasi-static loading conditions.

Description: Specimens of poled and unpoled PZST ceramic were tested under hydrostatic loading conditions at temperatures of -55, 25, and 75 C. The objective of this experimental study was to obtain the electro-mechanical properties of the ceramic and the criteria of FE (Ferroelectric) to AFE (Antiferroelectric) phase transformations of the PZST ceramic to aid grain-scale modeling efforts in developing and testing realistic response models for use in simulation codes. As seen in previous studies, the poled ceramic from PZST undergoes anisotropic deformation during the transition from a FE to an AFE phase at -55 C. Warmer temperature tests exhibit anisotropic deformation in both the FE and AFE phase. The phase transformation is permanent at -55 C for all ceramics tests, whereas the transformation can be completely reversed at 25 and 75 C. The change in the phase transformation pressures at different temperatures were practically identical for both unpoled and poled PZST specimens. Bulk modulus for both poled and unpoled material was lowest in the FE phase, intermediate in the transition phase, and highest in the AFE phase. Additionally, bulk modulus varies with temperature in that PZST is stiffer as temperature decreases. Results from one poled-biased test for PZST and four poled-biased tests from PNZT 95/5-2Nb are presented. A bias of 1kV did not show noticeable differences in phase transformation pressure for the PZST material. However, with PNZT 95/5-2Nb phase transformation pressure increased with increasing voltage bias up to 4.5kV.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Broome, Scott Thomas; Scofield, Timothy W.; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Bauer, Stephen J. & Hofer, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petrologic and petrophysical evaluation of the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, for compressed air energy storage in the Mount Simon Sandstone.

Description: The Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency selected a geologic structure at Dallas Center, Iowa, for evaluation of subsurface compressed air energy storage. The site was rejected due to lower-than-expected and heterogeneous permeability of the target reservoir, lower-than-desired porosity, and small reservoir volume. In an initial feasibility study, permeability and porosity distributions of flow units for the nearby Redfield gas storage field were applied as analogue values for numerical modeling of the Dallas Center Structure. These reservoir data, coupled with an optimistic reservoir volume, produced favorable results. However, it was determined that the Dallas Center Structure cannot be simplified to four zones of high, uniform permeabilities. Updated modeling using field and core data for the site provided unfavorable results for air fill-up. This report presents Sandia National Laboratories' petrologic and petrophysical analysis of the Dallas Center Structure that aids in understanding why the site was not suitable for gas storage.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Heath, Jason E.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Dewers, Thomas A. & Rodriguez, Mark Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department