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Overview of chemical modeling of nuclear waste glass dissolution

Description: Glass dissolution takes place through metal leaching and hydration of the glass surface accompanied by development of alternation layers of varying crystallinity. The reaction which controls the long-term glass dissolution rate appears to be surface layer dissolution. This reaction is reversible because the buildup of dissolved species in solution slows the dissolution rate due to a decreased dissolution affinity. Glass dissolution rates are therefore highly dependent on silica concentrations in solution because silica is the major component of the alteration layer. Chemical modeling of glass dissolution using reaction path computer codes has successfully been applied to short term experimental tests and used to predict long-term repository performance. Current problems and limitations of the models include a poorly defined long-term glass dissolution mechanism, the use of model parameters determined from the same experiments that the model is used to predict, and the lack of sufficient validation of key assumptions in the modeling approach. Work is in progress that addresses these issues. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Bourcier, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

Description: A chemical model of glass corrosion will be used to predict the rates of release of radionuclides from borosilicate glass waste forms in high-level waste repositories. The model will be used both to calculate the rate of degradation of the glass, and also to predict the effects of chemical interactions between the glass and repository materials such as spent fuel, canister and container materials, backfill, cements, grouts, and others. Coupling between the degradation processes affecting all these materials is expected. Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Bourcier, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical review of glass performance modeling

Description: Borosilicate glass is to be used for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. Mechanistic chemical models are used to predict the rate at which radionuclides will be released from the glass under repository conditions. The most successful and useful of these models link reaction path geochemical modeling programs with a glass dissolution rate law that is consistent with transition state theory. These models have been used to simulate several types of short-term laboratory tests of glass dissolution and to predict the long-term performance of the glass in a repository. Although mechanistically based, the current models are limited by a lack of unambiguous experimental support for some of their assumptions. The most severe problem of this type is the lack of an existing validated mechanism that controls long-term glass dissolution rates. Current models can be improved by performing carefully designed experiments and using the experimental results to validate the rate-controlling mechanisms implicit in the models. These models should be supported with long-term experiments to be used for model validation. The mechanistic basis of the models should be explored by using modern molecular simulations such as molecular orbital and molecular dynamics to investigate both the glass structure and its dissolution process.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Bourcier, W. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Storing Waste in Ceramic

Description: Not all the nuclear waste destined for Yucca Mountain is in the form of spent fuel. Some of it will be radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons. This so-called defense waste exists mainly as corrosive liquids and sludge in underground tanks. An essential task of the U.S. high-level radioactive waste program is to process these defense wastes into a solid material--called a waste form. An ideal waste form would be extremely durable and unreactive with other repository materials. It would be simple to fabricate remotely so that it could be safely transported to a repository for permanent storage. What's more, the material should be able to tolerate exposure to intense radiation without degradation. And to minimize waste volume, the material must be able to contain high concentrations of radionuclides. The material most likely to be used for immobilization of radioactive waste is glass. Glasses are produced by rapid cooling of high-temperature liquids such that the liquid-like non-periodic structure is preserved at lower temperatures. This rapid cooling does not allow enough time for thermodynamically stable crystalline phases (mineral species) to form. In spite of their thermodynamic instability, glasses can persist for millions of years. An alternate to glass is a ceramic waste form--an assemblage of mineral-like crystalline solids that incorporate radionuclides into their structures. The crystalline phases are thermodynamically stable at the temperature of their synthesis; ceramics therefore tend to be more durable than glasses. Ceramic waste forms are fabricated at temperatures below their melting points and so avoid the danger of handling molten radioactive liquid--a danger that exists with incorporation of waste in glasses. The waste form provides a repository's first line of defense against release of radionuclides. It, along with the canister, is the barrier in the repository over which we have the most control. When ...
Date: July 20, 2004
Creator: Bourcier, W. L. & Sickafus, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Using Ion Pumping

Description: We are developing a new way of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas based on ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, which can be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a nearly pure gas. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas. The slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. The simple, robust nature of the process lends itself to small separation plants. Although the energy cost of the ion pump is significant, we anticipate that it will be compete favorably with the current 35% energy penalty of chemical stripping systems in use at power plants. There is the distinct possibility that this simple method could be significantly more efficient than existing processes.
Date: April 21, 2006
Creator: Aines, R.; Bourcier, W. L. & Johnson, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

Description: Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.
Date: February 19, 2010
Creator: Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T & Haussmann, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Affinity functions for modeling glass dissolution rates

Description: Glass dissolution rates decrease dramatically as glasses approach "saturation" with respect to the leachate solution. This effect may lower the dissolution rate to 1/100 to 1/1000 of the unsaturated rate. Although rate controls on glass dissolution are best understood for conditions far from saturation, most repository sites are chosen where water fluxes are minimal, and therefore the waste glass is most likely to dissolve under conditions close to saturation. Our understanding of controls on dissolution rates close to saturation, versus far from saturation, are therefore of greater significance for assessing release rates of radionuclides from repositories. The key term in the rate expression used to predict glass dissolution rates close to saturation is the affinity term, which accounts for saturation effects on dissolution rates. The form of the affinity term and parameters used to model glass dissolution are clearly critical for accurate estimates of glass performance in a repository. The concept of saturation with respect to glass dissolution is problematic because of the thermodynamically unstable nature of glass. Saturation implies similar rates of forward (dissolution) and back (precipitation) reactions, but glasses cannot precipitate from aqueous solutions; there can be no back reaction to form glass. However experiments have shown that glasses do exhibit saturation effects when dissolving, analogous to saturation effects observed for thermodynamically stable materials. Attempts to model the glass dissolution process have therefore employed theories and rate equations more commonly used to model dissolution of crystalline solids, as described below
Date: July 8, 1998
Creator: Bourcier, W L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim Report on Development of a Model to Predict Dissolution Behavior of the Titanate Waste Form in a Repository

Description: Dissolution testing performed to date on a titanate waste form under development for plutonium immobilization reveals the following: (1) The wasteform is very durable. Many of the test results have shown the dissolution rate to be below detection or less than background levels of the constituent elements; (2) elemental release is non-stoichiometric with Pu, U, Ca, and Gd released faster than Ti and Hf at most pH conditions; (3) dissolution rates measured in flow-through tests sometimes show a continuous decrease with time in tests of up to two years duration; (4) attempts to model the dissolution as a transport-controlled process with diffusion through a leached layer as the rate limiting mechanism show reasonable agreement at low pH conditions but poor agreement at neutral to alkaline pHs. Based on present uncertainties in our understanding of rate control, we have provided conservative estimates of radionuclide release rates based on the fastest observed release rates measured in short-term tests. These dissolution rates under repository-relevant conditions are in the range of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -6}g/m{sup 2}/day.
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: Bourcier, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential long-term chemical effects of diesel fuel emissions on a mining environment: A preliminary assessment based on data from a deep subsurface tunnel at Rainer Mesa, Nevada test site

Description: The general purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) Introduced Materials Task is to understand and predict potential long-term modifications of natural water chemistry related to the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository that may significantly affect performance of the waste packages. The present study focuses on diesel exhaust. Although chemical information on diesel exhaust exists in the literature, it is either not explicit or incomplete, and none of it establishes mechanisms that might be used to predict long-term behavior. In addition, the data regarding microbially mediated chemical reactions are not well correlated with the abiotic chemical data. To obtain some of the required long-term information, we chose a historical analog: the U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site. This choice was based on the tunnel`s extended (30-year) history of diesel usage, its geological similarity to Yucca Mountain, and its availability. The sample site within the tunnel was chosen based on visual inspection and on information gathered from miners who were present during tunnel operations. The thick layer of dark deposit at that site was assumed to consist primarily of rock powder and diesel exhaust. Surface samples and core samples were collected with an intent to analyze the deposit and to measure potential migration of chemical components into the rock. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to measure both spatial distribution and concentration for the wide variety of chemical components that were expected based on our literature survey.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Meike, A.; Bourcier, W.L. & Alai, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field-based tests of geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems

Description: Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will determine how the codes can be used to predict the chemical and mineralogical response of the environment to nuclear waste emplacement. Field-based exercises allow us to test the models on time scales unattainable in the laboratory. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei and Kawerau geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E. & Bourcier, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance assessment modeling for Savannah River glass HLW disposal in a potential repository at Yucca Mountain

Description: Performance assessment (PA) simulates the long-term performance of a conceptual geological repository for nuclear waste or the performance of a subsystem such as the engineered barrier system (drifts, waste packages, and any components placed in the drift for structural or chemical purposes). The analysis must accommodate many hypothetical future scenarios and a range on input parameter values. Hence the PA models must abstract the major process features, to span the range of evaluations with computational efficiency and to allow for sensitivity evaluations of the total system. This abstraction is guided by experiments and detailed calculational evaluations for specific situations. The present paper shows the setting of a glass-waste chemical alteration model within the larger-scope PA model, a typical abstraction for a glass aqueous model, and thus the types of topics we need to cover as exemplified by the model. The abstraction includes the most important constituents of the water contacting the waste, and an effect on the rate from the increasing silica going into solution, the interface to other processes at the boundary of this process domain identify some important issues. The present example focuses on SRL-202 glass, but other glass types could be handles by a similar experiment review and model abstraction process, in some cases resulting in a similar model with different parameters.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: O`Connell, W.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Gansemer, J. & Ueng, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production and dissolution of nuclear explosive melt glasses at underground test sites in the Pacific Region

Description: From 1975 to 1996 the French detonated 140 underground nuclear explosions beneath the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa in the South Pacific; from 1965 to 1971 the United States detonated three high yield nuclear tests beneath Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain. Approximately 800 metric tons of basalt is melted per kiloton of nuclear yield; almost lo7 metric tons of basalt were melted in these tests. Long-lived and toxic radionuclides are partitioned into the melt glass at the time of explosion and are released by dissolution with seawater under saturated conditions. A glass dissolution model predicts that nuclear melt glasses at these sites will dissolve in lo6 to lo7 yea
Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Bourcier, W.L. & Smith, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanistic interpretation of glass reaction: Input to kinetic model development

Description: Actinide-doped SRL 165 type glass was reacted in J-13 groundwater at 90{degree}C for times up to 278 days. The reaction was characterized by both solution and solid analyses. The glass was seen to react nonstoichiometrically with preferred leaching of alkali metals and boron. High resolution electron microscopy revealed the formation of a complex layer structure which became separated from the underlying glass as the reaction progressed. The formation of the layer and its effect on continued glass reaction are discussed with respect to the current model for glass reaction used in the EQ3/6 computer simulation. It is concluded that the layer formed after 278 days is not protective and may eventually become fractured and generate particulates that may be transported by liquid water. 5 refs., 5 figs. , 3 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Bates, J.K.; Ebert, W.L.; Bradley, J.P. & Bourcier, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanistic interpretation of glass reaction: Input to kinetic model development

Description: Actinide-doped SRL 165 type glass was reacted in J-13 groundwater at 90{degrees}C for times up to 278 days. The reaction was characterized by both solution and solid analyses. The glass was seen to react nonstoichiometrically with preferred leaching of alkali metals and boron. High resolution electron microscopy revealed the formation of a complex layer structure which became separated from the underlying glass as the reaction progressed. The formation of the layer and its effect on continued glass reaction are discussed with respect to the current model for glass reaction used in the EQ3/6 computer simulation. It is concluded that the layer formed after 278 days is not protective and may eventually become fractured and generate particulates that may be transported by liquid water. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Bates, J.K.; Ebert, W.L.; Bradley, J.P. & Bourcier, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management; Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

Description: This report is an overview of the progress during FY 1993 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are anticipated to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: reviewing and evaluating available data on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; performing tests to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and initiating long-term tests to determine glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Bates, J.K.; Bourcier, W.L. & Bradley, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Progress Report on Single Pass Flow Through Tests of Ceramic Waste Forms for Plutonium Immobilization

Description: This report updates work on measurements of the dissolution rates of single-phase and multi-phase ceramic waste forms in flow-through reactors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Previous results were reported in Bourcier (1999). Two types of tests are in progress: (1) tests of baseline pyrochlore-based multiphase ceramics; and (2) tests of single-phase pyrochlore, zirconolite, and brannerite (the three phases that will contain most of the actinides). Tests of the multi-phase material are all being run at 25 C. The single-phase tests are being run at 25, 50, and 75 C. All tests are being performed at ambient pressure. The as-made bulk compositions of the ceramics are given in Table 1. The single pass flow-through test procedure [Knauss, 1986 No.140] allows the powdered ceramic to react with pH buffer solutions traveling upward vertically through the powder. Gentle rocking during the course of the experiment keeps the powder suspended and avoids clumping, and allows the system to behave as a continuously stirred reactor. For each test, a cell is loaded with approximately one gram of the appropriate size fraction of powdered ceramic and reacted with a buffer solution of the desired pH. The buffer solution compositions are given in Table 2. All the ceramics tested were cold pressed and sintered at 1350 C in air, except brannerite, which was sintered at 1350 C in a CO/CO{sub 2} gas mixture. They were then crushed, sieved, rinsed repeatedly in alcohol and distilled water, and the desired particle size fraction collected for the single pass flow-through tests (SPFT). The surface area of the ceramics measured by BET ranged from 0.1-0.35 m{sup 2}/g. The measured surface area values, average particle size, and sample weights for each ceramic test are given in the Appendices.
Date: December 3, 2000
Creator: Zhao, P.; Roberts, S. & Bourcier, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling surface area to volume effects on borosilicate glass dissolution

Description: We simulated the reaction of SRL-131 glass with equilibrated J-13 water in order to investigate the effects of surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) on glass dissolution. We show that glass-fluid ion exchange causes solution pH to rise to progressively higher values as SA/V increases. Because the ion exchange is rapid relative to the duration of the glass dissolution experiment, the pH effect does not scale with (SA/V)*time. Experiments compared at the same (SA/V)*time value therefore have different pHs, with higher pHs at higher SA/V ratios. Both experimental data and our simulation results show similar trends of increasing reaction rate as a function of SA/V ratio when scaled to (SA/V)*time. Glasses which react in systems of differing SA/V ratio therefore follow different reaction paths and high SA/V ratios cannot be used to generate data which accurately scales to long time periods unless the ion exchange effect is taken into account. We suggest some simple test designs which enable more reliable high. SA/V accelerated tests.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Bourcier, W. L.; Ebert, W. L. & Feng, X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constraints on the affinity term for modeling long-term glass dissolution rates

Description: Predictions of long-term glass dissolution rates are highly dependent on the form of the affinity term in the rate expression. Analysis of the quantitative effect of saturation state on glass dissolution rate for CSG glass (a simple analog of SRL-165 glass), shows that a simple (1-Q/K) affinity term does not match experimental results. Our data at 100{degree}C show that the data is better fit by an affinity term having the form (1 {minus} (Q/K){sup 1}/{sigma}) where {sigma} = 10.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Bourcier, W. L.; Carroll, S. A. & Phillips, B. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems

Description: Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of selected portions of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will: (1) ensure that we are providing adequately for all significant processes occurring in natural systems; (2) determine the adequacy of the mathematical descriptions of the processes; (3) check the adequacy and completeness of thermodynamic data as a function of temperature for solids, aqueous species and gases; and (4) determine the sensitivity of model results to the manner in which the problem is conceptualized by the user and then translated into constraints in the code input. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions. The kinetics of silica precipitation in EQ6 will be tested using field data from silica-lined drain channels carrying hot water away from the Wairakei borefield.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Bruton, C. J.; Glassley, W. E. & Bourcier, W. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface chemistry and durability of borosilicate glass

Description: Important glass-water interactions are poorly understood for borosilicate glass radioactive waste forms. Preliminary results show that glass durability is dependent on reactions occurring at the glass-solution interface. CSG glass (18.2 wt. % Na{sub 2}O, 5.97 wt. % CaO, 11.68 wt. % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 8.43 wt. % B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 55.73 wt. % SiO{sub 2}) dissolution and net surface H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} adsorption are minimal at near neutral pH. In the acid and alkaline pH regions, CSG glass dissolution rates are proportional to [H{sup +}]{sub adsorbed}{sup 2} and [OH{sup {minus}}]{sub adsorbed}{sup 0.8}, respectively. In contrast, silica gel dissolution and net H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} adsorption are minimal and independent of pH in acid to neutral solutions. In the alkaline pH region, silica gel dissolution is proportional to [OH{sup {minus}}]{sub adsorbed}{sup 0.9}{sub adsorbed}. Although Na adsorption is significant for CSG glass and silica gel in the alkaline pH regions, it is not clear if it enhances dissolution, or is an artifact of depolymerization of the framework bonds.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Carroll, S. A.; Bourcier, W. L. & Phillips, B. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated process for coalbed brine disposal

Description: A brine disposal process is described that converts the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use, combustion products and water vapor that can be released into the atmosphere and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process uses a reverse osmosis unit, a submerged combustion evaporator and a pulse combustion dryer. Pretreatment of the brine feedstream is necessary to prevent fouling of the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit and to separate from the brine stream hazardous metal and other constituents that may make the permeate from the reverse osmosis unit unsuitable for agricultural or other use. A chemical modeling code is used to calculate the saturation states of solids that may precipitate and foul the reverse osmosis membranes. Sodium carbonate is added to the brine to precipitate carbonates of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr prior to filtration, acidification, and passage into the reverse osmosis unit. Optimization of the process in terms of types and amounts of additives is possible with analysis using the modeling code. The minimum amounts of additives to prevent scaling are calculated. In a typical operation, a brine feedstream of 1,000 m{sup 3}/day (6,290 bpd) that may have a total dissolved salt concentration (TDS) of 7,000 ppm will be separated into a permeate stream of 750 m{sup 3}/day (4,718 bpd) with a TDS of 400 ppm and a concentrated brine stream of 250 m{sup 3}/day (1,573 bpd) with a TDS of 26,800 ppm. The submerged combustion evaporator will concentrate this latter stream to a concentration of 268,000 ppm and reduce the volume to 25 m{sup 3}/day (158 bpd). The pulse combustion dryer can dry the concentrated brine mixture to a low moisture salt. Energy costs to operate the reverse osmosis unit are primarily the pumping costs.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Brandt, H.; Bourcier, W. L. & Jackson, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department