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Recovery of recyclable materials from shredder residue

Description: Each year, about 11 million tons of metals (ferrous and nonferrous) are recovered in the US from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75% of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material or shredder residue, which amounts to about 3 million tons annually, is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This paper discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two-stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. Status of the technology is discussed and process economics reviewed.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V. & Brockmeier, N.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calcium metal as a scavenger for antimony from aluminum alloys

Description: Previous work has shown that trace amounts of antimony (Sb) can affect the mechanical properties of strontium (Sr) modified aluminum castings. ANL has been investigating technology to remove or neutralize Sb to reduce its negative effect on the physical properties of those alloys. Review of past work on processing and recovery of scrap aluminum inferred that calcium (Ca) is an effective scavenger of Sb, bismuth, lead and cadmium. Following up on that lead, we have found that Ca is, indeed, effective for removing Sb from molten aluminum alloys although its effectiveness can be compromised by a wide range of processing conditions. A minimum ratio of about four to one, by weight, of Ca to Sb appears necessary to insure an effective scavenging of contained Sb.in 356 aluminum alloys.
Date: October 4, 1994
Creator: Bonsignore, P.V.; Daniels, E.J. & Wu, C.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment and recycling of shredder fluff: Final report on Phase 1, Proof of concept

Description: This report describes the results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to investigate the feasibility of extracting thermoplastics from shredder fluff for possible recycling. The objective of the research was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using organic solvents to selectively dissolve and recover thermoplastics from the shredder fluff. The basis of the process is physical separation of shredder fluff, which is followed by selective dissolution and recovery of thermoplastics from the plastics-rich stream. In small-scale laboratory runs, four potentially marketable products were recovered by the use of this process: clean polyurethane from (PUF), a mixture of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE), a mixture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and an iron-rich fine magnetic fraction. Because the residual shredder fluff has been preprocessed, it should be more homogeneous and have a much lower chlorine concentration and moisture content than the raw shredder fluff. These attributes should make the material more economically and environmentally attractive than raw shredder fluff as a fuel or feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A preliminary capital cost estimate of the process was also developed.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J. & Bonsignore, P.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

Description: Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids' being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D. & Mudde, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

Description: In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V. & Moon, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment and recycling of shredder fluff: Final report on Phase 1, Proof of concept

Description: This report describes the results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to investigate the feasibility of extracting thermoplastics from shredder fluff for possible recycling. The objective of the research was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using organic solvents to selectively dissolve and recover thermoplastics from the shredder fluff. The basis of the process is physical separation of shredder fluff, which is followed by selective dissolution and recovery of thermoplastics from the plastics-rich stream. In small-scale laboratory runs, four potentially marketable products were recovered by the use of this process: clean polyurethane from (PUF), a mixture of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE), a mixture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and an iron-rich fine magnetic fraction. Because the residual shredder fluff has been preprocessed, it should be more homogeneous and have a much lower chlorine concentration and moisture content than the raw shredder fluff. These attributes should make the material more economically and environmentally attractive than raw shredder fluff as a fuel or feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A preliminary capital cost estimate of the process was also developed.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J. & Bonsignore, P. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling of Aluminum Salt Cake

Description: The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Bonsignore, P. V. & Karvelas, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling of aluminum salt cake

Description: The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Bonsignore, P. V. & Karvelas, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff

Description: Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Bonsignore, P. V. & Shoemaker, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

Description: In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Tsai, S. P.: Coleman, R. D.; Bonsignore, P. V. & Moon, S. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

Description: Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids` being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Bonsignore, P. V.; Coleman, R. D. & Mudde, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology and future prospects for lightweight plastic vehicle structures

Description: The state of the technology and the materials and processing issues of using plastics in vehicle body applications (structural and semistructural) were assessed. Plastics are significantly lighter in weight, more easily fabricated into complex shapes, and more corrosion resistance than sheet steel, high-strength steel, or aluminum. However, at their current stage of development, plastics are deficient in one or more necessary properties: heat resistance and dimensional stability, stiffness and tensile strength, toughness, and impact resistance. To upgrade their physical properties for automotive chassis/body applications, plastics need to be compounds with suitable reinforcing fibers. As a short-term approach, the material of choice is a composite structure made with low-cost glass-fiber reinforcement, such as that made in the resin-transfer-molding (RTM) process and used in the body of the Dodge Viper. However, RTM technology based on thermosets requires a processing cycle time that is too long for large production runs. Adaptation of RTM to the formation of thermoplastic composite bodies could have a significant advantage over thermoset technology. Cyclic oligomers, which are precursors to thermoplastic matrix polymers, show promise for this application. Farther on the horizon are advanced composites compounds with the much more expensive (but stronger and stiffer) carbon-fiber reinforcement. However, significant price reductions of precursor materials and advances in processing and fabrication would be needed. Other materials holding promise are liquid crystal polymers (LCP) and LCP blends with other polymers (molecular composites). However, the cost of monomers and the subsequent polymerization technology also remains a considerable drawback to the widespread and increasing acceptance of LCPs.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Stodolsky, F.; Cuenca, R.M. & Bonsignore, P.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile shredder residue: Process developments for recovery of recyclable constituents

Description: The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to briefly outline the structure of the automobile shredder industry as a supplier of ferrous scrap, (2) to review the previous research that has been conducted for recycling automobile shredder residue (ASR), and (3) to present the results and implications of the research being conducted at ANL on the development of a process for the selective recovery and recycling of the thermoplastics content of ASR. 15 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V. & Shoemaker, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department